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Middle Kingdom (Egypt, 2000 BC - 1300 BC)


  • Khopesh A prestigious Egyptian slashing weapon, used from 2000 BC - 1300 BC. Egyptian Dark Stone Carved Concubine, Middle Kingdom, Ca. 2133 to 1797 BC. A figure of a naked female, her hands held to her sides, wearing a Hathor wig with four loose locks at the back. 3¾in. (9.5cm.) high + custom mount.
  • Old Egy ptian (2600 BC 2000 BC) The languag e of t he Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period.
  • Her dissertation on Egyptian fortresses and garrisons up to the Middle Kingdom was awarded with the third prize of the renowned Werner von Hahlweg Prize in 2000.
  • Many of the devices, artifacts, and practices of the modern day originated in Egypt's more stable periods of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms when there was a strong central government which provided the stability necessary for the creation of art and culture.
  • These were the Hyksos ('foreign kings') whose rise signals the end of the Middle Kingdom and the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
  • Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC. Achaean bronze Ei Type sword from a greave found in Thessaly dated around 1300 BC. Similar type of general purpouse bronze knives from Tyrins dated around 1300 BC. Ei Type sword from unknown area dated around 1300 BC this short bronze sword is long 24.3 cm.
  • Language and Writing  2700 BC, Egyptians used pictograms to represent vocal sounds (vowel & consonant).  By 2000 BC, used 26 pictograms to represent 24 main vocal sounds - the world’s oldest known alphabet.  Ancient Egyptian literature, "Wisdom Text’ - sound advice based on traditions and worldly experience.
  • The New Kingdom was Ancient Egypt's age of empire; Egyptian pharaohs expanded their control into Syro-Palestine, and the Valley of the Kings was initiated.


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Vedic Period (India 1500 BC - 500 BC)


  • Duration: 1500 BC to 500 BC The Vedic Period or the Vedic Age refers to that time period when the Vedic Sanskrit texts were composed in India.
  • As agriculture took root in the Indus River Valley one of the worlds earliest urban civilizations (c. 3300 BC) began to develop. This civilization would be smashed by war with invading Aryans around 1500 BC, but civilization and food production spread to the rest of the subcontinent.
  • It was in the great plains consisting of the Punjab (including the western one now in the modern Pakistan) and the Gangetic valley that the Vedic period flourished and contributed greatly to human civilization and culture.
  • Epic and Paninian Sanskrit : The language of the Mahabharata and Ramayana epics, and the Classical Sanskrit described by Panini is considered post-Vedic, and belongs to the time after 500 B.C.E. Archaeologically, the rapid spread of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBP) over all of northern India corresponds to this period.
  • Such ideas were emphasised more strongly in the new teachings of Jainism and Buddhism, which both also had their origins in ancient India, in the years around 500 BC.
  • Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli, Malwa, c. 1300 BCE: As the Indo-Aryans developed an agricultural society during the Later Vedic Period (c. 1000-500), they further developed crafts, such as pottery.
  • The Devanagari script is written from left to right and is a descendant of the Brahmi script which was well established in India before 500 B.C. The script is phonetic in nature and there is a fairly regular correspondence between the letters and their pronunciation."


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Song Dynasty (China)


  • Although the Song dynasty had lost control of the traditional "birthplace of Chinese civilization" along the Yellow River, the Song economy was still strong, as the Southern Song Empire contained a large population and productive agricultural land.
  • After usurping the throne of the Later Zhou dynasty, Emperor Taizu of Song (r. 960-976) spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
  • The early Northern Song dynasty was noted for their magnificent paintings of landscapes.
  • Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period.
  • The Song (aka Sung) dynasty ruled China from 960 to 1279 CE with the reign split into two periods: the Northern Song (960-1125 CE) and Southern Song (1125-1279 CE).
  • One of the other major developments in the Song Dynasty was the rapid expansion of the canal and of the waterway system, which was particularly true in the southeast and southern parts of China.
  • The philosophical efforts by many thinkers during the Northern Song dynasty in the 11th century had continued and culminated during the Southern Song dynasty in the emergence of Neo-Confucianism (in China known as: Daoxue - the Learning of the Way, daoway, xuestudy or learning), which soon after became the dominant ideology of the Chinese empire.
  • By the mid-Tang Dynasty, the majority of the hereditary aristocracy were threatened their political positions, and by late Tang/early Song, the scholar/gentry had firmly established his social/political/intellectual control of China.
  • When this alliance collapses, the Mongols begin to attack Song China, but the Chinese are able to withstand many battles with their military power and advanced weaponry.
  • The Jurchens set up a new dynasty, the Jin, in northern China while the Song remnant fled to the south, creating the Southern Song.


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Yuan Dynasty (China)


  • Despite the traditional historiography as well as the official views (including the government of the Ming dynasty which overthrew the Yuan dynasty), there also exist Chinese people who did not consider the Yuan dynasty as a legitimate dynasty of China, but rather as a period of foreign domination.
  • Revolts in the mid-14th century led to the final overthrow of the Yuan in 1368, making it the shortest-lived major dynasty of China.
  • A total of ten Mongol khans ruled China in the Yuan period, and they created a unique culture that was an amalgam of Mongolian and Chinese customs and statecraft.
  • Founding of Yuan Dynasty  Kublai Khan (1260-1294)  Known as the Great Khan.  True founder and emperor of the Yuan Dynasty.  First Mongol (non-Chinese) emperor of China.  Genghis Khan's grandson.  Defeated his younger brother Ariq Böke in a succession war.  Invasions of Japan, in 1274 and 1281, were failures.  Invasion of Java in 1293 was also a failure.  Transferred the Mongol capital from Karakorum to Peking.
  • Toghun fled north to Shangdu from Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the M'ng dynasty (1368-1644), founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south, thereby ending the Yuan.
  • The Yuan dynasty arose as a result of the Mongol invasion from the north of China; Kublai Khan (1215- 1294), the grandson of Genghis Khan, was the founder of the dynasty.
  • The exhibition is the second in a series of two; the first, Style in Chinese Landscape Painting: The Song Dynasty, was on view through October 26, 2014.
  • Even before the extinction of the Song dynasty, Kublai Khan had established the first alien dynasty to rule all China--the Yuan (1279-1368).
  • He conquered China, founding and becoming the first emperor of the country's Yuan Dynasty.


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Third Chinese Domination (Vietnam)


  • Second Chinese domination of Vietnam (43-544) ended by the revolt of Lý Nam Đế who led a rebellion taking advantage of internal disorder in China and the weakness of the waning Liang dynasty.
  • Vietnam and Chinese Colonization During Chinese colonial times, Vietnamese society was largely confined to what is today the northern third of Vietnam
  • Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and later political independence.
  • They are forever etched in the hearts of the Vietnamese for having led a rebellion against the first Chinese domination of the country.
  • One-third of Vietnam’s population lives along the coast, Chien tells me, and the marine sector accounts for 50 percent of the country’s GDP. Vietnam claims a line 200 nautical miles straight out over its continental shelf into the South China Sea (which Vietnamese call the "East Sea").
  • Although Au Lac people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over 1000 years.
  • The peripheralization of Vietnam was concentrated in the French colony of Cochin China, in part because it was a colony directly administered by the French rather than a protectorate administered indirectly through a Vietnamese government under French direction.
  • Plenty of women have been instrumental in resisting foreign domination throughout Vietnamese history.
  • China occupied Vietnam for 1,000 years and Vietnamese nationalism has its origins in resisting this domination.
  • The Vietnamese speak of four periods of Chinese domination; the first from about the year 100 BC.
  • The Han Dynasty conquered Nam Viet in 111 BCE, ushering in the "First Chinese Domination," which lasted until 39 CE.
  • Most notably, the Vietnamese noblewomen called the Trung Sisters managed to kick China out of Vietnam in 40 CE. However, the Han military returned three years later and reconquered the kingdom.
  • This is an important interaction to remember when you read about present-day Chinese actions in the South China Sea, and so forth.




























Trần Dynasty (Vietnam)


  • The Later Trần Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Trần) period of 1407 till 1413 in the history of Vietnam is characterized by two revolts, centered around Trần Ngỗi (Giản Định Đế) and Trần Quý Khoáng (Trng Quang Đế).
  • After the first Tran Dynasty's defeat of the Mongols, the world's most mighty army in the XIIIth century led by Koubilai-a grandson to Gengis Khan, in 1258, a newly coronated King of Trần Dynasty, Trần Thánh Tông ordered homeless and poor Viet people to go reclaining waste and virgin soil in various delta areas in the North, expanding the cropland for farmers.
  • The Vietnamese emperor repeatedly ignored demands to attend the Yuan court, nevertheless, according to the history of the Yuan dynasty, the Trần court sent tribute every three years and received a darughachi.
  • When Hồ Dynasty (1400-1407) usurped the throne from the Trần, Hồ Quý Ly also implemented some economic changes, including unifying the weight and volume measure system, improving river-transporting means, establishing administrative system for collecting taxes and fees from merchants, building foodstuff reserve to intervene when market rice prices fluctuating too much, etc. Like previous kings of Trần, he perhaps pursued an improved government budget and arms force.
  • In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương.
  • The economic development policies adopted by early Trần's kings inherited the idea formulated by one of the most well-known senior general of Vietnam's history-Trần Thủ Độ-who had decided to bolster the economic development of the capital city by more economic reform so that savings and wealth could help contribute to a bolstered military force.







Fourth Chinese Domination (Vietnam)


  • The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. Despite lasting for a few years, the fourth Chinese domination viewed as the harshest dominating period to Vietnamese people.
  • This battle concluded the fourth invasion as well as ended 1000 - year Chinese domination in Vietnam.
  • Even during periods of independence from China, the government followed the Chinese Confucian model; the Vietnamese language was written with Chinese characters; art was heavily influenced by China.
  • Vietnam was a vassal of China in ancient times although the Vietnamese people occasionally rebelled against continued domination by China.
  • There were many small-scale revolts against the cruel domination characterized by dictatorship, forcing labor, and insatiable tributes of China from the 3rd century to 6th century.
  • Stopping in Malacca, the Chinese recognized Paramesawara as the legitimate ruler of Malacca and gave him a tablet officially declaring that the city was a vassal state of China.
  • Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including todays Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.
  • A conciliatory mood developed on both sides of the Sino- Vietnamese border in 1989, partly because Vietnam's proposal to withdraw completely from Cambodia responded to a basic Chinese condition for improved relations.
  • They were the long-established objectives of Ho Chi Minh's nationalist and anticolonialist predecessors, who had resisted Chinese rule for 1,000 years and French domination for a century.



















































































































Cold War (Soviet Union and United States, and Their Allies, 1945 - 1989 or 1991)


  • The Cold War, often dated from 1945 to 1991, was a longstanding state of political and military tension between the Soviet Union and its allies and the West, primarily the United States and the NATO nations.
  • Do note that USSR in 1945 was Russia post-1917 and included all the various countries that now exist individually (Ukraine, Georgia etc) but after the war they were part of this huge country up until the collapse of the Soviet Union (the other name for the USSR).
  • The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-Communist side in the Greek Civil War ) and creating the NATO alliance.
  • Unlike its predecessor, the League of Nations, the U.N. would act militarily, but only with the authorization of its Security Council - an upper tier made up of WWII’s victors: the United States, USSR (Soviet Union), United Kingdom, France, and China (Taiwan between 1949-1971).
  • They explain the spread of the cold war from Europe to Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America by focusing on decolonization, the rise of newly independent states, and the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and enjoy higher standards of living.
  • The Soviet Union denounced the Marshall Plan, saying it would infringe upon European sovereignty.
  • Tensions ran highest, perhaps, during the "first Cold War," which lasted from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s, after which followed a period of relaxed tensions and increased communication and cooperation, known by the French term détente, until the "second Cold War" interceded from roughly 1979 until the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • I dont believe anyone really won this war because it has caused lasting tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union now present day Russia.
  • It started after the Second World War and ended in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • The Anglo-American assault on the Soviet Union and communism, as well as the bipolar division of the world that ensued, had a profound and lasting global impact.
  • According to some, the beginning of the Cold War was between 1945 and 1948, while the end was in 1989, with the dispute being over the way Europe was divided.
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin is frequently cited as calling the collapse of the Soviet Union "the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century."
  • To establish their influence and prove their military superiority the two opposing blocks of the cold war undertook major arms development programs, trying to overtake each other, This resulted in kind of competition between them frequently described by terms such as arms race, nuclear race, and space race.
  • December 31, 1991, the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist and was replaced with 15 independent states.






















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