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Age Of Enlightenment Artists

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Age Of Enlightenment Artists

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  • Enlightenment : A philosophical movement in 17th and 18th century Europe; the Age of Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, emphasized rationalism.(More...)

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  • '"the Century of Lights"' in German : Aufklärung, "Enlightenment" and in Italian : L’Illuminismo, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".(More...)
  • In initiating this model, Hobbes takes a naturalistic, scientific approach to the question of how political society ought to be organized (against the background of a clear-eyed, unsentimental conception of human nature), and thus decisively influences the Enlightenment process of secularization and rationalization in political and social philosophy.(More...)
  • By the mid-eighteenth century, the basic conceptual vocabulary of the natural rights tradition — "natural rights," "state of nature," "civil society," " social contract " — had entered the mainstream of Enlightenment political thought, which embraced, nearly unanimously, the belief that the only legitimate basis of political authority was consent.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
Enlightenment : A philosophical movement in 17th and 18th century Europe; the Age of Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, emphasized rationalism. [1] The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a movement that began during the 18th century in Europe and the American colonies. [1]

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason ; in French : le Siècle des Lumières, lit. [2] The prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries. [2] The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution. [2] Enlightenment scholars sought to curtail the political power of organized religion and thereby prevent another age of intolerant religious war. [2] Another text influenced by Enlightenment values was Charles Burney's A General History of Music: From the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (1776), which was a historical survey and an attempt to rationalize elements in music systematically over time. [2] According to historian Roy Porter, the liberation of the human mind from a dogmatic state of ignorance is the epitome of what the Age of Enlightenment was trying to capture. [2] "For Kant, Enlightenment was mankind's final coming of age, the emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance". [2]

Encyclopedias and dictionaries also became more popular during the Age of Enlightenment as the number of educated consumers who could afford such texts began to multiply. [2] It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment, reaching practically every country in Europe. [2] There is little consensus on the precise beginning of the Age of Enlightenment, though the beginning of the 18th century (1701) or the middle of the 17th century (1650) are often used as epochs. [2] The cultural exchange during the Age of Enlightenment ran in both directions across the Atlantic. [2]

D'Alembert, a leading figure of the French Enlightenment, characterizes his eighteenth century, in the midst of it, as "the century of philosophy par excellence ", because of the tremendous intellectual and scientific progress of the age, but also because of the expectation of the age that philosophy (in the broad sense of the time, which includes the natural and social sciences) would dramatically improve human life. [3] Despite the confidence in and enthusiasm for human reason in the Enlightenment - it is sometimes called "the Age of Reason" - the rise of empiricism, both in the practice of science and in the theory of knowledge, is characteristic of the period. [3] The enthusiasm for reason in the Enlightenment is primarily not for the faculty of reason as an independent source of knowledge, which is embattled in the period, but rather for the human cognitive faculties generally; the Age of Reason contrasts with an age of religious faith, not with an age of sense experience. [3]

The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical movement that took place primarily in Europe and, later, in North America, during the late 17 th and early 18 th century. [4] Art during the Age of Enlightenment saw a shift from the opulent baroque style of the 17th century to a "art for the people" a more simple, neoclassicism. [5] Becoming a Woman in the Age of Enlightenment: French Art from The Horvitz Collection was primarily an exhibition of drawings, but included pastels, paintings and sculptures selected from one of the world’s best private collections of French drawings. [6] Item Number: 146886 Title: Becoming a Woman in the Age of Enlightenment: French Art from The Horvitz Collection Author: Hyde, Melissa ; Mary D. Sheriff ; Alvin L. Clark, Jr Price: $38.95 ISBN: 9780991262526 Record created on 10/02/17 Description: Boston: The Horvitz Collection, 2017. 28cm., pbk., 208pp., 145 illus., most in color. [7]

Enlightenment philosophy tends to stand in tension with established religion, insofar as the release from self-incurred immaturity in this age, daring to think for oneself, awakening one's intellectual powers, generally requires opposing the role of established religion in directing thought and action. [3] Skepticism enjoys a remarkably strong place in Enlightenment philosophy, given that confidence in our intellectual capacities to achieve systematic knowledge of nature is a leading characteristic of the age. [3]

The Enlightenment, on the other hand, did not know much of the scientific discoveries, but it was the age when the scientific ideas of the Scientific Revolution were popularized. [8] The Enlightenment Period is also referred to as the Age of Reason and the "long 18th century". [5] Another period marked by significant changes, is the eighteenth century or an age of Enlightenment. [8] The Enlightenment, as the age in which experimental natural science matures and comes into its own, admires Bacon as "the father of experimental philosophy." [3] As during the Renaissance age, Catholic Church of the Enlightenment still had a lot of power and remained hierarchically structured. [8]

This was the Age of Enlightenment, when writers and philosophers came to believe that moral, intellectual, and social reform was possible through the acquisition of knowledge and the power of reason. [9] The Grand Tour, a means of personal enlightenment and an essential element of an upper-class education, was symbolic of this age of reason. [9] The Age of Pleasure and Enlightenment highlighted the Wadsworth Atheneum's rich collection of 18th century paintings and decorative arts. [9] Chapter Summary Chapter 18: The Arts in the Age of Enlightenment During the eighteenth century, the audience for art widened considerably, with the middle class joining, and ultimately supplanting, the aristocracy as the principal market for art. [10] Enlightenment writer and art critic Denis Diderot (1713-1784), one of the founders of the Encyclopédie, published in thirty two volumes between 1751 and 1765, used his pen to critique his age. [11] The 18th Century proudly referred to itself as the "Age of Enlightenment" and rightfully so, for Europe had dwelled in the dim glow of the Middle Ages when suddenly the lights began to come on in men's minds and humankind moved forward. [12] What might a Chinese Age of Enlightenment look like? In an interview, Dong Junxin, the Culture Ministry’s director of external affairs, described China’s process of economic development and reopening to the world, which began in 1978 after the death of Mao Zedong, as "a kind of enlightenment." [13]

The artists of the Enlightenment created some outstanding works of art and architecture, which not only demonstrated the values of education and equality but also probably required some pretty good lighting to create. [14] Late-20th-century works dealing with issues churned up by the Enlightenment, by artists ranging from Joseph Beuys, and Georg Baselitz to Andy Warhol, conclude the exhibition. [13]

Join guest lecturer Jennifer Stoner in a look at how artists such as John Singleton Copley portrayed the connection among art, science, and government by capturing these scientific values in the art of the Enlightenment. [15]

In the current political climate of gender issues and cultural reflection across a diverse array of ideas, the Ackland Art Museum’s newest exhibition, "Becoming a Woman in the Age of Enlightenment: French Art from The Horvitz Collection," is uncommonly timely. [16] The Enlightenment or "Age of Reason’ was a period in the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century, where a group of philosophers, scientists and thinkers advocated new ideas based on reason. [17] Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Intellectual temper of Western Europe in the 18th century. [18] The Neoclassical Art Movement rapidly spread because it coincided with the Age of Enlightenment in the 18 th Century. [19] The main movement which coincided with the Age of Enlightenment continued into early 19th Century with the architectural styles continuing up to the 21st Century. [19]

The Enlightenment discovery or construction of science, in this sense, owed everything to the idea of a heroic age of scientific achievement just behind it, in the development of modern astronomy and physics from Nicolaus Copernicus to Newton. [18] This passage appeared in the entry on “ Giambattista Vico ” in the first edition of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968), published in an age in which the Enlightenment had fallen on such hard times that it did not even rate a separate entry in that Encyclopedia. [18] Peter Nisbet, Deputy Director of Curatorial Affairs at the Ackland Art Museum, discusses the meaning of a painting in the Becoming a Woman in the Age of Enlightenment exhibit. [16] The Encyclopdie of Denis Diderot epitomized the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, as it is also called. [18] It was Kant himself who answered the question, "Do we now live in an enlightened age?" by saying: "No, but we live in an age of enlightenment" — a judgment that perhaps remains as true today as when it was first rendered. [18]

Other scientists made discoveries on smaller scales relating to the animal kingdom and plant life, and artists were used to convey the new-found information by painting or drawing those findings. (p. 756) With the different revolutions and events that took place before the eighteenth century, it could be said that the Enlightenment was just a logical progression and the next step. [20] This exhibition, by turns charming and challenging, shows for the first time how art and artists explored all sides of this debate, from stunningly refined portrayals of beautiful young women to depictions of idyllic family life, from mythological scenes of ideal or despicable female behavior to evocations of women's creative prowess, and from touching images of romance and marriage to respectful presentations of maturity and old age. [21]

Politically, the Age of Revolutions afforded opportunities for state construction beyond what any Enlightenment thinker had envisaged. [18]

Most historians will slip a mainly 17 th- century "Age of Reason" into outline chronologies of intellectual history, and this makes a great deal of sense; the great thinkers of the 17 th century didn't have quite the fervor for empiricism and hadn't quite embraced the political liberalism that would characterize the European Enlightenment. [22] It is extremely difficult to state exactly where the Age of Enlightenment began, because it blended into the Renaissance and varied from discipline to discipline, but many historians point to the Scientific Revolution of the 17 th Century as the precursor. [23] The Age of Enlightenment, a phrase coined by the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 - 12 February 1804), represents the change from antiquity to modernity, the period in history where the modern world began and science replaced superstition. [23] The Enlightenment was the age of the triumph of science (Newton, Leibniz, Bacon) and of philosophy (Descartes, Locke, Spinoza, Kant, Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu). [22] Neoclacissism was more intellectual, a product - like the French Revolution with which it is often associated - of the Age of the Enlightenment. [24] The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment has a core repertoire from the Baroque and Classical periods, working exclusively with guest conductors. [25] The Age of Enlightenment was characterized by optimism, a feeling that humanity could change the world and rectify any mistakes of the past. [23]

For the artists and philosophers of the Enlightenment, the ideal life was one governed by reason. [26]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
'"the Century of Lights"' in German : Aufklärung, "Enlightenment" and in Italian : L’Illuminismo, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy". [2] Porter says the reason was that Enlightenment had come early to England and had succeeded so that the culture had accepted political liberalism, philosophical empiricism, and religious toleration of the sort that intellectuals on the continent had to fight for against powerful odds. [2] In contrast to the intellectual historiographical approach of the Enlightenment, which examines the various currents or discourses of intellectual thought within the European context during the 17th and 18th centuries, the cultural (or social) approach examines the changes that occurred in European society and culture. [2] By the mid-18th century, the Aufklärung ( The Enlightenment ) had transformed German high culture in music, philosophy, science and literature. [2] The term "Enlightenment" emerged in English in the later part of the 19th century, with particular reference to French philosophy, as the equivalent of the French term Lumières (used first by Dubos in 1733 and already well established by 1751). [2] The focus of the Scottish Enlightenment ranged from intellectual and economic matters to the specifically scientific as in the work of William Cullen, physician and chemist; James Anderson, an agronomist ; Joseph Black, physicist and chemist; and James Hutton, the first modern geologist. [2] Most work on the Enlightenment emphasizes the ideals discussed by intellectuals, rather than the actual state of education at the time. [2] The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centred on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state. [2] Rose Rosengard Subotnik's Deconstructive Variations (subtitled Music and Reason in Western Society ) compares Mozart's Die Zauberflöte (1791) using the Enlightenment and Romantic perspectives and concludes that the work is "an ideal musical representation of the Enlightenment". [2] As the Enlightenment was ending, Romantic philosophers argued that excessive dependence on reason was a mistake perpetuated by the Enlightenment because it disregarded the bonds of history, myth, faith, and tradition that were necessary to hold society together. [2] Started by the preeminent philosophers of the day, the Enlightenment era lasted from about 1650 to 1800, promoting science, reason, and intellectual exchange. [1] Another prominent intellectual was Francesco Mario Pagano, who wrote important studies such as Saggi Politici (Political Essays, 1783), one of the major works of the Enlightenment in Naples; and Considerazioni sul processo criminale (Considerations on the criminal trial, 1787), which established him as an international authority on criminal law. [2] The Enlightenment has long been hailed as the foundation of modern Western political and intellectual culture. [1] The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. [2] After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism. [2] The German scholar Ernst Cassirer called the Enlightenment "a part and a special phase of that whole intellectual development through which modern philosophic thought gained its characteristic self-confidence and self-consciousness". [2] Though much of Enlightenment political thought was dominated by social contract theorists, both David Hume and Adam Ferguson criticized this camp. [2] The Enlightenment Past: reconstructing 18th-century French thought. (2008). [2] Many women played an essential part in the French Enlightenment, due to the role they played as salonnières in Parisian salons, as the contrast to the male philosophes. [2] During the Enlightenment, women also began producing popular scientific works themselves. [2] The works were part of an Enlightenment movement to systematize knowledge and provide education to a wider audience than the elite. [2] Cesare Beccaria, a jurist, criminologist, philosopher and politician and one of the great Enlightenment writers, became famous for his masterpiece Of Crimes and Punishments (1764), later translated into 22 languages, which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology by promoting criminal justice. [2] Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza. [2] The "Radical Enlightenment" promoted the concept of separating church and state, an idea that is often credited to English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704). [2] In each case, Enlightenment values became accepted and led to significant political and administrative reforms that laid the groundwork for the creation of modern states. [2] When the Enlightenment and its new ideals took hold, Rococo was condemned for being immoral, indecent, and indulgent, and a new kind of instructive art was called for, which became known as Neoclassicism. [1] Because of the focus on reason over superstition, the Enlightenment cultivated the arts. [2] The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s-1740s and especially in theatre and the arts peaked in the reign of King Stanisław August Poniatowski (second half of the 18th century). [2] French historians usually place the period, called the Siècle des Lumières ("Century of Enlightenments"), between 1715 and 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. [2] As to its end, most scholars use the last years of the century, often choosing the French Revolution of 1789 or the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1804-1815) as a convenient point in time with which to date the end of the Enlightenment. [2]

Enlightenment era religious commentary was a response to the preceding century of religious conflict in Europe, especially the Thirty Years' War. [2] It helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. [2] Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence (1776). [2] Bertrand Russell saw the Enlightenment as a phase in a progressive development which began in antiquity and that reason and challenges to the established order were constant ideals throughout that time. [2] In 1783, Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn referred to Enlightenment as a process by which man was educated in the use of reason. [2] Philadelphia's Enlightenment, 1740-1800: Kingdom of Christ, Empire of Reason. 2001. 199 pp. [2]

One view of the political changes that occurred during the Enlightenment is that the " consent of the governed " philosophy as delineated by Locke in Two Treatises of Government (1689) represented a paradigm shift from the old governance paradigm under feudalism known as the " divine right of kings ". [2] The Enlightenment brought political modernization to the West, in terms of introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies. [2] The history of Academies in France during the Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science, founded in 1635 in Paris. [2] Science played an important role in Enlightenment discourse and thought. [2] Enlightenment, understood in the widest sense as the advance of thought, has always aimed at liberating human beings from fear and installing them as masters. [2]

Intellectuals such as Robert Darnton and Jürgen Habermas have focused on the social conditions of the Enlightenment. [2] This intellectual elite was favoured by the state, but that might be reversed if the process of the Enlightenment proved politically or socially destabilizing. [2] Some surveys of the entire Enlightenment include England and others ignore it, although they do include coverage of such major intellectuals as Joseph Addison, Edward Gibbon, John Locke, Isaac Newton, Alexander Pope, Joshua Reynolds and Jonathan Swift. [2] Before the Enlightenment, most intellectual debates revolved around "confessional"- that is, Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) or Anglican issues and the main aim of these debates was to establish which bloc of faith ought to have the "monopoly of truth and a God-given title to authority". [2] The leaders of the Enlightenment were not especially democratic, as they more often look to absolute monarchs as the key to imposing reforms designed by the intellectuals. [2] In the Scottish Enlightenment, Scotland's major cities created an intellectual infrastructure of mutually supporting institutions such as universities, reading societies, libraries, periodicals, museums and masonic lodges. [2] Enlightenment historiography began in the period itself, from what Enlightenment figures said about their work. [2] Coffeehouses were especially important to the spread of knowledge during the Enlightenment because they created a unique environment in which people from many different walks of life gathered and shared ideas. [2] A number of novel ideas about religion developed with the Enlightenment, including deism and talk of atheism. [2] The ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. [2] While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution. [2]

Recently, musicologists have shown renewed interest in the ideas and consequences of the Enlightenment. [2] Not until the late nineteenth century did English scholars agree they were talking about "the Enlightenment". [2] The salon was the principal social institution of the republic and "became the civil working spaces of the project of Enlightenment". [2] The increased consumption of reading materials of all sorts was one of the key features of the "social" Enlightenment. [2] While the public sphere is generally an integral component of the social study of the Enlightenment, other historians have questioned whether the public sphere had these characteristics. [2] Though many of these philosophical ideals were picked up by Catholics, Russell argues that by the 18th century the Enlightenment was the principal manifestation of the schism that began with Martin Luther. [2] They promoted the ideals of the Enlightenment and helped diffuse these values across Britain and France and other places. [2] The Enlightenment encouraged criticism of the corruption of Louis XVI and the aristocracy in France, leading to the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789. [1] In other parts of Europe, the universities and schools of France and most of Europe were bastions of traditionalism and were not hospitable to the Enlightenment. [2] Many of the leading universities associated with Enlightenment progressive principles were located in northern Europe, with the most renowned being the universities of Leiden, Göttingen, Halle, Montpellier, Uppsala and Edinburgh. [2]

The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy--an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude, "Dare to know". [2] Scientific progress during the Enlightenment included the discovery of carbon dioxide (fixed air) by the chemist Joseph Black, the argument for deep time by the geologist James Hutton and the invention of the steam engine by James Watt. [2] During the Enlightenment, some societies created or retained links to universities, but contemporary sources distinguished universities from scientific societies by claiming that the university's utility was in the transmission of knowledge while societies functioned to create knowledge. [2] The first scientific and literary journals were established during the Enlightenment. [2] As a spillover of the Enlightenment, nonsecular beliefs expressed first by Quakers and then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the United States emerged. [2] In several nations, rulers welcomed leaders of the Enlightenment at court and asked them to help design laws and programs to reform the system, typically to build stronger states. [2]

D'Alembert's Preliminary Discourse of l'Encyclopédie provides a history of the Enlightenment which comprises a chronological list of developments in the realm of knowledge - of which the Encyclopédie forms the pinnacle. [2] The Enlightenment played a distinctive, if small, role in the history of Italy. [2] The majority of textbooks on British history make little or no mention of an English Enlightenment. [2] The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. [2] One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization. [2] The German Enlightenment won the support of princes, aristocrats and the middle classes and it permanently reshaped the culture. [2] From Immanuel Kant's 1784 essay "Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?" (" Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment? "), the German term became Aufklärun g ( aufklären to illuminate; sich aufklären to clear up). [2] Christian Wolff (1679-1754) was the pioneer as a writer who expounded the Enlightenment to German readers and legitimized German as a philosophic language. [2]

René Descartes ' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking. [2] Alexis de Tocqueville described the French Revolution as the inevitable result of the radical opposition created in the 18th century between the monarchy and the men of letters of the Enlightenment. [2] French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715 (the year that Louis XIV died) and 1789 (the beginning of the French Revolution ). [2] The Enlightenment has been frequently linked to the French Revolution of 1789. [2] By the late Enlightenment, there was a rising demand for a more universal approach to education, particularly after the American and French Revolutions. [2]

The extensive, yet affordable encyclopedia came to represent the transmission of Enlightenment and scientific education to an expanding audience. [2] This widely available dictionary gave short definitions of words like genius and taste and was clearly influenced by the Enlightenment movement. [2] It is argued by several historians and philosophers that the beginning of the Enlightenment is when Descartes shifted the epistemological basis from external authority to internal certainty by his cogito ergo sum published in 1637. [2] Frederick the Great, the king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786, saw himself as a leader of the Enlightenment and patronized philosophers and scientists at his court in Berlin. [2]

Theologians of the Enlightenment wanted to reform their faith to its generally non-confrontational roots and to limit the capacity for religious controversy to spill over into politics and warfare while still maintaining a true faith in God. [2] During the Enlightenment there was a great emphasis upon liberty, republicanism and religious tolerance. [2]

The Café Procope in particular became a centre of Enlightenment, welcoming such celebrities as Voltaire and Rousseau. [2] The national Enlightenment differed from its Western European counterpart in that it promoted further modernization of all aspects of Russian life and was concerned with attacking the institution of serfdom in Russia. [2] The Enlightenment took hold in most European countries, often with a specific local emphasis. [2] It lacked the skeptical and critical spirit of the European Enlightenment. [2]

Russell said that the Enlightenment was ultimately born out of the Protestant reaction against the Catholic counter-reformation and that philosophical views such as affinity for democracy against monarchy originated among 16th-century Protestants to justify their desire to break away from the Catholic Church. [2] They also advanced Christian enlightenment that upheld "the legitimacy of God-ordained authority"--the Bible--in which there had to be agreement between the biblical and natural theories. [2]

Hume and other Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed a " science of man ", which was expressed historically in works by authors including James Burnett, Adam Ferguson, John Millar and William Robertson, all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behaved in ancient and primitive cultures with a strong awareness of the determining forces of modernity. [2] John Locke, one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, based his governance philosophy in social contract theory, a subject that permeated Enlightenment political thought. [2] Prussia took the lead among the German states in sponsoring the political reforms that Enlightenment thinkers urged absolute rulers to adopt. [2] The Republic of Letters was the sum of a number of Enlightenment ideals: an egalitarian realm governed by knowledge that could act across political boundaries and rival state power. [2]

Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. [2] Enlightenment ideas ( oświecenie ) emerged late in Poland, as the Polish middle class was weaker and szlachta (nobility) culture ( Sarmatism ) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system ( Golden Liberty ) were in deep crisis. [2] In the 1970s, study of the Enlightenment expanded to include the ways Enlightenment ideas spread to European colonies and how they interacted with indigenous cultures and how the Enlightenment took place in formerly unstudied areas such as Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary and Russia. [2]

Several Americans, especially Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, played a major role in bringing Enlightenment ideas to the New World and in influencing British and French thinkers. [2]

Broadly speaking, Enlightenment science greatly valued empiricism and rational thought and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress. [2] These ideas added to those expressed by Enlightenment thinkers, leading many in Britain to believe that slavery was "not only morally wrong and economically inefficient, but also politically unwise." [2] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. [2] Weimar Classicism ( Weimarer Klassik ) was a cultural and literary movement based in Weimar that sought to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical and Enlightenment ideas. [2] In England, the Royal Society of London also played a significant role in the public sphere and the spread of Enlightenment ideas. [2]

Artists like David supported the rebels in the French Revolution through an art that asked for clear-headed thinking, self-sacrifice to the State (as in Oath of the Horatii), and an austerity reminiscent of Republican Rome. [1] It was especially attractive to powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists. [2] The artist Pompeo Batoni made a career of painting portraits of English tourists posed among Roman antiquities and became very popular in Rome. [1]

Leading deists included Thomas Paine in The Age of Reason and by Thomas Jefferson in his short Jefferson Bible - from which all supernatural aspects were removed. [2] Of a total of 2,300 prize competitions offered in France, women won 49--perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training. [2] The whole containing the history of the most illustrious persons of all ages and nations particularly those of Great Britain and Ireland, distinguished by their rank, actions, learning and other accomplishments. [2] German music, sponsored by the upper classes, came of age under composers Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). [2] In reference to this growth, Bernard de Fontenelle coined the term "the Age of Academies" to describe the 18th century. [2]


In initiating this model, Hobbes takes a naturalistic, scientific approach to the question of how political society ought to be organized (against the background of a clear-eyed, unsentimental conception of human nature), and thus decisively influences the Enlightenment process of secularization and rationalization in political and social philosophy. [3] Taking as the core of the Enlightenment the aspiration for intellectual progress, and the belief in the power of such progress to improve human society and individual lives, this entry includes descriptions of relevant aspects of the thought of earlier thinkers, such as Hobbes, Locke, Descartes, Bayle, Leibniz, and Spinoza, thinkers whose contributions are indispensable to understanding the eighteenth century as "the century of philosophy par excellence ". [3] Enlightenment intellectuals thought that all human endeavors should aim to increase knowledge and reason, rather than elicit emotional responses. [4] As characteristic of Enlightenment epistemology, Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason (1781, second edition 1787) undertakes both to determine the limits of our knowledge, and at the same time to provide a foundation of scientific knowledge of nature, and he attempts to do this by examining our human faculties of knowledge critically. [3]

The Enlightenment was the first time in European history that art served not only a political or religious agenda, sponsored by the rich in society, but also served as a medium of expression. [5] Spinoza's employment of philosophical reason leads to the denial of the existence of a transcendent, creator, providential, law-giving God; this establishes the opposition between the teachings of philosophy, on the one hand, and the traditional orienting practical beliefs (moral, religious, political) of the people, on the other hand, an opposition that is one important aspect of the culture of the Enlightenment. [3] For all the enduring accomplishments of Enlightenment political philosophy, it is not clear that human reason proves powerful enough to put a concrete, positive authoritative ideal in place of the objects of its criticism. [3] The political revolutions of the Enlightenment, especially the French and the American, were informed and guided to a significant extent by prior political philosophy in the period. [3] Enlightenment philosophy was influential in ushering in the French and American revolutions and constitutions. [4]

According to a common Enlightenment assumption, as humankind clarifies the laws of nature through the advance of natural science and philosophy, the true moral and political order will be revealed with it. [3] If our conception of nature is of an exclusively material domain governed by deterministic, mechanical laws, and if we at the same time deny the place of the supernatural in the cosmos, then how does humanity itself fit into the cosmos? On the one hand, the achievements of the natural sciences in general are the great pride of the Enlightenment, manifesting the excellence of distinctively human capacities. [3] Samuel Clarke, an influential rationalist British thinker early in the Enlightenment, undertakes to show in his Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion (1706), against Hobbes, that the absolute difference between moral good and moral evil lies in the immediately discernible nature of things, independently of any compacts or positive legislation by God or human beings. [3] Some important thinkers of the Enlightenment - notably Shaftesbury and Rousseau - present religion as founded on natural human sentiments, rather than on the operations of the intellect. [3]

Derider, who advocated similar ideas, made a great contribution to the Enlightenment with creation of the famous Encyclopedia (Classified Dictionary of Science, Arts and Trades), which included works and ideas of many philosophers. [8] The Encyclopedia (subtitled: " systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts and crafts ") was published in 28 volumes (17 of text, 11 of plates) over 21 years (1751-1772), and consists of over 70,000 articles, contributed by over 140 contributors, among them many of the luminaries of the French Enlightenment. [3] The collaborative nature of the project, especially in the context of state opposition, contributes significantly to the formation of a shared sense of purpose among the wide variety of intellectuals who belong to the French Enlightenment. [3] Enlightenment intellectuals were skeptical of the divine right of kings and monarchies in general, scientific claims about the natural world, the nature of reality and religious doctrine. [4] "The intellectuals of the Enlightenment vigorously sought to restrict the political power of organized religion in an effort to curtail the outbreak of intolerant religious wars," said Abernethy. [4] Though the Enlightenment, as a diverse intellectual and social movement, has no definite end, the devolution of the French Revolution into the Terror in the 1790s, corresponding, as it roughly does, with the end of the eighteenth century and the rise of opposed movements, such as Romanticism, can serve as a convenient marker of the end of the Enlightenment, conceived as an historical period. [3] It's as if the terrible, violent confessional strife in the early modern period in Europe, the bloody drawn-out wars between the Christian sects, was removed to the intellectual arena in the Enlightenment and became a set of more general philosophical controversies. [3] Neoclassicism was an artistic manifestation of aesthetic and cultural ideals, while the Enlightenment was a wider philosophical and political movement focusing on the human condition. [27] The Enlightenment includes a general recovery and affirmation of the value of pleasure in human lives, against the tradition of Christian asceticism, and the flourishing of the arts, of the criticism of the arts and of the philosophical theorizing about beauty, promotes and is promoted by this recovery and affirmation. [3] Progress: The centuries before the Enlightenment were characterized by rapid changes, from the discoveries of the Scientific Revolution to the exploration of the world and the advancement in art technique during the Renaissance. [4] The Enlightenment has been fostered by the remarkable discoveries of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century. [8] Guided by D'Alembert's characterization of his century, the Enlightenment is conceived here as having its primary origin in the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. [3] Historians disagree on precisely when the Enlightenment began, though most agree that the Enlightenment's origins are tied to the Scientific Revolution in the 1600s, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [4] The enthusiasm for the scientific study of humanity in the period incorporates a tension or paradox concerning the place of humanity in the cosmos, as the cosmos is re-conceived in the context of Enlightenment philosophy and science. [3] This work, combined with John Locke's "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1689) are believed to be the basis for much of the science, math, and philosophy that propelled the Enlightenment forward. [5] This view is expressed explicitly by the philosophe Marquis de Condorcet, in his Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (published posthumously in 1795 and which, perhaps better than any other work, lays out the paradigmatically Enlightenment view of history of the human race as a continual progress to perfection). [3]

The rise and development of liberalism in Enlightenment political thought has many relations with the rise of the mercantile class (the bourgeoisie) and the development of what comes to be called "civil society", the society characterized by work and trade in pursuit of private property. [3] Just like Machiavelli was a giant of political thought in the Renaissance, Nonentities (1689-1755) was for the Enlightenment, though his propositions were much different from those of Machiavelli. [8] The Prussian enlightened despot, Frederick the Great, famously criticizes d'Holbach's book for exemplifying the incoherence that troubles the Enlightenment generally: while d'Holbach provides passionate moral critiques of existing religious and social and political institutions and practices, his own materialist, determinist conception of nature allows no place for moral "oughts" and prescriptions and values. [3] Adam Smith, a prominent member of the Scottish Enlightenment, describes in his An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) some of the laws of civil society, as a sphere distinct from political society as such, and thus contributes significantly to the founding of political economy (later called merely "economics"). [3] Atheism (combined with materialism) in the French Enlightenment is perhaps most identified with the Baron d'Holbach, whose System of Nature (1770) generated a great deal of controversy at the time for urging the case for atheism explicitly and emphatically. [3] Whereas early in the Enlightenment, in French classicism, and to some extent in Christian Wolff and other figures of German rationalism, the emphasis is on the more-or-less static rational order and proportion and on rigid universal rules or laws of reason, the trend during the development of Enlightenment aesthetics is toward emphasis on the play of the imagination and its fecundity in generating associations. [3] " During the Enlightenment, there was more emphasis on scientific methods, secularization of learning, religious tolerance, universal education, individual liberty, reason, progress and the separation of church and state," said Abernethy. [4] Characteristics of the Enlightenment include the rise of concepts such as reason, liberty and the scientific method. [4] Reason was the word used the most frequently during the Enlightenment; it meant a scientific method, which appealed to facts and experiences. [8]

This asserted relationship between natural scientific knowledge and the political and moral order is under great stress already in the Enlightenment. [3] The Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution "saw a vast expansion in our knowledge about the world, and in the accuracy of this knowledge," said UK-based historian and writer Robert Wilde. [4] Hume's skeptical arguments regarding causal reasoning are more radical than his skeptical questioning of reason as such, insofar as they call into question even experience itself as a ground for knowledge and implicitly challenge the credentials of Newtonian science itself, the very pride of the Enlightenment. [3] Whereas Leibniz exerts his influence through scattered writings on various topics, some of which elaborate plans for a systematic metaphysics which are never executed by Leibniz himself, Wolff exerts his influence on the German Enlightenment through his development of a rationalist system of knowledge in which he attempts to demonstrate all the propositions of science from first principles, known a priori. [3] Through their articulation of the ideal of scientia, of a complete science of reality, composed of propositions derived demonstratively from a priori first principles, these philosophers exert great influence on the Enlightenment. [3] Development of secular art, music, literature and way of thinking of the Renaissance was followed and further spread by the philosophers of the Enlightenment. [8] In the Enlightenment art, the similarity with the Renaissance was that the Baroque style largely used in Renaissance continued into the eighteenth century. [8]

The heart of the eighteenth century Enlightenment is the loosely organized activity of prominent French thinkers of the mid-decades of the eighteenth century, the so-called " philosophes "(e.g., Voltaire, D'Alembert, Diderot, Montesquieu). [3] "Either way, the ideas of Enlightenment … influenced a French middle class to want a voice in government. [4] If the French Enlightenment tends to advance this-worldly happiness as the highest good for human beings more insistently than the Enlightenment elsewhere, then Rousseau's voice is, in this as in other respects, a discordant voice in that context. [3] The faith of the Enlightenment - if one may call it that - is that the process of enlightenment, of becoming progressively self-directed in thought and action through the awakening of one's intellectual powers, leads ultimately to a better, more fulfilled human existence. [3] Cartesian philosophy also ignites various controversies in the latter decades of the seventeenth century that provide the context of intellectual tumult out of which the Enlightenment springs. [3] The devolution of the French Revolution into the Reign of Terror is perceived by many as proving the emptiness and hypocrisy of Enlightenment reason, and is one of the main factors which account for the end of the Enlightenment as an historical period. [3] The Enlightenment is often associated with its political revolutions and ideals, especially the French Revolution of 1789. [3] This entry is not the place to delineate strains of opposition to the Enlightenment, but it is worth noting that post-Enlightenment social and political struggles to achieve equality or recognition for traditionally marginalized or oppressed groups are sometimes self-consciously grounded in the Enlightenment and sometimes marked by explicit opposition to the Enlightenment's conceptions or presuppositions. [3] Hobbes' work originates the modern social contract theory, which incorporates Enlightenment conceptions of the relation of the individual to the state. [3] Locke undertakes in this work to examine the human understanding in order to determine the limits of human knowledge; he thereby institutes a prominent pattern of Enlightenment epistemology. [3] According to the natural law tradition, as the Enlightenment makes use of it, we can know through the use of our unaided reason that we all - all human beings, universally - stand in particular moral relations to each other. [3] Wolff's rationalist metaphysics is characteristic of the Enlightenment by virtue of the pretensions of human reason within it, not by reason's success in establishing its claims. [3]

Both of these points (the commonality of human nature and the securing of 'objectivity' in judgments based on sentiments by appeal to the normative responses of appropriately placed observers) are typical of the period more generally, and especially of the strong empiricist strain in the Enlightenment. [3] In placing the emphasis on the subject's response to beauty, rather than on the objective characteristics of the beautiful, Shaftesbury makes aesthetics belong to the general Enlightenment interest in human nature. [3] It belongs centrally to the agenda of Enlightenment philosophy to contribute to the new knowledge of nature, and to provide a metaphysical framework within which to place and interpret this new knowledge. [3] Spinoza's denial, on the basis of strict philosophical reasoning, of the existence of a transcendent supreme being, his identification of God with nature, gives strong impetus to the strands of atheism and naturalism that thread through Enlightenment philosophy. [3] In the Enlightenment, philosophical thinkers confront the problem of developing ethical systems on a secular, broadly naturalistic basis for the first time since the rise of Christianity eclipsed the great classical ethical systems. [3] Though philosophical rationalism forms the basis of aesthetics in the early Enlightenment in France and Germany, thinkers in the empiricist tradition in England and Scotland introduce many of the salient themes of Enlightenment aesthetics. [3]

These beliefs and factors combined with the scientific leaps made during the Enlightenment would drive the world forward toward the Industrial period, and, to the philosophical, artistic, and literary period known as the Romantic Era. [5] It's impossible to talk about the Enlightenment without talking about the political leaps and bounds made during the period. [5] Though Thomas Hobbes, in his Leviathan (1651), defends the absolute power of the political sovereign, and is to that extent opposed to the revolutionaries and reformers in England, this work is a founding work of Enlightenment political theory. [3] Baruch Spinoza also greatly contributes to the development of Enlightenment political philosophy in its early years. [3] Liberalism is perhaps the most characteristic political philosophy of the Enlightenment, and Spinoza, in this text primarily, is one of its originators. [3]



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(29 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (135) Enlightenment (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

2. (120) Enlightenment facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Enlightenment

3. (119) Age of Enlightenment - Wikipedia

4. (40) Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment Essay | Art Essay

5. (37) What Was the Enlightenment?

6. (16) 'The Age of Enlightenment' Sweeps Into China - The New York Times

7. (11) What Was The Enlightenment?

8. (10) Enlightenment's Influence on 18th & 19th-Century Art & Architecture - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

9. (9) enlightenment-and-revolut1.doc

10. (8) The Enlightenment | Boundless Art History

11. (7) The Enlightenment and Artistic Styles | Art History Unstuffed

12. (6) The Neoclassicism Art Movement - WorldAtlas.com

13. (6) The Age of Enlightenment Essay - 2088 Words | Bartleby

14. (5) Perry, Humanities in the Western Tradition - - Chapter Summary

15. (5) Enlightenment The Age of

16. (5) The Age of Pleasure and Enlightenment | Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art

17. (4) Famous People of the Enlightenment | Biography Online

18. (4) Neoclassicism Curriculum (Education at the Getty)

19. (3) Explore life as a woman in 18th-century France at the Ackland - The Daily Tar Heel

20. (3) Science and the Enlightenment - A Scientific Revolution

21. (3) The Arts in the Age of Enlightenment

22. (3) Becoming a Woman | Harn Museum of Art

23. (2) Becoming a Woman in the Age of Enlightenment: French Art from The Horvitz Collection - Ackland Art Museum

24. (2) What's the difference between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment?

25. (1) Art + Science: The Age of Enlightenment, The Age of Reason | Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

26. (1) From Neoclassicism to Romanticism - French art in the age of revolution

27. (1) Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment | Similar Artists | AllMusic

28. (1) Enlightenment Vs Romanticism

29. (1) Becoming a Woman in the Age of Enlightenment: French Art from The Horvitz Collection


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