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Đinh Dynasty (Vietnam)

Đinh Dynasty (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • Dinh Bo Linh, reign title Dinh Tien Hoang, (born, Hoa Lu, northern Vietnam--died 979, northern Vietnam), emperor and founder of the second Vietnamese dynasty, who, after a decade of anarchy, reunified his country, winning official recognition of Vietnam as a state independent from China.(More...)
  • Holy Father festival in Nam Dinh is held in the death anniversary of Saint Tran Hung Dao - a talented General, a National Hero who contributed significantly to the Tran Dynasty career, and worshiped widely in temples and the spiritual life of Vietnamese people in general and Nam Dinh people in particular.(More...)

  • The Tang finally collapsed in 907 and by 939 Ngo Quyen, a Vietnamese general, had established himself as king of an independent Vietnam.(More...)
  • Since the accepted independent era of Vietnam began in 939, with Ngô Quyền defeating the Chinese force of the Nan Han (Nam Hán) and declaring the foundation of a self-governing country, the logical first dynasty (albeit a very short one) was the Ngô dynasty from 939 to 945.(More...)


Dinh Bo Linh, reign title Dinh Tien Hoang, (born, Hoa Lu, northern Vietnam--died 979, northern Vietnam), emperor and founder of the second Vietnamese dynasty, who, after a decade of anarchy, reunified his country, winning official recognition of Vietnam as a state independent from China. [1] Not until the rise of the Ly dynasty (1009-1225) did the Vietnamese monarchy consolidate its control over the country. [2] Although the Tang succeeded in defeating the Nan-chao forces and restoring Chinese administration, the dynasty was in decline and no longer able to dominate the increasingly autonomous Vietnamese. [2] Some scholars mark this as the period of final separation of the Muong peoples from the central Vietnamese, which linguistic evidence indicates took place near the end of the Tang dynasty. [2] After uniting the Vietnamese and establishing his kingdom, Dinh Bo Linh sent a tributary mission to the newly-established Chinese Northern Song dynasty. [2]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [3] The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. [3] Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Later Lê dynasty early period (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Later Lê dynasty warlord period (1533 to 1788) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords. [3] The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). [4] Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [4] Actually, the early Nguyễn Dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Vietnamese dynasties did (like building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos, etc), except those feats were not enough in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics. [4] Lê Li then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái T and establishing the Lê dynasty (1428-1788). [3] Within French Indochina, Cochin China had the status of a French Colony, Annam was a Protectorate where the Nguyen Dynasty still ruled in name, and Tonkin had a French Governor yet local governments were run by Vietnamese officials. [4] Not long after, World War II and the Cold War would turn the Nguyen Dynasty out of Hue; Bao Dai became the last ruling Nguyen emperor, for a time becoming a puppet head of state for the Japanese, then the French, then finally the South Vietnamese government based in Saigon. [5]

Dinh Bo Linh, founder of the Dinh dynasty, is one of the greatest kings of Vietnamese history. [6]

Dinh founded the Đinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself First Emperor (Tiên Hoàng) of Đại Cồ Việt (Hán tự: 大瞿越; literally "Great Viet Land"), with its capital in Hoa Lư (modern day Ninh B"nh). [4] Compared to Beijing's Forbidden City, Hue Imperial Citadel was first constructed in 1804, home to the Nguyen Dynasty - Vietnam's last royal dynasty for 143 years. [7]

Holy Father festival in Nam Dinh is held in the death anniversary of Saint Tran Hung Dao - a talented General, a National Hero who contributed significantly to the Tran Dynasty career, and worshiped widely in temples and the spiritual life of Vietnamese people in general and Nam Dinh people in particular. [8] The Secret of early Vietnamese Coin Styles: Chinese Kai Yuan style on early Tran dynasty coins. [9] The first known official Vietnamese coinage from the time of the Dinh dynasty. [10]

In the late 10th century, Hoa Lu was the capital as well as the economic, political and cultural center of Đại Cồ Việt, an independent Vietnamese polity founded in 968 A.D. by the local warlord Đinh Bộ Lĩnh (posthumously known as Đinh Tiên Hoàng, or "First Dinh Emperor"), following years of civil war and a violent secessionist movement against China's Southern Han Dynasty. [11] After the assassination of Đinh Tiên Hoàng and his first son Đinh Liễn,the third son Đinh Phế Đế became the emperor at aged 6 with regent Lê Hoàn.Then some of the skeptical of Lê Hoàn loyalty so some of the members of royal court brought the army to Imperial palace to take him down.The leader of army include the chancellor of Đinh dynasty Duke of Định Nguyễn Bặc and general Đinh Điền but they failed to make a coup so both of them were executed. [12] This dynasty modify and keep the same government form and traditional order of Đinh dynasty.In 980 Lê Hoàn began to nominate some court position, Hồng Hiến as the grand chancellor (Thái sư), Phạm Cự Lạng as the vice chancellor(Thái úy), Từ Mục as grand governor of court (Đại tổng quản), Đinh Thừa Chinh as Royal capital interior Military Commander(Nha nội đô chỉ huy sứ). [12]

The Early Lê dynasty ( Vietnamese : Nhà Tiền Lê ; Hán Nôm : 家 前 黎 ; pronounced ) was a dynasty that ruled Đại Cồ Việt (now Vietnam ) from 980 until 1009. [12] Besides that,he also took care of the national economy and begin the construction of some bridge,main roads and water road for easy transportation.In 1009, he establish the business trade and exchanging goods and products in Nanning Song dynasty, China but Song emperor just only allowed Vietnamese businessman trades at some specific locations nearby the borders like Hepu County, Guangxi. [12] A fascinating insight into the clash of ancient Vietnamese Nguyen dynasty and the 20th century. [13]

Unfortunately, due to Dinh Tien Hoang's failure to provide for an orderly succession, the country was again plunged into turmoil after his death, until order was reestablished by Le Hoan, Bo Linh's top general, who defeated his rivals and established the Le Dynasty, Vietnam's second imperial dynasty. [14]

The Tang finally collapsed in 907 and by 939 Ngo Quyen, a Vietnamese general, had established himself as king of an independent Vietnam. [2] The turmoil of succession of Dinh Tien Hoang in their southern border gave the Chinese Song a pretext to meddle and interfere into the matters of the Vietnamese, to invade the country and subjugate it again to their rule. [15] He was one of 12 chieftains among whom was divided Nam Viet, which consisted of northern Vietnam and three central Vietnamese provinces. [1] According to Vietnamese annals, Dinh Bo Linh, of peasant ancestry, was the adopted son of a feudal lord, the prefect of Hoa Lu. [1]

Aware of the superior power that the newly established Chinese Sung dynasty (960-1126) could bring against him, Dinh Bo Linh embarked ona course which was to establish the basis for future relations with China for many centuries. [2] Exploiting the weakness of the newly installed Sung dynasty, he affirmed the subordinate status of his kingdom and agreed to pay tribute to the Chinese emperor in return for recognition of the sovereignty of Dai Co Viet and its ruler. [1]

The Dinh dynasty did not outlast the first emperor, whose throne was usurped. [2] The Song Dynasty had reunified the country for the first time since the fall of the Tang. [15]

The Le Hoan Statue is at the centre, on the left is the statue of Queen Duong Van Nga and on his right is that of Le Ngoa Trieu, his fifth son and the third King of the Pre Le Dynasty. [16]

According to Tran Dinh Huou, although Confucianism entered Vietnam rather early (during the period of domination by the Eastern Han), it was not fully appreciated until the nation’s independence was declared (Ly Dynasty, 11th century). [17] Back then Vietnam was known as Annam and was for a thousand years since the Qin Dynasty in China, an interregnum period under the Trieu 赵 dynasty before under direct Chinese suzerainity up to AD938. [10] Weakened by war, Vietnam was soon conquered by the Ming Dynasty from China and overthrew the Ho Dynasty. [18]

The dynasty was capped when Lý Chiêu Hoàng took the throne at 6 years old, becoming the only reigning empress in the history of Vietnam. [19] After Nam Viet was invaded by Tay Han Dynasty in 111 BC, the country stepped into the Chinese domination lasting over 1000 years. [8] By the time the Triệu Dynasty came around in 207 BCE, Vietnam - then known as Nam Việt and comprising basically what is now northern Vietnam - was thoroughly intertwined with the powerful Han Chinese. [19] The Trieu Dynasty was founded by a Chinese Qin Dynasty General named Zhao Tuo. [10]

This small Kingdom covered an area of only 300 hectares, and reigned from the 10th century, during the Dinh and Le dynasties, to the 11th century, during the Ly Dynasty. [20] To commemorate the merit of national heroes, the Hau Le (literally, the Later Le) dynasty restored, rebuilt the temple of King Dinh worshipping Dinh Tien Hoang. [21] He was a solid general in Dinh Dynasty, he deserved credit for pacifying, unifying the country, so he was appointed Thap Dao Tuong Quan (the highest ranking officials of Dinh dynasty) by King Dinh Tien Hoang. [21] Dinh Bo Linh would eventually be successful to unify the country once again, beacme Emperor Dinh Tien Hoang, and founded the Dinh Dynasty where he renamed the country from Tinh Hai Quan to Dai Co Viet. [18]

Nam Dinh - the land in the south of Red River Delta, the hometown of Tran Dynasty, illustrious Dong A spirit - "the country is always stable and prosperous for eternity". [8] Under Ly, Tran Dynasty, Nam Dinh was not onlt a gateway to Red River Delta but also an important economic center of the country. [8]

Nam Dinh is the place where Tran Dynasty started the career (13th - 14th century) and the birthplace of many celebrities, martial generals whose names and their career have been recorded in the history and who people worship like Quoc Cong Tiet Che Hung Dao Dai Vuong Tran Quoc Tuan. [8] Tran Temple Festival is held annually on the death anniversary of General Tran Hung Dao at the historical site of tran Dynasty in Nam Dinh City. [22]

Nam Dinh is the hometown of Tran Dynasty with the system of palaces, temples, towers, and tombs. [8] Under Le Dynasty, Nam Dinh belonged to Son Nam; until the second year of Canh Hung in 1741, this land belonged to Son Nam Ha. [8] Nam Dinh is the land of traditional fondness for learning with schools established since Le dynasty in Nang Tinh village. [8]

The Nguyen Dynasty was still allowed to rule over Vietnam but had to follow French requests. [18] Despite France modernizing Vietnam with railroads and other technology, many Vietnamese resisted French authority and rebelled. [18] For thr next millennia, Vietnam continued the tradition of issuance of cash coinage but with distinct Vietnamese regnal titles apart from occasional Chinese imitations and imports. [10] Written while living in Asia, the author presents the more accurate Asian view of Vietnamese numismatics based on earlier works from Vietnam, Japan, and China while correcting misconceptions that have propagated from early Western works. [9] Throughout this time period, Europeans missionaries introduced Christianity to Vietnam and were successful in converting many Vietnamese. [18] Throughout this 1000 years of rule, the Vietnamese people managed to retain their identity yet at the same time integrated a lot of Chinese culture. [18]

He was the first Emperor to cast Vietnamese coins "Thai Binh Hung Bao’ in Viet Nam history and opened an independent era from China for Viet Nam. [10] "Viet Nam" was once common usage and is still used by the United Nations and by the Vietnamese government. [10] Kinh ethnic group covers the majority population of Nam Dinh, so Vietnamese is used commonly in this province. [8] Appreciating the influence of Confucianism on virtually all aspects of Vietnamese society, Tran Dinh Huou focused most of his work on this ideological system, with a main emphasis on Vietnam’s road "from tradition to modernity". [17] The second most important contribution of Tran Dinh Huou concerns the relationship between Confucianism and medieval - modern Vietnamese literature. [17]

One of the defining factors of this period of Vietnamese history is the Dong Son culture where large bronze drums were made. [18] World War I slowed things down though, as 140,000 Vietnamese were drafted into the French war effort. [19] Located near the town of Ninh Binh, Hoa Lu is the site of a 10th-century capital of an ancient Vietnamese Kingdom called Dai Co Viet. [20]

Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh (Việt) settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [4] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [4] This list picks up the 10 best places of historical interest to visit around Vietnam, from the rudimentary hand-dug tunnels to a brutal prison complex where thousands of Vietnamese people died. [7] Copy at, After millions of Vietnamese deaths and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. [4] Copy at, To this day, the Trung Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [4]

In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [3] In the north, Chiang Kaishek's army entered Vietnam, also to disarm the Japanese, followed by the forces of the non-Communist Vietnamese parties, such as Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng and Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. [4] Most groups attempted to infiltrate Vietnam but eventually were eliminated by Vietnamese security and armed forces. [4] The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam). [4] The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. [4] During the broad sweep of Vietnamese history, Vietnam has had several capitals. [3] In late 1978, following repeated raids by the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia into Vietnamese territory, Vietnam sent troops to overthrow Pol Pot. [4] The Vietnamese government announced in 2007 that there was a new public holiday in Vietnam called the Hùng Kings' Festival at the Hùng Temple. [3] Copy at, Although the American-led troops succeeded in containing the advance of Communist forces, the presence of foreign troops, the widespread bombing over all of Vietnam, and the social vices that mushroomed around U.S. bases upset the sense of national pride among many Vietnamese, North and South, causing many to become sympathetic to North Vietnam and the NLF. [4] Copy at, Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge allied with non-Communist guerilla forces led by Norodom Sihanouk and Son Sann to fight against the Vietnamese forces and the new Phnom Penh regime. [4] Beside supplying materials, Chinese cadres also pressured the Vietnamese Communist Party, copy at, then under First Secretary Trường Chinh, to emulate their brand of revolution, unleashing a purge of "bourgeois and feudal" elements from the Viet Minh ranks, carrying out a ruthless and bloody land reform campaign (Cải Cách Ruộng Đất), and denouncing "bourgeois and feudal" tendencies in arts and literature. [4] The Vietnamese Communist Party dropped its front name "Labor Party" and changed the title of First Secretary (used by China) to Secretary General (used by the Soviet Union), with Lê Duẩn remained Secretary General. [4] The Comintern sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1930, in Hongkong, with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [4] During the 1930s, the Vietnamese Communist Party was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Trần Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ. [4] In 1960, at the Third Party Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party (renamed Labor Party on the surface since 1951), Lê Duẩn arrived from the South and strongly proposed the use of revolutionary warfare to topple Diệm's regime, unifying the country, and build Marxist-Leninist socialism. [4]

Although Âu Lc people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over the next 1000 years. [3] Despite some early successes, the Vietnamese Communists made many serious long-term mistakes and caused an overall decline of the country over many years. [4] In subsequent major offensives in later years, copy at, North Vietnamese regulars with artillery and tanks took over the fighting. [4] In 1968, the NLF launched a massive and surprise Tết Offensive (known in South Vietnam as "Biến Cố Tết Mậu Th n" or in the North as "Cuộc Tổng Tấn Công và Nổi Dậy Tết Mậu Th n"), attacking almost all major cities in South Vietnam over the Vietnamese New Year (Tết). [4] Two millions North Vietnamese civilians emigrated to South Vietnam to avoid the imminent Communist regime. [4] The young North Vietnamese were idealistically and innocently patriotic, ready to commit utmost sacrifice for the "liberation of the South" and the "unification of the motherland". [4] In early 1975, North Vietnamese military led by General Văn Tiến Dũng launched a massive attack against the Central Highland province of Buôn Mê Thuột. [4] The Vietnamese forces, under the command of Trn Hng o (1228-1300), lay in wait for the invasion fleet, comprising 18,000 men and 400 vessels commanded by the Mongol general Omar Batur, knowing that they would have to return to China through the estuary at the mouth of the Bach Dang River. [3] From China, other non-Communist Vietnamese parties also joined Việt Minh and established armed forces with backing from the Guomingtang. [4]

We all are familiar with a popular song celebrating this national hero, particularly popular among Vietnamese children because of his precocity in matters of warfare and leadership (Dinh Bo Linh nho hoi minh con nien thieu,lay lau lay lau lam co quen minh giup nuoc. ) Legend has it that in his childhood, while tending the water buffaloes, he used blossoming reeds (lau) as pennants in mock combats organized among the village children. [6]

This is an important historic period proving the patriotism of the Vietnamese people through revolts of the Trung Sisters, Ly Nam De, Khuc Thua Du, and Ngô Quyn to regain autonomy. [3] The Period of Division with many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ng m) by Đặng Trần Côn (Chinese script version) and Đoàn Thị Điểm (Nôm version), and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xu n Hương. [4] Chinese forced Vietnamese people to follow Chinese rites and customs. [3] Sorry about inundating everyone with this deluge of Chinese and Vietnamese names. [23]

Emperor Lê Hoàn was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [4] It also gave rise to the first story of espionage in Vietnamese history, which resulted in the downfall of king An Dương Vương. [4] It began with Kinh Dng Vng as the first Hùng King ( Hùng Vng ), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. [3] The descendants took the title of Hùng Vng after the first king, and many Vietnamese folktales include mention of them. [3] According to Vietnamese myths the first Vietnamese peoples descended from the Dragon Lord Lạc Long Qu n and the Immortal Fairy u Cơ. [4]

Some people believe that the control of Triu Dynasty was the beginning of China's domination in Vietnam, as Triu à used to be a commander under dynastic China. [3] The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Lý Nam who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [3] During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam (Giao Ch u), until the early 10th century AD. Giao Chỉ (with its capital around modern Bac Ninh province) became a flourishing trading outpost receiving goods from the southern seas. [4]

After being replaced by Ho dynasty, Tran genealogy was nearly vanished due to a genocide launched by Ming dynasty (the Chinese dynasty who ruled Vietnam after Ho dynasty). [24] The Lê dynasty was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six year interruption of the Mc dynasty usurpers (1527-1533). [3] Emperor Bảo Đại of the Nguyễn Dynasty nominally declared Vietnam independent, but Japanese retained true control. [4] It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bo i abdicated the throne and transferred power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [3] A large number of them must escape to other countries (It is said that people with Lee surname in Korean nowadays are originally from Ly dynasty of Vietnam). [24] Others claim that this is still an independent period of Vietnam because of during this period, the people of Triu Dynasty were assimilated into the culture of Âu Lc. [3] He founded the Hng Bàng Dynasty, whose members ruled Vietnam until 258 BC. So much of the vestiges from this time is now lost to the ages. [3] The Nguyễn Dynasty is usually blamed for failing to modernize the country in time to prevent French colonization in the late 19th century. [4] Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly's reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, the investment in building large warships and cannons, and land reform. [4] In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. [4] In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation to the end of the Tang Dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phng Hưng. [4] All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xu n. [4] Under a new dynasty in the 6th century, Champa threw off its allegiance to China and entered into an era of great independent prosperity and artistic achievements. [3] The Lý Dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few conquests against neighboring Champa in the south. [4] Champa troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 AD and again in 1383 AD. However, the Trần Dynasty was successful in gaining two Champa provinces, located around present-day Hue, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Tr n to a Cham king. [4] The Trần Dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new kings: as a king aged, he would relinquish the throne to his crown prince, yet holding a title of August Higher Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor. [4] Emperor Bảo Ðại abdicated on August 25, 1945, ending the Nguyễn Dynasty. [4] After Quang Trung's death, the T y Sơn Dynasty became unstable as the remaining brothers fought against each other and against the people who were loyal to Nguyễn Huệ's infant son. [4]

Since Nguyen dynasty is the last feudalist administration in Vietnam, many people with this surname are still alive until today, avoiding the tragic fate happening to Ly genealogy, Tran genealogy and Le genealogy. [24] A huge number of Le people were killed by Nguyen dynasty after their success in throne at 19th century. [24]

During these 20 years, the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty administrators. [3] The independence of Vietnam was just secured for 60 years until in 602 AD when Sui Dynasty reestablished control over northern Vietnam, starting the third domination. [3] He killed the Lê emperor and proclaimed himself emperor, starting the Mạc Dynasty. [4] When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009 AD, a Palace Guard Commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. [4]

In 1400, the founder of the H dynasty, H Quý Ly, changed the country's name to "i Ngu". [3] Ly dynasty was destroyed by Tran dynasty, and after that many people with Ly surname were killed. [24] This episode will take the history all the way up to the Tran Dynasty on the eve of the Mongol invasions from Yuan Dynasty China. [23] The Lê Dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt's history up to the time of Lê Lợi. [4]

The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. [3] This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [3]

Some Vietnamese consider Triệu's rule a period of Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general. [4] After Gia Định fell to French troops, many Vietnamese resistance movements broke out in occupied areas, some led by former court officers, such as Trương Định, some by peasants, such as Nguyễn Trung Trực, who sunk the French gunship L'Esperance using guerilla tactics. [4] He stressed the need to educate the masses, modernize the country, foster understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and a peaceful transition of power. [4]

The eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. [4] When Liu Hongcao arrived in Vietnamese waters with the Southern Han expedition, his plan was to ascend the Bch ng River and to place his army in the heart of Giacannoto Chau before disembarking; the Bch ng was the major river route into the Red River plain from the north. [3] Copy at, The figurehead leader of the NLF was Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a South Vietnamese lawyer, yet the true leadership was the Communist Party hierarchy in South Vietnam. [4] Copy at, South Vietnamese First Corp near the DMZ was cut off, received conflicting orders from Saigon on whether to fight or to retreat, and eventually collapsed. [4] Known as "the true hell on earth," this used to be home to tens of thousands of Vietnamese prisoners who suffered and died at the hands of French colonials at first and later the US-backed South Vietnamese government between 1863 and 1975. [7] NLF and North Vietnamese forces even captured the city of Huế, after which many mass graves were found with victims being executed for having relations with the South Vietnamese government or the U.S. (Thảm Sát Tết Mậu Th n). [4] Many North Vietnamese soldiers and cadres began to realize that they had been indoctrinated into thinking that the South Vietnamese people were utterly poor and exploited by the imperialists and foreign capitalists and treated like slaves. [4] North Vietnamese troops failed to penetrate the line and had to make a detour, which the South Vietnamese failed to stop due to lack of troops. [4] President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered the moving of all troops from the Central Highland to the coastal areas, as with shrinking American aid, South Vietnamese forces could not afford to spread too thin. [4] Nixon proposed "Vietnamization" of the war, with South Vietnamese troops taking charge of the fighting, yet still receiving American aid and, if necessary, air and naval support. [4] Due to lack of experience and logistics for such a large troop movement in such a short time, the whole South Vietnamese 2nd Corps got bogged down on narrow mountain roads, flooded with thousands of civilian refugees, and was decimated by ambushes along the way. [4] Hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese fled the country by all means: airplanes, helicopters, ships, fishing boats, barges, etc. Most were picked up by the U.S. Seventh Fleet in the South China Sea or landed in Thailand. [4] During the existence of South Vietnam, nevertheless, South Vietnamese learned many American practices that became useful for the country even many decades later, such as in the fields of economics, business and public management, and infrastructure management. [4]

During the early 1980s, a number of overseas Vietnamese organizations were created with the aim of overthrowing the Vietnamese Communist government through armed struggle. [4] After April 30th, 1975, unlike the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, the Vietnamese Communists did not commit a "blood bath", but most government officials and military personnel were sent to reeducation camps. [4]

In the 10th century the Vietnamese kingdom of i Vit began to exert pressure on Champa, forcing it to relinquish Quang Nam in 1000 and Bình nh in 1069. [3]

Many of those who held high positions in the old South Vietnamese government and military, together with influential people in the literary and religious circles, were sent to reeducation camps, which were actually hard labor prison camps. [4] On November 1 1963, with secret blessing from the U.S., South Vietnamese generals led by Dương Văn Minh overthrew Ngô Đ"nh Diệm and killed both him and his brother, Ngô Đ"nh Nhu, who was also his official advisor. [4]

During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). [4] The Song Dynasty took revenge and invaded Dai Viet in 1076 CE yet Song troops were held back at the Battle of Như Nguyệt River (commonly Cầu river), now in Bắc Ninh province (about 40 km from the current capital, Hanoi). [4] Then the Le Dynasty succeeded the Dinh Dynasty, with the glorious victories in the fight against the army of Song dynasty and protection of the country. [25]

The first 12 years were the Dinh Dynasty while the rest were the Le Dynasty with King Le Dai Hanh. [20] After a while tempers flared, and in 111 BCE the Han Dynasty conquered the Triệu, leading to a period called the First Chinese Domination. [19] After the Trịnh broke apart and fled into China, the Nguyễn Dynasty was established in 1802. [19] Not long after, the young emperor was assassinated and leaders of the Nguyễn and Trịnh factions were executed, which is when Mạc Đăng Dung decided to make his play, declaring the Mạc Dynasty open for business in 1527. [19] When a young emperor died, Ly Cong Uan was elected to be the next ruler and founded the Ly Dynasty. [18] Emperors throughout the Ly dynasty focused on building a strong economy by building many infrastructure projects, promoting education, established humane treatment of prisoners and appointed women to noble roles. [18]

The Tran Dynasty was forced to resign where Ho Quy Ly became the next ruler and changed the name of the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. [18] In the first days of spring, in the hometown of Tran Dynasty, many cultural activities is taken place, especially "le khai an" (proclamation worshiping) held in night of 14th January, this ritual attracts many people around the country. [8]

Ruled over by a direct heredity line, it saw the founding of the still-standing Temple of Literature (Vietnam’s first university), a reorganization of the government bureaucracy, defeat of an aggressive invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty, and moves south into what was then the territory of the Champa civilization. [19] After 20 years of Chinese rule a noble by the name of Lê Lợi raised an army and booted them out, founding the Later Lê Dynasty in 1428. [19]

They are the Dinh Tien Hoang Temple and Le Hoan Temple, dedicated to the founder of the Dinh Dynasty and to its successor, reachable after a climb of more then 200 steps. [20] The temple has three sections: the exterior area is the sanctum, the middle section is called Thien Huong worshipping four officials of the Dinh dynasty: Dinh Dien, Nguyen Bac, Trinh Tu, Luu Co. In the innermost section, Dinh Tien Hoang statue is worshipped in the center, in two sides, there are altars of 3 princes Dinh Lien, Dinh Toan and Dinh Hang Lang. [21]

Since the accepted independent era of Vietnam began in 939, with Ngô Quyền defeating the Chinese force of the Nan Han (Nam Hán) and declaring the foundation of a self-governing country, the logical first dynasty (albeit a very short one) was the Ngô dynasty from 939 to 945. [26] Following the crumbling of the short-lived Ngo Dynasty founded by Ngo Quyen, he defeated twelve rival warlords, reunified the country, and in 968 founded the first imperial dynasty of Vietnam. [14] According to written history, the first ever dynasty was the Hồng Bàng dynasty of pre-sinicized Vietnam. [26] While for much of its history, Vietnam remained a tributary state to the much larger neighbor China, it repelled repeated attempts by China to make it once again part of the Middle Kingdom empire, including the three invasions by the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, when China was under Mongolian rule. [27] The first sinicized dynasty of Vietnam was Triệu dynasty, since it was conquered by Han. [26] The first independent sinicized dynasty of Vietnam was the early L' dynasty. [26]

Others consider it an era of independence, because the Trieu family ruled Nam Viet were assimilated with the locals, and they ruled independently of what then constituted as China (Han dynasty) until 111 BC, when the Han troops invaded Nam Viet, and incorporated its territory into the Han empire, including what is now part of Northern Vietnam turned into Giao Chi (Giao Chỉ/Jiaozhi) commandary. [27] Much of northern Vietnam (from the Red River delta down to about the region of modern Thanh Hóa province) was incorporated into the Chinese prefecture/commandery of Jiaozhi, or Giao Chỉ, through much of the Han dynasty and the period of the Three Kingdoms. [27]

He killed the Lê emperor and set himself as king, starting the Mạc dynasty. [27] When the Lê emperor Lê Long Đĩnh died in his twenties, a court general named Lý Công Uẩn took the chance to take over the throne and founded the Lý dynasty. [27] The General of the Imperial Guards, Ly Cong Uan (Lý Công Uẩn) took advantage of the situation to seize the throne, and founded the Lý Dynasty. [27] His sons fought over the succession, and order was not restored until Ly Cong Uan took over the country in 1010 and declared the Ly Dynasty. [14] In 981, two Chinese armies of the Song Dynasty invaded the Dai Co Viet with the aim of eventually working their way south and taking the capital, but they were stopped and defeated in the northern part of the country. [11] Dinh founded the Dinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself Emperor of Dai Co Viet (Đại Cồ Việt), with his capital located in Hoa Lu (Hoa Lư, modern day Ninh B"nh). [27]

The modern name of Vietnam is known officially came under the Emperor Gia Long's reign, but recently historians have found that this name has been existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country name Vietnam. [27] The Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam and a groups ethnic minority Protestant people in the northern and central highlands (T y Nguyên) who want to secede are also suppressed, the Vietnamese government claims this is a result of their political involvement rather than their religious beliefs. [27] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, populations of Cham nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now comprise one of the minority peoples of modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [27] After millions of Vietnamese deaths, and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the capture of Saigon by the North in April 1975. [27] Only France and the North Vietnamese government (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) had signed the document. [27] In 1976, Vietnam was officially reunited under the current Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. [27] History Vietnam, according to Vietnamese legends, dates back more than 4,000 years. [27] In 1941 Hồ Ch' Minh, a trained Communist revolutionary, returned to Vietnam and joined the Việt Minh, which means "Vietnamese Allied." [27] South Vietnamese who opposed Diệm's rule and desired the reunification of Vietnam under the Hanoi government of Hồ Ch' Minh organized the National Liberation Front, better known as the Việt Cộng. [27] The United States became strongly opposed to Hồ Ch' Minh, who had now re-asserted the dominance of the Vietnamese Communist Party within the Việt Minh in 1950. [27] Almost all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the ruler's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are an attribute chosen by the first emperors. [27] Wonderful concoction of French, Chinese and Vietnamese craftsmanship. [13]

Lac Long Quan and Au Co had 100 sons before they split (50 went with their father to the mountains and 50 with their mother down to the sea) and the eldest one became the first in the lines of early Vietnamese kings, collectively known as Hung kings (Hung Vuong: Hng Vương). [27] At the direction of Moscow, he first convinced everybody of his patriotic intention and absorbed the various Vietnamese revolutionist groups into the Việt Minh. [27]

Some Vietnamese considered this period under Trieu's rule a Chinese domination, because Trieu Da was a former Qin general who defeated An Duong Vuong to established his rule over the territory that is now Northern Vietnam. [27] In the 10th century, this site was the capital of an early, independent Vietnamese kingdom called Dai Co Viet. [14] The only reliable sources, however, indicate the Vietnamese or their country's history roughly dates to 2700 years ago. [27]

Hoa Lu was the native land of the first two imperial dynasties of Vietnam: the Dinh founded by Đinh Tiên Hoàng, and the Early Le founded by Lê Đại Hành. [11] In 1838, during the Nguyễn Dynasty, the nation's name was changed temporarily to Đại Nam (大南). [27] Over time, Hue has remained a city jealous of its beauty, of its traditions, of its originality, where the "Duc-hoang-de," the Absolute Master, symbol of divine and humane virtues, reigns according to the principles of the dynasty of the Nguyen. [28]

The last Emperor of the Lê dynasty, Lê Chiêu Thống, then went to the Qing Manchu Chinese emperor and asked for troops to put down this pesant rebellion. [27] Le Hoan defeated his rivals, and with a Chinese invasion impending, obtained support for his takeover, declaring himself emperor and founding the Le Dynasty. [14] Under the shadow of this threat, the court's Supreme Commander of all Armed Forces, acting Regent, who was also lover of Empress Duong, Dinh Toan's mother, Le Hoan staged a coup d'etat and took the throne, founding Former Le Dynasty. [27] Following the demise of the Le Dynasty, in 1010 Lý Công Uẩn, the founder of the Ly Dynasty, transferred the capital to Thắng Long (now Hanoi), and Hoa Lu became known as the "ancient capital." [11]

The Lê dynasty was overthrown by a general named Mac Dang Dung (Viet: Mạc Đăng Dung) in 1527. [27]

Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong, who is Vietnam's de facto head of government, vowed at a May 13 town hall meeting in Hanoi that "more will come" in the fight against graft. [29] These are names of Vietnam's greatest national heroes who, over the last 2000 years, have led the country in its repeated expulsion of foreign invaders and whose exploits have inspired subsequent generations of patriots. [27]

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11. (4) Dinh Bo Linh | emperor of Vietnam |

12. (4) Hoa Lu temples, Ancient Capital Vietnam, Hoa Lu Ninh Binh, Dinh King Temple, Le King Temple, Hao Lu Trang An Grottoes

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17. (3) King Dinh, King Le Temple in Hoa Lu Travel Guide, Ninh Binh

18. (3) The 10 Best Historical Sites to Visit in Vietnam

19. (2) Khai Dinh Tomb in Hue - Attraction in Hue, Vietnam - Justgola

20. (2) DINH DYNASTIES | Vietnam History | Vietnam

21. (2) CHP-199-The History of China-Vietnam Relations Part 3 Teacup Media

22. (2) Dinh Bo Linh

23. (2) The Historical Cash Coins of Vietnam - Dr. R Allan Barker

24. (1) Dinh and Le Temples- The places for worshiping Kings of Dinh and Le Dynasties

25. (1) Nam Dinh - Travel Vietnam

26. (1) Truong Yen Festival - Hoa Lu Traditional Festival Amazing Ninh Binh

27. (1) "The Emperor Khai-Dinh" by François Tessan, 1922 - HISTORIC VIETNAM

28. (1) Vietnam: The Curious Fall of a Communist Leader | The Diplomat

29. (1) Walking Tour of Khai Dinh Royal Tomb, Hue, Vietnam

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