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The 12 Lords Rebellion (Vietnam)

The 12 Lords Rebellion (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • Being the capital of the first fundamental Government of Vietnam, Hoa Lu witnessed many important historical events: the union of Vietnam after "12 Lords Rebellion", the war with the Song dynasty, the defense against the ancient Cambodian, and the formation of Hanoi nowadays.(More...)
  • The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese.(More...)
  • A famous bearer is Đỗ Cảnh Thạc, a warlord during the 12 Lords Rebellion.(More...)
  • The Le Dynasty ended in 1788 after ruling Vietnam for 360 years, making it the longest in Vietnamese history.(More...)
  • Turley, Women in the Communist Revolution in Vietnam," Asian Survey, Vol. 12, No. 9 (Sep., 1972): 793.(More...)
  • With the Ngô Dynasty gone, Vietnam was hence divided into 12 regions each administered by a warlord, converging into three main forces in the conflict: the descendants of the Ngô Dynasty including Ngô Cảnh Thạc, Ngô Xương X', and Ngô Nhật Khánh; Lã Xử B"nh in Cổ Loa; and an alliance between Trần Lãm, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, and Phạm Phòng Át.(More...)

  • Modern Vietnamese historians inserted word changes and altered the meanings of texts written by ancient Vietnamese historians on how battles between rebels in Vietnam and the Chinese states such as the Chen dynasty and Southern Han were viewed.(More...)


Being the capital of the first fundamental Government of Vietnam, Hoa Lu witnessed many important historical events: the union of Vietnam after "12 Lords Rebellion", the war with the Song dynasty, the defense against the ancient Cambodian, and the formation of Hanoi nowadays. [1] The Tay Son rebellion was looked upon by the Trinh Lord, Trinh Sam, as a chance to finally put an end to the Nguyen rule over the south of Vietnam. [2]

The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese. [3] For the most part of its history, the geographical boundary of present-day Vietnam covered 3 ethnically distinct states: a Vietnamese state, a Cham state, and a part of the Khmer Empire. [3] Modern central and southern Vietnam were not originally part of the Vietnamese state. [3]

A Giao Chỉ prefect, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese emperors. [3] Vietnam Dragons and Legends Vietnamese history and culture by Dang Tuan. [3] To this day, the Trưng Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [3] In this conflict, the North and the Viet Cong--with logistical support from the Soviet Union--defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. [3] Two years after the withdrawal of the last U.S. forces in 1973, Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the communists, and the South Vietnamese army surrendered in 1975. [3]

The United States, in addition to citing Vietnam's minimal cooperation in accounting for Americans who were missing in action (MIAs) as an obstacle to normal relations, barred normal ties as long as Vietnamese troops occupied Cambodia. [3]

Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc clan, followed by Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, ruled Tĩnh Hải qu n autonomously under the Tang title of Jiedushi ( Vietnamese : Tiết Độ Sứ), Virtuous Lord, but stopped short of proclaiming themselves kings. [3] The Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams. [3]

A famous bearer is Đỗ Cảnh Thạc, a warlord during the 12 Lords Rebellion. [4] The year of tiger in 966, the 12 Lords Rebellion (Loạn 12 Sứ Qu n) was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of Vietnam, from 966 to 968 AD during the Ngo Dynasty, due to a conflict of succession after the death of King Ngo Quyen. [5] Being the capital of Dai Co Viet (an old name of Vietnam) under the Dinh and Le dynasties the first fundamental Government of Vietnam, Hoa Lu in Ninh Binh was the place where many important historical events taking place: the defense against the ancient Cambodian, the war with the Song dynasty, the union of Vietnam after 12 Lords Rebellion and the formation of Hanoi as it is today. [6]

The Le Dynasty ended in 1788 after ruling Vietnam for 360 years, making it the longest in Vietnamese history. [7] When the T’ang dynasty (618-907) went into decline in the early 10th century, a series of uprisings broke out in Vietnam, which led in 939 to the restoration of Vietnamese independence. [8]

"Women and Vietnamese Folklore," a presentation delivered at a panel discussion on "Southeast Asian Women Then and Now: A View from the Folklore of the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam," at University of Hawaii at Manoa, March 12, 1992. [9]

In 1673 the Trinh Lord, Trinh Tac concluded a peace treaty with the Nguyen Lord, Nguyen Phuc Tan, and so Vietnam was divided between the two ruling families. [2] The Nguyen Lords retreated to Saigon but even this city was captured in 1776 and the Nguyen clan was nearly all killed.However, the Tay Son were not willing to be servants of the Trinh Lords and after a decade consolidating their power base in the south, the chief Tay Son brother Nguyen Hue marched into north Vietnam in 1786 at the head of a large army. [2]

In the province of Giao Chau, one of the administrative units into which the Han Chinese rulers had divided the Vietnamese kingdom, local hereditary lords exercised control over the peasant population, just as they had while part of Nam Viet. [8] His death was the reason for Trung Trac to mobilize the Vietnamese lords to rebel against the Chinese. [10]

George Dutton, a critic of the modern construction of the Vietnamese past, takes the view that the men and women who participated in the rebellion were "exceptional" but its social norms and reforms were set within well-established parameters of Vietnamese society. [9] It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40 AD and briefly ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han army in 43 AD. The Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and taxes to the Hans, the Han mandarins tried to occupy large areas of land and changed them into Chinese style farms and brought Chinese peasants to work them. [11] The T y Sơn rebellion was looked upon by the Trịnh lord, Trịnh S m, as a chance to finally put an end to the Nguyễn rule over the south of Vietnam. [12]

Turley, Women in the Communist Revolution in Vietnam," Asian Survey, Vol. 12, No. 9 (Sep., 1972): 793. [9] Although there had been river trade between China and Vietnam for some time, regular trade relations between the two countries were established in the second century B. C. Considerable cultural interchange took place; the Vietnamese adopted the Chinese language and script as the official language and script, greatly influencing the development of the Vietnamese language. [13] On the basis of archaeological evidence, for example, it is known that the Chinese were using spears, halberds, bows and arrows by at least the age of the Shang dynasty (1766 to 1123 B. C.); during the Sung dynasty, between the 10th and 12th centuries, the Chinese began using such weapons as flamethrowers, bombs, grenades, protomuskets and cannons. 29 Weapons currently used by the Chinese in the Republic of Vietnam have been supplied by the Vietnamese Government. [13] At one time the Triad in the Republic of Vietnam included thousands of Vietnamese as well as Chinese. [13] During the Vietnam War, Chua notes, the United States failed to distinguish between the ethnically homogeneous Vietnamese majority and the Chinese minority who were targets of mass resentment. [14] Recently the NLFSV has been stressing the solidarity of all nationalities, ages, and classes in the Republic of Vietnam, emphasizing that the Chinese and Vietnamese are brothers and that the Vietnamese struggle is also the Chinese struggle. [13] This problem was presumably resolved by Ordinance Number 48 of August 21, 1956, which stated that all Chinese born in Vietnam of at least one Vietnamese parent were to be considered Vietnamese and were to become Vietnamese citizens. 3 But as of the "final" deadline for taking out Vietnamese citizenship papers (August 10, 1957) less than 80,000 to 100,000 persons of Chinese origin had completed the formalities. [13] The role of the Chinese in the economy of Vietnam has been compared with that of the "blood circulation system of a human body." 1 This indispensability is explained by the fact that the Chinese have penetrated virtually every field of economic activity, especially trade - four-fifths of Vietnamese trade was in Chinese hands in 1958 - banking, and commerce. [13] In any case, there is something hallucinatory about the theory that Communist China is the real enemy in Vietnam or that the Vietnamese war is but the preliminary stage of a showdown with China. [14]

The Trịnh clan had officially 12 lords that ruled Northern Vietnam and the royal court of Later Lê dynasty for more than 2 centuries. [12] While the Nguyễn lords, or at least Nguyễn Anh, enjoyed a great deal of support - as his repeated attempts to regain power in the south show - there was no equivalent support for the Trịnh in the north after the T y Sơn took power ( Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation D. R. SarDesai, pg. 39, 1988). [12]

In any case, I am willing to hazard the view that there is not enough money and manpower in the United States to prevent the South Asian dominoes from falling, whatever happens in Vietnam, if the Vietnamese conditions are so widespread. [14] For the State Department, the theory of "foreign aggression" meant that the Vietnam war might conceivably be settled on the basis of spheres of influence--the South as a client-state of the United States and the North as a client-state of Communist China, assuming that the North Vietnamese would accept that role. [14]

Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government. [11] It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407, the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnams history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty, there was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. [11] First Chinese domination of Vietnam - The first Chinese domination is a period in Vietnamese history during which Vietnam was under Chinese rule from the north. [11] Military history of Vietnam - Army and warfare made their first appearance in Vietnamese history during the 3rd millennium BC. Throughout thousands of years, wars played a role in shaping the identity. [11] In 1950, the U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) rocked into Vietnam, ostensibly to instruct local troops in the efficiency of U.S. firepower; there would be American soldiers on Vietnamese soil for the next 25 years, first as advisers, and then the main force. [15]

The Chinese seized control of Vietnam again in the early 15th century, carting off the national archives and some of the country’s intellectuals to China - an irreparable loss to Vietnamese civilisation. [15] In Vietnam classical Chinese texts was read with the vocalization of Chinese text as such, equivalent to the Chinese On-readings in Japanese kambun and this occurring alongside entry of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary into the vernacular Vietnamese language. [11] The Chinese force, estimated at up to 200,000 men, advanced smoothly into Vietnam, and the Chinese troops gave no cause for Vietnamese hostility en route to the capital. [16] The northern part of Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, an independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. [11] In January 1946, the Viet Minh held an election to establish a National Assembly, when France declared Cochinchina, the southern third of Vietnam, a separate state as the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina in June 1946, Vietnamese nationalists reacted with fury. [11] After the reunification in 1975 this Vietnam suffered more further than China, internal repression and isolation from the international community due to the Cold War, Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and an American economic embargo. [11]

The Anarchy of the 12 Warlords ( Vietnamese : Loạn 12 sứ qu n or Loạn Thập nhị sứ qu n ), also the Period of the 12 Warlords, was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of Vietnam, from 966 to 968 during the Ngô Dynasty, due to a conflict of succession after the death of King Ngô Quyền. [11] Between 1804 and 1813, the name was used officially by Emperor Gia Long and it was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Ch us History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party. [11] The founders and rulers of these governments, however, were not native to Vietnam, from the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [11] In English, the two syllables are usually combined into one word, Vietnam, however, Viet Nam was once common usage and is still used by the United Nations and by the Vietnamese government. [11] After the defeat of the Trung sisters, the Eastern Han dynasty strengthened its control over the region in 43, as the Han dynasty weakened, the prefect of Giao Chỉ, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese Emperors. [11] Vietnam followed suit in 1986 by choosing reform-minded Nguyen Van Linh to lead the Vietnamese Communist Party. [15] Stories began leaking out of Vietnam about atrocities and massacres carried out against unarmed Vietnamese civilians, including the infamous My Lai Massacre. [15]

Under foreign rule, the Vietnamese people had to adopt foreign writing system, but lost much of their spoken language, during the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently, and the Lạc lords maintained their feudal offices. [11] Future Emperor Quang Trung, along with Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, had united all Vietnam after a century being divided between the Trịnh Lords and Nguyễn Lords. [11]

The Nguyễn defended these lines against numerous Trịnh offensives that lasted (off and on) from 1631 till 1673, when Trịnh Tạc concluded a peace treaty with the Nguyễn Lord, Nguyễn Phúc Tần, dividing Vietnam between the two ruling families. [12] From this point on, the Trịnh Lords periodically tried to suppress Christianity in Vietnam, with moderate success. [12]

Those who put a political effort in Vietnam as the first consideration saw no hope short of a "change of leadership" in Saigon, which meant dropping Diem in favor of some other South Vietnamese leader. [14] He agreed with Martin that Americans came to work in South Vietnam with enthusiasm and good intentions but extended experience made them leave the country victims of "the cynicism that pervades Vietnamese life." [14] Since most of the Vietnamese feudal lords had been killed in the revolt, the Chinese then exercised direct control over the country, with only brief interruptions, for 900 years. [13] Trịnh lords ( Vietnamese : Chúa Trịnh ; Chữ Nôm: 主鄭; 1545-1787), also known as Trịnh clan or House of Trịnh, were a noble feudal clan who were the de-facto rulers of northern Vietnam (namely Đàng Ngoài) while Nguyễn clan ruled the southern Vietnam (namely Đàng Trong) during the Later Lê dynasty. [12] The Trịnh lords traced their descent from Trịnh Khả, a friend and advisor to the 15th-century Vietnamese Emperor Lê Lợi. [12] By 1630 the new Trịnh lord, Trịnh Trang, decided that Father de Rhodes represented a threat to Vietnamese society and forced him to leave the country. [12] I proof-read over 200 pages of my novel The Tay Son Rebellion, a historical fiction of 18 th century Vietnam on the flight. [17] Mui Ne might be one of the finest beach resorts in the world, and one of the finest places in Vietnam, but it wasn’t on the map of my story of the Tay Son Rebellion. [17] The T y Sơn were not willing to be servants of the Trịnh Lords and after a decade consolidating their power base in the south, the chief T y Sơn brother Nguyễn Huệ marched into north Vietnam in 1786 at the head of a large army. [12]

Around 15th-16th century, firearms started to gain dominance on Vietnams battlefields, rivaling feudal lords were quick to adopt these new deadly weapons. [11] Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War, the war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. [11]

Widespread corruption throughout Vietnam led to increased demands on the population for tribute and also to peasant uprisings, the most important being the Tay Son Rebellion against the Nguyen in the south. [16] The rebellion of the Trung Sisters in Vietnam is an example of a major historical event that has been lost intimeand mythologised into the current day. [18]

One source claimed that the Chinese officialraped Trung Tac.Justin Corfield in his book points out that the rebellion was very much an aristocracy rebellion as the local Vietnamese elite were being substituted for Chinese elite as part of a change in Han Chinese policy. [18]

In the South, Nguyen Anh, a rare survivor from the original Nguyen Lords - yes, know your Nguyens if you hope to understand Vietnamese history - gradually overcame the rebels. [15]

In 1778, when the Nguyen Capital of Gia Dinh (Saigon) was seized by the Tay Son Rebellion, he was the only surviving member of the Nguyen lords. [19] The most powerful of the 12 feudal lords, Dinh Bo Linh rapidly ruled out the others. [19]

With the Ngô Dynasty gone, Vietnam was hence divided into 12 regions each administered by a warlord, converging into three main forces in the conflict: the descendants of the Ngô Dynasty including Ngô Cảnh Thạc, Ngô Xương X', and Ngô Nhật Khánh; Lã Xử B"nh in Cổ Loa; and an alliance between Trần Lãm, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, and Phạm Phòng Át. [11]

Modern Vietnamese historians inserted word changes and altered the meanings of texts written by ancient Vietnamese historians on how battles between rebels in Vietnam and the Chinese states such as the Chen dynasty and Southern Han were viewed. [3] Professor Liam Kelley (Le Minh Khai) suggested that the "north" in B"nh Ngô đại cáo referred to the Ming collaborationist Hanoi scholars while the south referred to Thanh Hóa, the base of Lê Lợi since the text referred to "Dai Viet" and did not introduce China before mentioning north. cited John Whitmore and challenged the claim that "Ngô " referred to Ming dynasty China but instead referred to the Chinese settled Red River Delta area of Vietnam. [3] Territorial disagreements along the border and in the South China Sea that had remained dormant during the Vietnam War were revived at the war's end, and a postwar campaign engineered by Hanoi against the ethnic Chinese Hoa community elicited a strong protest from Beijing. [3]

Many anti-Vietnam war protesters bought into a narrative that Vietnam's history consisted of Chinese invasion for 2,000 years and that Vietnam was a united country. [3] Once Vietnam did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, and for 1,100 years, Vietnam had been successively governed by a series of Chinese dynasties: the Han, Eastern Wu, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han ; leading to the loss of native cultural heritage, language, and much of national identity. [3] John D. Phan has suggested a new analysis of the linguistic situation in Vietnam under Chinese rule suggesting that a Middle Chinese dialect was spoken by the people of the Red River Delta during the Tang dynasty by drawing on Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary which showed evidence that it was derived from an existing language and that this Middle Chinese dialect was later displaced by a Muong language influenced by Chinese. [3] During the rule of the Chinese Kingdom of Eastern Wu over Vietnam the local people learned Chinese after Chinese people were moved down to live with them. [3]

It was English and French foreign languages translations which bowdlerized "south" into "Vietnam" and "north" into China even though people today have no true idea of what south and north referred to in the original text. [3] North and South in B"nh Ngô đại cáo might have referred to internal divisions in Vietnam (Hanoi vs Thanh Hoa) rather than China vs Vietnam. [3] The 1954 Geneva Conference left Vietnam a divided nation, with Hồ Ch' Minh's communist DRV government ruling the North from Hanoi and Ngô Đ"nh Diệm's Republic of Vietnam, supported by the United States, ruling the South from Saigon. [3]

As a result of the Vietnam (Second Indochina) War (1954-75), Viet Cong and regular People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces of the DRV unified the country under communist rule. [3]

Recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese referred to their country as Vietnam. [3] The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century, followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. [3] Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [3] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Vietnamese settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. [3] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [3] Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the u Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province ). [3] It was also during this period that the Trần emperors waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Vietnamese long history of southern expansion (known as Nam tiến ) that had begun shortly after gaining independence in the 10th century. [3] Japan's defeat by World War II Allies created a power vacuum for Vietnamese nationalists of all parties to seize power in August 1945, forcing Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate and ending the Nguyễn dynasty. [3] Both Chinese and Vietnamese sovereigns were honored at a temple constructed by the Nguyen dynasty. [3] Except the Hồng Bàng and T y Sơn dynasties, all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the king's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are dictated by the dynasty founders and often used as the country's name. [3] Chinese clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn. [3] This period is controversial as on one side, some Vietnamese historians consider Triệu's rule as the starting point of the Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general, whereas others consider it still an era of Vietnamese independence as the Triệu family in Nam Việt were assimilated to local culture. [3] Initially, Chinese was used for writing purposes, but by the 13th century, a set of derivative characters known as Chữ Nôm emerged that allowed native Vietnamese words to be written. [3] Learning a lesson from the Trưng revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. [3] Phan Ch u Trinh, who favored a peaceful, non-violent struggle to gain independence, led a second movement, Duy T n ( Modernization ), which stressed education for the masses, modernizing the country, fostering understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and peaceful transitions of power. [3] The basic nature of Vietnamese society changed little during the nearly 1,000 years between independence from China in the 10th century and the French conquest in the 19th century. [3] In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Th" Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs. [3] Ngô Th" Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to question the relations between Zhao Tuo's Nanyue Kingdom in Guangdong and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red River Delta was a mere vassal to Nanyue and not an integral part of it in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty. [3]

Within French Indochina, Cochinchina had the status of a colony, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and Tonkin had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials. [3] According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn Hống and Nghĩa Lĩnh. [3] Noted Trần dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [3] The early part of the 20th century saw the growing in status of the Romanized Quốc Ngữ alphabet for the Vietnamese language. [3] From the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [3] The Vietnamese nation originated in the Red River Delta in present-day Northern Vietnam and expanded over its history to the current boundary. [3] The peoples of those areas developed a distinct culture from the ancient Vietnamese in the Red River Delta region. [3]

The "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" criticized a people called "Ngô" in Vietnam, and it did not refer to the Ming Chinese. [3] He believes that it was the Ming collaborationist scholars of Hanoi who were referred to as the "Ngô" and that it was not a term used for Chinese as is currently though in Vietnam, and that the B"nh Ngô đại cáo not directed at China. [3]

When Ngô Quyền (King of Vietnam, 939-944) restored sovereign power in the country, the next millennium was advanced by the accomplishments of successive dynasties: Ngôs, Đinhs, Early Lês, Lýs, Trầns, Hồs, Later Trầns, Later Lês, Mạcs, Trịnhs, Nguyễns, T y Sơns and again Nguyễns. [3] He then proclaimed himself King Ngô and effectively began the age of independence for Vietnam. [3]

Champa was made a tributary state of Vietnam in 1312, but ten years later regained independence and Cham troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 and again in 1383. [3] Overall, Vietnam remained very efficiently and stably governed except in times of war and dynastic breakdown, and its administrative system was probably far more advanced than that of any other Southeast Asian states and was more highly centralized and stable governed among Asian states. [3] "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme". [3] At various points during the imperial dynasties, Vietnam was ravaged and divided by civil wars and witnessed interventions by the Songs, Mongol Yuans, Chams, Mings, Dutch, Manchus, French. [3] In July 1949, the State of Vietnam was officially proclaimed, as a semi-independent country within the French Union, with Bảo Đại as Head of State. [3] Vietnam's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Vietnam under the Hng kings was for so long an independent and self-contained state. [3] In 2016, President Barack Obama became the 3rd U.S. Head of State to visit Vietnam, helping normalize relations into a higher level, by lifting embargo of lethal weapons, allowing Vietnam to buy lethal weapons and modernize its military. [3] Throughout the 1980s, Vietnam received nearly $3 billion a year in economic and military aid from the Soviet Union and conducted most of its trade with the USSR and other Comecon countries. [3] A Provisional Central Government was formed in 1948, reuniting Annam and Tonkin, but the complete reunification of Vietnam was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchina's legal status. [3] The government of Vietnam says that 4 million of its citizens were exposed to Agent Orange, and as many as 3 million have suffered illnesses because of it; these figures include the children of people who were exposed. [3] People from Song dynasty China like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao fled to Tran dynasty ruled Vietnam after the Mongol invasion of the Song. [3] Vietnam also faces disputes, mostly with Cambodia over the border, and especially, China, over the South China Sea. [3] Between 1975 and 1980, more than 1 million northerners migrated to the south and central regions formerly under the Republic of Vietnam. [3] In September 1945, Hồ Ch' Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and held the position of chairman (Chủ Tịch). [3] In 1976, the government of united Vietnam renamed Saigon as Hồ Ch' Minh City in honor of Hồ, who died in 1969. [3]

Present-day north and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Ma River and Cả River delta), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [3] North and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Hoành Sơn Range ), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [3]

Along with the split between northern and southern Vietnam in geographical territory came the divergence in their distinctive choices for institutional political structure. [3]

Vietnam was annexed directly as a province of China, the old policy of cultural assimilation again imposed forcibly, and the country was ruthlessly exploited. [3] Vietnam is expected to be a newly industrialized country, and also, a regional power in the future. [3] Before modern times scholars in Vietnam wanted to copy China's civilization which they perceived as more civilized but since the French introduced nationalism Vietnam sought to present itself in a different aspect as a civilizational rival. [3] In 1946, Vietnam had its first National Assembly election (won by the Viet Minh in central and northern Vietnam ), which drafted the first constitution, but the situation was still precarious: the French tried to regain power by force; some Cochinchinese politicians formed a seceding government the Republic of Cochinchina (Cộng hòa Nam Kỳ) while the non-Communist and Communist forces were engaging each other in sporadic battle. [3] In 1930, the Communist International (Comintern) sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to Hong Kong to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party (CPV) with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [3] Lộc Tục (c. 2919 - 2794 BC) succeeded his predecessor as tribal chief and made the first attempts to incorporate all tribes around 2879 BC. As he succeeded in grouping all the vassal states within his territory, a convocation of the subdued tribes proclaimed him King Kinh Dương Vương, as the leader of the unified ancient Vietnamese nation. [3] The land began as several tribal states, with King Kinh Dương Vương grouping all the vassal states at around 2879 BC. The ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period are collectively known as the Hng kings ( Vietnamese : Hng Vương ). [3]

In 1479, King Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos in the Vietnamese-Lao War and captured its capital Luang Prabang, in which later the city was totally ransacked and destroyed by the Vietnamese. [3] The Ming court reluctantly decided on a military intervention into the Vietnamese civil war, but Mạc Đăng Dung offered ritual submission to the Ming Empire, which was accepted. [3] By this time, Vietnamese nationalism had reached a point where attempts to sinicize them could only strengthen further resistance.Almost immediately, Trần loyalists started a resistance war. [3]

According to myth the first Vietnamese state was founded in 2879BC, but archaeological studies suggest development towards chiefdoms during the late Bronze Age Đông Sơn culture. [3] Emperor Lê Đại Hành was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [3] In 43AD, Emperor Guangwu of Han sent his famous general Ma Yuan ( Vietnamese: Mã Viện) with a large army to quell the revolt. [3]

As the French suppressed both movements, and after witnessing revolutionaries in action in China and Russia, Vietnamese revolutionaries began to turn to more radical paths. [3] In 1927, the Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party), modeled after the Kuomintang in China, was founded, and the party launched the armed Yên Bái mutiny in 1930 in Tonkin which resulted in its chairman, Nguyễn Thái Học and many other leaders captured and executed by the guillotine. [3]

The period of the Fourth Hng dynasty (c. 2252-1913 BC) saw the evidence for early Vietnamese calendar system recorded on stone tools and the population from the mountainous areas moved out and began to settle in the open along the rivers to join the agricultural activities. [3] The New Economic Zones program was implemented by the Vietnamese communist government after the Fall of Saigon. [3] At Louis XVI's court, Pigneaux brokered the Little Treaty of Versailles which promised French military aid in exchange for Vietnamese concessions. [3] The Hồ dynasty's rule and Vietnamese who worked with the Ming were attacked in the "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" by Lê Lợi. [3]

In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the U.S. or the Saigon government, confounding Western fears. [3] Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. [3]

The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư contained a constructed genealogy tracing back the political legitimacy of Vietnam's rulers to the Chinese Emperor Shennong similar to how the Northern Wei traced the legitimacy of the Tuoba to the Yellow Emperor. [3] South Vietnam retained elements of Chinese culture and grammar in their language while North Vietnam actively engaged in a campaign to remove them- while North Vietnam maintained a pro-China position. it was the Cultural Revolution which led to North Vietnam encouraging anti-China sentiment. [3] During the Chinese domination of North Vietnam, several civilizations flourished in what is today central and south Vietnam, particularly the Funanese and Cham. [3]

The Three Lords and Nine Ministers system ( Chinese : 三公九卿 ) was a central administrative system adopted in ancient China that was officially instituted in Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and was replaced by the Three Departments and Six Ministries system ( Chinese : 三省六部 ) since Sui Dynasty (589-618 AD). [20] After the fall of the Mạc dynasty, all real power in the north belonged to the Trịnh lords. [3] Between 1627 and 1775, two powerful families had partitioned the country: the Nguyễn lords ruled the South and the Trịnh lords ruled the North. [3] The T y Sơn army commanded by Nguyễn Huệ marched north in 1786 to fight the Trịnh Lord, Trịnh Khải. [3] Between the mid-17th century to mid-18th century, as the former Khmer Empire was weakened by internal strife and Siamese invasions, the Nguyễn Lords used various means, political marriage, diplomatic pressure, political and military favors, to gain the area around present-day Saigon and the Mekong Delta. [3] In the year 1600, Nguyễn Hoàng also declared himself Lord (officially "Vương", popularly "Chúa") and refused to send more money or soldiers to help the Trịnh. [3]

In 1941 Nguyễn Ái Quốc, now known as Hồ Ch' Minh, arrived in northern Vietnam to form the Việt Minh Front, and it was supposed to be an umbrella group for all parties fighting for Vietnam's independence, but was dominated by the Communist Party. [3] He then renamed his newly acquired state from Văn Lang to u Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê in the present-day Phú Thọ town in northern Vietnam, where he tried to build the Cổ Loa Citadel (Cổ Loa Thành), the spiral fortress approximately ten miles north of that new capital. [3] From ancient times, modern northern Vietnam and southern China were peopled by many races. [3] French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam (Trung Kỳ, central Vietnam), Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ, northern Vietnam), Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ, southern Vietnam, and Cambodia, with Laos added in 1893). [3] A few years later, French troops landed in northern Vietnam (which they called Tonkin ) and captured Hà Nội twice in 1873 and 1882. [3]

Northern Vietnam (Dai Viet) opted for a centralized bureaucratic regime while the southern is based on a patron-client mechanism heavily relied on personalized rule. [3]

Although Mac Dang Dung managed to negotiate his way out of defeat by the Chinese, he had to officially recognize the Le King and the Nguyen-Trinh rule over the southern part of Vietnam but the Nguyen-Trinh alliance did not accept the Mac rule over the northern half of the country and so the war continued. [2] The Trung sisters, known as "The Two Ladies Trung" (in Vietnamese as Hai Bà Tru’ng) and individually as Trung Trac and Trung Nhi, were Vietnamese military leaders and heroines who ruled for three years after rebelling in 40 AD against the first Chinese occupation of Vietnam. [10] Other scholars warn of the dangers inherent in limiting the history of Vietnamese women to such "reified forms" as "Confucian oppression," Vietnamese exceptionalism, or "Southeast Asian permissiveness" which reduces women to "markers of tradition" and "relegates women's experiences to their contribution to the meta-narrative of Vietnamese history." 8 It is also not clear how liberated women of Vietnam may have been before the Chinese conquest. [9] Vietnamese peace talks in Paris; and other women held high posts, particularly abroad, perhaps to maximize their political value; but they also held high office in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [9] In the 1920s, many Vietnamese were exposed to modern social norms that were a part of French education in Vietnam or, as with Ho Chi Minh, obtained directly via sojourns in France. [9]

Vietnamese also warred against the Khmers who had long before spilled over into southern Vietnam from the Kingdom of Cambodia west of modern Vietnam. [7] The first of these was the introduction into the Red River delta of the more advanced civilization of China, including technical and administrative innovations and the more sophisticated level of Chinese learning, which made the Vietnamese the most advanced people of mainland Southeast Asia. [8] The second development during this period was the Vietnamese people’s resistance to total assimilation and their use, at the same time, of the benefits of Chinese civilization in their struggle against Chinese political rule. [8] Eager to establish a social system and political administration as strong as their would-be rulers to the north, Vietnamese leaders sought to adopt Chinese political and social norms including Chinese forms of patriarchy. [9] Many of these elements of Chinese civilization were readily integrated into the indigenous local culture and ultimately benefited the Vietnamese people, but Sinicization never succeeded in reconciling them, especially their leaders, with Chinese political domination. [8] Referencing Vietnamese history since the Trng sisters and Triu Th Trinh, she notes that it is only when "war, political, economic, and social upheavals created and perpetuated by men have rent the country" and weakened the patriarchal state that "Vietnamese women were permitted to reassert their pre-Confucian traditions of independence and resume their share in social responsibilities." [9] It is rare for an American course addressing the wars in Viet Nam to devote much attention to American service women, rarer still Vietnamese women combatants, and rarest of all, Vietnamese war survivors and widows. [9] The growing body of fictive literature by female Vietnamese and American war veterans reveals a multitude of common experiences among them (and among men as well). 57 Both the Vietnamese and American people may benefit from engaging in this literature. [9]

Le Ly Haslip (with Jay Wurts), When Heaven and Earth Changed Places (New York: Plume, 1993) offers a view from many sides of the conflict, first that of a messenger for the Viet Cong, then as a victim of the impact of the war on Vietnamese culture, and later as an immigrant to America. [9] Ngo Quyen, a Vietnamese commander who defeated the Chinese in 939, became the first head of the new independent Vietnamese province. [8] Although Vietnamese territory was divided into military districts headed by Chinese governors, it remained, in fact, a leniently governed Chinese protectorate. [8] Even the educated Vietnamese who knew Chinese and wrote only in Chinese continued to use the local spoken language. [8] The major role played by women in Vietnamese warfare was not confined to that country's struggles with the Chinese. [9]

Three years later a powerful army sent by the Han emperor reestablished Chinese rule; the local aristocracy was deprived of all power, Vietnam was given a centralized Chinese administration, and Sinicization was resumed with increased intensity. [8] Those with any acquaintance with the history of Vietnam are aware of 1,000 years of resistance to Chinese occupation of their lands (111 BCE to 939 CE). [9] …other side of the peninsula, Vietnam, reconquered by China, fell more and more under the influence of Chinese culture. [8] The Chinese retreated leaving Nguyen Hue (now calling himself Quang Trung) in control of a united Vietnam. [2] They had also dealt successfully with Chinese efforts to return to Vietnam several times. [7] Formal Chinese political domination of Vietnam ended in 939 CE, but its political influence waxed and waned for centuries thereafter. [9]

Neil Jameson argued that Ho Chi Minh eventually achieved that same revered status. 25 The leadership, conviction of and sacrifices made by women in that effort were illuminated by No Other Road to Take (1976, 1991) 26 a memoir of Madame Nguyn Th nh, a Vit Minh 27 guerilla and logistics officer who ultimately rose to the rank of Vit Cng 28 battalion commander during the American War in Vietnam (1959-1975). [9] To bring this discussion full circle, attention must be paid to the parallels that exist in the changing representation of women warriors in Vietnam and their American counterparts, both in combat and in their respective gender wars at home. [9] The clearest common facet of fiction written by war veterans, male and female, is that few return from the battlefield to find the societies they defended worthy of their sacrifices. 40 S. Annand, an American Vietnam veteran and on-line reviewer of The Earth the Stars, the River, remarked in regard to his and the author's own military service, "We both showed misplaced patriotism and were used. [9] We demand immediate withdrawal of u.s. military forces and bases from Puerto Rico, Vietnam and all oppressed communities inside and outside the u.s. [21] There are those who argue that the "South Shall Rise Again" in Vietnam, but reconciliation is preferable in this writer's view to yet another round of triumphalism, a position taken by several of the Republic of Vietnam's former leaders, such as its flamboyant Air Force commander and Prime Minister, Nguyn Cao K. [9] There are indications that Vietnam was involved in the early sea trade between India, Southeast Asia, and China, and it is quite probable that Buddhism reached the country via this sea route near the beginning of the 1st millennium ce. [8] The shifts in the representations of warrior women over time by writers living through epochs of great social change and/or political upheaval are not unique to Vietnam. [9] The first thorough study of gender outcomes in post-unification Vietnam, by David Goodkill in 1995, suggests that the post-reunification decline in the status of women was extensive and due to a variety of factors. [9] The first visit in this legend area is Hoa Lu, the capital of Dai Co Viet (an old name of Vietnam). [22] The Nguyen brothers ruled only briefly before they died, but by then nom had become the official language of Vietnam. [7] The desire to exploit the fertile Red River delta and its mountainous backcountry was certainly one reason why the expansionist Han dynasty wanted to hold on to Vietnam: there were vast forests and precious metals in the mountains, pearls in the sea, elephants with tusks of ivory, and a peasantry that could be taxed and recruited for forced labour. [8] The Manchu responded by sending a large army into Vietnam to restore the Le king. [2]

The armies of Nguyen Kim and Trinh Kiem captured the summer palace and crowned their own puppet Le king - Le Trang Tong - in 1533 (in Vietnamese histories this date marks the beginning of the 2nd half of the Le Dynasty). [2] In the early 11th century, the Vietnamese province was finally unified under a centralized administration by Ly Thai To, the founder of the Ly dynasty (sometimes called the Later Ly dynasty ; 1009-1225). [8] For young Vietnamese, the wars in 20 th century Indochina are a distant memory. [9] A moving glimpse of the place of women in Vietnamese folklore within and beyond patriarchy, in peace and war, is offered at [9]

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4. (76) Selected Groups/Republic Vietnam - The Chinese

5. (55) History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information

6. (33) VIET NAM HISTORY © Chi D. Nguyen

7. (30) World History Connected | Vol. 4 No. 3 | Marc Jason Gilbert: Three Women Warriors of Vietnam, Their Historians and World History

8. (24) WikiZero - Trịnh lords

9. (19) Vietnam | History, Population, Map, & Facts - Vietnam under Chinese rule |

10. (18) The First Tet Offensive of 1789 | HistoryNet

11. (13) Why Didnt We Learn From Vietnam? - Veterans Today | News - Military Foreign Affairs - VA

12. (9) TRINH LORDS | Vietnam History | Vietnam

13. (9) From the Le to the Nguyen Rulers

14. (8) Go to stage 3: The rebellion of the Trung Sisters

15. (7) Significant historical events in the year of the tiger - Vietnam Travel Guide

16. (5) The Trung sisters: The national heroines of Vietnam, who successfully repelled a Chinese invasion for three years

17. (5) Trip to Vietnam # 1 week 1 Archives - The T y Sơn Rebellion

18. (5) Edwin A. Shuman III, Former Prisoner of War Who Defied Hanoi Hilton Guards, Dies at 82 - The New York Times

19. (3) One day tour discover Hoa Lu - Tam Coc in Ninh Binh | EcoRetreat.Asia - Book Luxury Retreats and Eco Holidays in Asia

20. (1) Hoa lu capital under dynasty of Vietnam - Hanoi Free Day Tours

21. (1) Three Lords and Nine Ministers - Wikipedia

22. (1) 13 Point Program and Platform of the Young Lords Party

23. (1) Hoa Lu Ancient Capital & Van Long 1 Day

24. (1) PIN05: Ninh Binh- Hoa Lu- Tam Coc 01 Day Tour | PITOURIST

25. (1) Behind the Name: User-submitted surname Đỗ

26. (1) How to get to Hoa Lu | SonDoong Cave in Vietnam

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