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Ancient Greece (Greece and Near East, C. 3300 BC- 31 BC)

Ancient Greece (Greece and Near East, C. 3300 BC- 31 BC)

C O N T E N T S:

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  • Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ( c. 600 AD).(More...)
  • Hellas and the Near East were ruled by Alexander's successors until Octavius (later known as Augustus Caesar) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra (the last of the Greek pharaohs) at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. 200-100 BCE. The classical epics of India were composed or written down, the tragic Mahabharata having similarities to the Iliad, the romantic fantasy Ramayana comparable to the Odyssey.(More...)
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation starts around 3300 BC with what is referred to as the Early Harappan Phase (3300 to 2600 BC).(More...)
  • Mycenaean Greece - Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • Chinese civilization begins during the second phase of the Erlitou period (1900 to 1500 BC), with Erlitou considered the first state level society of East Asia.(More...)



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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ( c. 600 AD). [1] Ancient Greece is the civilization belonging to the period of Greek history lasting from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. [1] Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c.1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology. [1] The earliest evidence of a civilisation in ancient Greece is that of the Minoans on Crete, dating as far back as 3600 BC. On the mainland, the Mycenaean civilisation rose to prominence around 1600 BC, superseded the Minoan civilisation on Crete, and lasted until about 1100 BC, leading to a period known as the Greek Dark Ages. [1]

The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture Classical Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. [1] The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture Western art and sculpture derived from Roman art, while in the East, Alexander the Great's conquest gave birth to Greco-Buddhist art, which has even had an influence as far as Japan all of which stem from ancient Greek art. [1]

KEY TOPICS HELLENISTIC PERIOD : Ancient Greek The Hellenistic period is the period of ancient Greek and eastern Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest. [1]

Indus Valley Civilization, spread in the north western side of the nation during the period of c. 3300 BC to 1300 BC being India's first civilization, is marked as the main beginning of the ancient history of India. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of western civilization. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. At its economic height, in the 5th and 4th centuries BC, ancient Greece was the most advanced economy in the world. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. The poster writing under the name M. V. Jain suggests--well, Jain says a lot of things--that I am downplaying the evidence that ancient India contributed heavily to the development of ancient Greece, particularly its philosophy. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies is a unique collection of some seventy articles, which together explore the ways in which ancient Greece has been, is, and might be studied. [1]

The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. [1]

Since ancient times the Middle East has had several lingue franche : Akkadian ( c. 14th- 8th century BC), Aramaic ( c. 8th century BC- 8th century AD), Greek ( c. 4th century BC- 8th century AD), and Arabic ( c. 8th century AD- present). [1]

The origins, development and diversity, successes and failures of Ancient Greece from around 1500 to 31 B.C. Near Eastern and Bronze Age background; Archaic Age and the City State; Sparta and Athens; war and imperialism; democracy and culture; Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Era. [1]

The classical age (also the classical antiquity, classical period or classical era ) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history generally centered on the Mediterranean Sea and Near East, comprising the interlocking ancient civilizations, c. 600 BC to 200 AD. It is the period in which societies flourished and wielded great influence throughout East Asia, Europe, North Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. [1] The Israelites were an ancient Semitic-speaking people of the Ancient Near East who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods (15th to 6th centuries BC), and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy. [1] The Old Testament makes clear that the Hebrews were a nomadic, pastoral people probably until the period in which they conquered and settled in Canaan after 1200 BC. Segmentary or pastoral societies in the Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean coastal regions exhibited certain recognizable traits. [1] The Hurrians refer to a people who inhabited northern Mesopotamia beginning approximately 2500 BC. The Hurrian kingdoms of the Ancient Near East was in Northern Mesopotamia and its people lived in the adjacent regions during the Bronze Age. [1] Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Neo-Sumerian Empire or Third Dynasty of Ur approximately 2100-2000 BC, the term Sumerian is the common name given to the ancient non-Semitic-speaking inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Sumer, by the East Semitic-speaking Akkadians. [1] At the present time, there is some debate as to whether or not Olmec symbols, dated to 650 BC, are actually a form of writing preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about 500 BC. The Ancient Near East is considered the cradle of civilization. [1] The irony of it all was that it was General Alexander Cunningham who allowed East Indian Railways which was constructing railway line between the cities of Lahore and Karachi, to use the ancient bricks recovered from these sites as track ballast for the 150 kilometers of nearby stretch and thus destroyed much of the city of Harappa (3300 BC 1300 BC). [1] KEY TOPICS Indus Valley Civilization, 3300 B.C. - 1700 B.C. 27.03.2015 0 Indus Valley Ancient Civilization (3300-1300 BC; mature period 2600-1900 BC) This is the Harappa site. [1]

The people of the Ancient Near East began to cultivate them during their Bronze age (3300-1200 BC). [1]

In the east the unwieldy Seleucid Empire gradually disintegrated, although a rump survived until 64 BC, whilst the Ptolemaic Kingdom continued in Egypt until 30 BC, when it too was conquered by the Romans, the Aetolian league grew wary of Roman involvement in Greece, and sided with the Seleucids in the Roman-Syrian War ; when the Romans were victorious, the league was effectively absorbed into the Republic. [1] Neolithic Greece - Neolithic Greece is an archaeological term used to refer to the Neolithic phase of Greek history beginning with the spread of farming to Greece in 7000-6500 BC. The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000-6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia mainly by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. [1] The Hellenistic period lasted from 323 BC, which marked the end of the wars of Alexander the Great, to the annexation of Greece by the Roman Republic in 146 BC, although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity, it did mark the end of Greek political independence. [1] Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture. [1] A culture contemporary with the city state of Dilmun (now Bahrain) was found in 1959 on the island of Umm-an-Nar off of Abu Dhabi. (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48) 2.2k BC In Greece Indo-European invaders, speaking the earliest form of Greek, entered the mainland. (eawc, p.2) 2.2k BC In the Peruvian Andes a native culture built a 33-foot pyramid about this time with an observatory marking the summer and winter solstices. [1] That Archaic Greece (800-500 BC) emerged as an assemblage of more than 300 Poleis, or separate autonomous Greek city states scattered along the shores of the Aegean. [1] Classical Antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages ( c. 1200 - c. 800 BC), archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. [1] Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the peak of its power and it was completed in 438 BC although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order and its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. [1]

The classics comprise the languages, literature, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other culture of the ancient Mediterranean world (Bronze Age ca. BC 3000 - Late Antiquity ca. AD 300-600); especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome during Classical Antiquity (ca. BC 600 - AD 600). [1] This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. [1] Minoan civilization - The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece, the civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. [1] Mycenaean Greece Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600-1100 BC). [1]

In Greece around the same time - Minoan and Helladic Civilisations around 3650/3200-1170/1050 BCE. As for Pythgoras' theroem - Although it is often argued that knowledge of the theorem predates him, the theorem is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras (c. 570-495 BC) as it is he who, by tradition, is credited with its first recorded proof. [1]

Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period (323-146 BC), during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East, this period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest. [1] Cyrus was the epitome of a charismatic warrior and conqueror; he conquered Lydia (Croesus) in 547 (including numerous East Greek city states) and Babylon in 539 BC. His son Cambyses (525-522 BC) conquered Egypt but died quickly from an infected war wound. [1] The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000-6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. [1]

Nike of Samothrace; Samothrace, Greece; ca. 190 BC commemorate a Greek naval victory meant to stand above a fountain, wet drapery, shows evidence of wind, HELLENISTIC Greek art, Winged figure in transparent gown; legs show; Goddess of Victory. [1] Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Jewish, Assyrian, Phoenician and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent. [1] The Archaic Period in Greece is generally considered to have lasted from around the eighth century BC to the invasion by Xerxes in 480 BC. This period saw the expansion of the Greek world around the Mediterranean, with the founding of Greek city-states as far afield as Sicily in the West and the Black sea in the East. [1]

The noun ʾēl was found at the top of a list of gods as the "Ancient of gods" or the "Father of all gods", in the ruins of the royal archive of the Ebla civilization, in the archaeological site of Tell Mardikh in Syria dated to 2300 BC. Under the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty, an advanced literate society thrived in the city of Alexandria, but what is now Egypt was conquered by the Romans in 30 bc. [1] If Neoclassical painting suffered from a lack of ancient models, Neoclassical sculpture tended to suffer from an excess of them, although examples of actual Greek sculpture of the "classical period" beginning in about 500 BC were then very few; the most highly regarded works were mostly Roman copies. [1] Ancient history includes the recorded Greek history beginning in about 776 BC (First Olympiad ). [1] The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC. This roughly coincides with the date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome. [1] The Antikythera mechanism, a device for calculating the movements of planets, dates from about 80 BC, and was the first ancestor of the astronomical computer, it was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete. [1]

Reconstruction of the Oikumene (inhabited world) ancient map from Herodotus, c. 450 BC. Around 1800 BC, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 BC most of the cities had been abandoned.Suggested contributory causes for the localisation of the IVC include changes in the course of the river, and climate change that is also signalled for the neighbouring areas of the Middle East. [1] The powerful "sickle sword" are in fact well attested in Egypt, Israel, Syria, lebanon, and other Middle East areas both in art representation and finding like this specimen from Ugarit Syria dated 14th century BC. Ancient Assyria started its long history (in late-24th century BC) as a minor kingdom of Akkad and was subject under Akkadian rulers, like Sargon I. Through the years, the Assyrian people fought their way to form their own, independent empire. [1] Harappan Civilization One of the most fascinating yet mysterious cultures of the ancient world is the Harappan Civilization In the eighth century BC, before the Nok were spreading their culture, the kingdom of Kush in East Africa had become powerful enough to conquer Egypt, but did not succeed. [1] Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia, in the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. [1] Sumer (or Šumer ) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq ) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term "Sumerian" applies to all speakers of the Sumerian language. [1] There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the Dacians and those of Dahae (Greek Δάσαι Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai ; Latin Dahae, Daci ), an Indo-European people located east of the Caspian Sea, until the 1st millennium BC E. Scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times. [1] In the first half of the 4th millennium BC, the Black Sea coastal Varna culture was replaced, in east Romania and Bulgaria, by a Kurganish complex designated as Cernavoda I. Scythian gold zoomorphic handle from southern Urals, 4th century BC & Gold plaque of a deer, dated from the 5th century B.C. It was found in Kul Oba Barrow, near ancient Crimea, Ukraine. (excavations by P.A. Debrux, year 1830). [1] It has also been suggested (Burroughs, 2007) that the rapid climatic collapse, marking the Akkadian Dark Age, may have been responsible for the religiously prescribed prohibition against the raising and consumption of pigs that spread through the Ancient Middle East from the end of the third millennium BC. Around the same time period, in mid-6th century BC, Mahavira founded Jainism. [1] The Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is believed to have begun with the discovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatolia or the Caucasus and Balkans in the late 2nd millennium BC ( c. 1300BC). [1] The dating of the foil has been disputed, the Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics, the usual tripartite division into an Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age is not used. [1] Canaan - Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan occurs commonly in the Hebrew Bible, in particular, the references in Genesis 10 and Numbers 34 define the Land of Canaan as extending from Lebanon southward to the Brook of Egypt and eastward to the Jordan River Valley. [1] The Parthian Empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over significant portions of the Near East and beyond, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran (after the Median and the Achaemenid dynasties). [1]

The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. By 3300 BC, just before the first Egyptian dynasty, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper Egypt to the south, and Lower Egypt to the north. [1] The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. [1] Indus Valley Civilization, 3300 B.C. - 1700 B.C. 27.03.2015 0 The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture The Indus Valley Civilisation starts around 3300 BC with what is referred to as the Early Harappan Phase (3300 to 2600 BC). [1]

The Indus Valley had an active society from about 4000 BC to about 1500 BC. As somebody else has answered it, it has been estimated from 3300 BC to 1300 BC. The peak period is said to be from 2500 BC to 2000 BC. The Mohenjo-daro city was built in around 2600 BC in the province of Sindh of current Pakistan and was abandoned in the 19th century BC. It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [1] The Bronze Age is a period, 3300 - 1200 BC, characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze and proto-writing, and other features of urban civilization, circa 3300 BC to 1200 BC. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. [1]

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece. [1] The Victorious Youth (c. 310 BC), is a rare, water-preserved bronze sculpture from ancient Greece. [1] It was from the splendour of ancient Greece and Rome, from the second millenium BC onward, that the most tantalizing myths and legends sprang, and the horse again took centre stage.The stories so often recounted were vivdly illustrated in paint, bronze, marbel and mosaic, with Pegasus remaining one of the most often depicted and best known of mythological horses. [1] During the Archaic period, the population of Greece grew beyond the capacity of its limited arable land (according to one estimate, the population of ancient Greece increased by a factor larger than ten during the period from 800 BC to 400 BC, increasing from a population of 800,000 to a total estimated population of 10 to 13 million). [1] Phoenicia - The enterprising, sea-based Phoenician civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of Ancient Greece, perhaps the most notable of which were Tyre, Sidon, Arvad, Berytus and Carthage. [1] The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-c. 425 BC). [1]

The Indus Valley Civilization flourished between 3300 to 1300 BC. It was one of the earliest civilizations along with those in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt and also the largest ancient civilization in the world, spread over an area of 1,260,000 km 2. [1] The Indus Valley Civilisation, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BC in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilisation in South Asia. [1]

Roman Empire - Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. [1] The precise date in which the Roman Republic changed into the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation, with the dates of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium (September 2, 31 BC), and the date which the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title "Augustus" (January 16, 27 BC), being some of the common choices. [1]

With Octavian's victory at Actium in 31 BC, Rome began to become a major centre of Greek literature, as important Greek authors such as Strabo and Dionysius of Halicarnassus came to Rome. [1] The Greeks and the Etruscans occupied different regions of the peninsula during the 8th century. (eawc, p.2) 2k BC - 500 BC Aryan tribes lived in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan). [1] The person was in the service of the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut, the most powerful female pharaoh and who ruled for 21 years from 1479 to 1458 BC. (AFP, 3/17/09) c1.5k BC In 1978 Greek grave robbers at Aidonia dug into ancient tombs believed to be a 3,500BC-year-old palatial cemetery of the Mycenaeneans. [1] Philip II of Macedon was the king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. Included in Ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. [1] The Lelantine War (c. 710 - c. 650 BC) is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. [1] Decipherment of the language system was made possible by the discovery of the Rosetta Stone by Napoleon's cavalry during that general"s campaign in Egypt 1799 AD. The inscribed stele dates to the Ptolemaic era, ca. 196 BC, and records a tax dispensation conferred on presiding priests of an Egyptian temple by King Ptolemy V. It was inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic, and ancient Greek. [1] The Greek historian Herodotus--the so-called father of history--fully acknowledged the African aspects of Egyptian civilization when he visited the Nile Valley in the fifth century B.C. He also said, "All that was said about nature by the ancients is said also by those who philosophise beyond Greece: some things by the Brahmins among the Indians, and others by those called Jews in Syria" (Clement, Stromata 1.15 ). [1] This is an authoritative and clearly written account of the main issues involved in the study of Greek slavery from Homeric times to the fourth century B.C. It provides valuable insights into the fundamental place of slavery in the economies and social life of classical Greece, and includes penetrating analyses of the widely-held ancient ideological justifications of slavery. [1]

Stamp seals first occur in mid 6th millennium B.C. levels in Iraq, Syria and Turkey; the earliest cylinder seals, found in archeological excavations at Uruk in Iraq and Susa in Iran, date around 3300 B.C Its usage spanned the time period between 1,500 B.C. and 1,200 B.C. approximately, and geographically covered the island of Crete as well as the southern part of the Greek Mainland." [1] Stamp seals first occur in mid 6th millennium B.C. levels in Iraq, Syria and Turkey; the earliest cylinder seals, found in archeological excavations at Uruk in Iraq and Susa in Iran, date around 3300 B.C. The first millennium BCE was typified by a continuance of Egypt's retreat from imperialism and militarism, in favor of the more religion-based civilization of later Greek and Roman stereotypes. [1]

The Near East recovered its strength much sooner than did Greece, ending its Dark Age by around 900 B.C. The Greeks did not fully recover until perhaps a hundred and fifty years after that. [1] Greece was a key eastern province of the Roman Empire, as the Roman culture had long been in fact Greco-Roman, the Greek language served as a lingua franca in the East and in Italy, and many Greek intellectuals such as Galen would perform most of their work in Rome. [1]

It used to be verboten to argue that the Greeks borrowed anything from the non-Greeks, but today we recognize a vast debt Greece owed to the ancient Near East. [1] Uruk (Cuneiform: 𒌷𒀔, URU UNUG; Sumerian : unug; Akkadian : uruk ; Biblical Hebrew : Erech ; Greek : Ὀρχόη Orchoē, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia ; Latin : Orchoi ; Arabic : وركاء, Warkā' ) was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq. [1]

Figurines which have human form or characteristics (anthropomorphic) come in many varieties and are found throughout the Ancient Near East and in all periods, from before the time of Abraham (ca. 3300 B.C.) through the Roman period (330 AD) and later. [1] The bells' origins lie in the ancient Near East and Caucasian area, from where they found their way especially to Archaic Samos and Cyprus and later to mainland Greece. [1]

These galleries contain more than one thousand works of art made in Egypt and the ancient Near East between approximately 4000 B.C. and the third century A.D. Many of these objects were either donated or lent to the Museum by generous supporters. [1] The cylinder seals were employed mainly in administrative functions and were widespread starting from the middle of the fourth millennium BC, in the ancient Near East sites. [1] The history of the ancient Near East begins with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, though the date it ends varies. [1] It has also been suggested (Burroughs, 2007) that the rapid climatic collapse, marking the Akkadian Dark Age, may have been responsible for the religiously prescribed prohibition against the raising and consumption of pigs that spread through the Ancient Middle East from the end of the third millennium BC. One of the earliest appearances of the rosette in ancient art is in early fourth millennium BC Mesopotamia. [1] It begins with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, and ends with the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Within this span of roughly four thousand years, historians generally divide the period into 5 distinct ages: The Chalcolithic (4500 - 3300 BC), the early Bronze Age (3300 - 2000 BC), the middle Bronze Age (2000 - 1550 BC), the Late Bronze Age (1550 - 1200 BC), and the Iron Age (1200 - 500 BC). [1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. [1] Bronze sickles occur in hoards elsewhere on the Greek mainland and Crete where metal sickles are recorded from at least MM I, and Cyprus where they do not appear before the 12th century BC. This tool was also known in the Near East. [1] In the west, the Greek philosophical tradition, represented by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, was diffused throughout Europe and the Middle East in the 4th century BC by the conquests of Alexander III of Macedon, more commonly known as Alexander the Great. [1]

The Hittites passed much knowledge and lore from the Ancient Near East to the newly arrived Greeks in Europe. [1] Greek doctors, philosophers, historians, scientists, financiers, diplomats, warriors, and traders traveled extensively across the Ancient Near East and India, sometimes furnishing our best preserved records of these societies. [1] Conger argued that "indirect" influence emanated from India, and that's probably about right (if somewhat overstated), mediated through the ancient Near East, which we know securely was a source for Greek myth, cult, and philosophy--though the influence was never one way and probably involved the diffusion of ideas in multiple directions. [1] Seizing power from the previous dynasty--the Parthians--the Sasanians ruled Iran and most of the ancient Near East from 224 until 642 C.E. They are particularly fascinating because of their adherence to Zoroastrianism, an ancient dualistic Iranian religion named after the prophet Zarathustra (or, in Greek, Zoroaster). [1]

The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times to the present day, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture ; in the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. [1] Ancient Greece came out of the dark ages around 1200-800 B.C.E. and lasted until the Romans took over in 146 B.C.E. Greek culture is known for many things, especially art and architecture as well as Greek mythology. [1]

Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. [1] Archaic Greece - According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. [1] The claim that India influenced ancient Greece before the time of Alexander (when an Indo-Greek kingdom was established) derives from the early observation of the close similarity between Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin--known since the early modern period--which suggested to early scholars that Sanskrit, believed to be the oldest of the three, necessarily belonged to an ur -culture that yielded the other two. [1]

A history of lives lived intensely at a time when the world was changing profoundly, the book takes readers on a journey that crosses cultures and boundaries from ancient Greece and ancient Egypt to the Roman Empire. [1] The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, and pragmatic epigraphy. [1] Classical Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. [1]

Indus Valley Civilization, 3300 B.C. - 1700 B.C. 27.03.2015 0 Span of the Indus Valley Civilization? - From 3300 B.C. to 1300 B.C. It reached its peak from 2,600 B.C. to 1,900 B.C. 2,600 B.C. - Indus Valley Civilization - "The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 26001900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin. [1] The facts of the matter are as follows: ancient Egypt was founded in 3300 BC, and the Nubians ruled only for a short period between 732 and 664 BC. By 3300 BC a cluster of urban communities in southern Mesopotamia emerged to form a civilization known as Sumer. [1] The timeline of ancient Mesopotamia is usually held to be around 3300 BC - 750 BC. Mesopotamia is generally credited with being the first place where civilized societies truly began to take shape. [1] Ancient Egypt as a general historical term broadly refers to the civilization of the Nile Valley between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 B.C.E. until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.E. One of the earliest appearances of the rosette in ancient art is in early fourth millennium BC Mesopotamia. [1] It became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the first millennium BC. Its cultural achievements during the 5th century BC laid the foundations of western civilization. [1] The term Demotic in the context of Egypt, that is, "indigenous" from a Hellenistic point of view, came to refer to both the script and the language that followed the Late Ancient Egyptian stage from the Nubian 25th dynasty until its marginalization by the Greek Koine in the early centuries C.E. In contrast, Greek civilization emerged 6th century BC and collapsed by the 3rd century AD. Since then no any remarkable breakthrough in any field of knowledge. [1] India had established universities as early as the 5th century BC and Greek scholars were known to have travelled to India to study at Ancient Indian universities. [1] If we place the Proto-Indo-European homeland of the fifth to fourth millennia B.C. within eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus, and northern Mesopotamia it becomes easier to explain the historical territories and migration routes of the major early Indo-European ethnic groups who first appear in ancient written documents: the Hittites and Luwians, the Indo-Iranians, the Greeks (the Cretans and Myceneans, and the Ahhiyawa of Hittite sources). [1] Shekels were struck by Tyre, a city of ancient Phoenicia, between c.126/5 B.C. and c.A.D. 65/66 with this example being struck in 96/95 B.C. This coin features on the obverse a portrait of Melkart, the Punic equivalent of the Greek hero Heracles (Hercules). [1]

The Scythians were exceptional horsemen and warriors, and feared adversaries and neighbours of the ancient Greeks, Assyrians and Persians between 900 and 200 BC. This exhibition will tell their story through exciting archaeological discoveries and perfectly preserved objects frozen in time. [1] Trivia: "Plato (c. 427c. 347 BC), whose real name is believed to have been Aristocles, was an immensely influential ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens where Aristotle studied Hippocrates of Cos (c. 460 BCc. 377 BC) was an ancient Greek physician. [1] The Scythians is the name given to confederations of nomadic tribes people who inhabited the vast steppes of Siberia between 900 and 200 BC. They probably spoke various dialects of early Iranian but were illiterate and so left absolutely no written record; all we have is a few scattered references in ancient Greek texts and what has been discovered by archaeologists. [1]

Had 1 million people by 31 BC. Very important to scholarship (the museum) and out of this the intellectual was born. [1] The uniqueness of the Roman experience enabled Republican armies to conquer the entire Mediterranean world and much of modern day northern Europe by 31 BC. The reasons for Roman military success are as follows: 1. [1]

This advanced Bronze Age society lived in the Indus Valley between 3300 BC and 1300 BC and what a culture! Unlike the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations of the time, it was not just the top echelons of society that had fancy houses ordinary people lived in brick houses with covered sewers and other comforts that are frankly scarce in modern day India. [1] The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture The Indus Valley Civilisation starts around 3300 BC with what is referred to as the Early Harappan Phase (3300 to 2600 BC). [1] The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture For their great contributions to the world, they must be remembered for two of the most important inventions and discoveries: the first-known writing system, called Cuneiform (c. 3300 BC); and, the Mathematics system (c. 2600 BC), which encompassed arithmetic, geometry, and algebra. [1]

The civilization, which is known for its superior urban planning, is believed to have flourished in the period between 3300 BC to 1300 BC in what is today Pakistan, northwest India and parts of Afghanistan and Balochistan. [1] In Mehrgarh, Pakistan, archeologists made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappan periods (c. 3300 BC ), had knowledge of medicine and dentistry. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. [1] It was a Bronze Age civilization lasted from 1300 to 3300 BC and had a population of 5 million at their honeymoon period. [1]

By 3300 BC, just before the first Egyptian dynasty, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper Egypt to the south, and Lower Egypt to the north. [1] As somebody else has answered it, it has been estimated from 3300 BC to 1300 BC. The peak period is said to be from 2500 BC to 2000 BC. How did they reach and established themselves in Turkey in 15th century BC when you propose that Rigveda can not be dated back before 1300 BC. Known for its two major cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, this society lasted from roughly 3300 B.C. to 1300 B.C., yet it was only recently rediscovered within the last one hundred years. [1] As somebody else has answered it, it has been estimated from 3300 BC to 1300 BC. The peak period is said to be from 2500 BC to 2000 BC. The Indus people (7000 BC- 1300 BC) spoke a language which is still hardly known. [1]

Given the variance found in the three samples from Eneolithic Ukraine (comparable to the variance found in east Bell Beaker samples), we may now be getting closer to the precise territory and culture where the Corded Ware culture might have formed, which cannot be much further from the Dnieper-Dniester region before the Yamna expansion to the west ca. 3300 BC, judging from the elevated steppe component. [1] Dazzling griffin illustrations date back at least as far as 3300 BC. Some images were enormously popular in the artwork of many cultures and especially on European coats-of-arms in the Middle Ages. [1] The extraordinary spread of steppe cultures from one small area of the steppe (north of the Caspian) first to the Black Sea steppe and Balkans around 3300 BC, then to the Altai and Europe 500 years later is weird. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. The first Semitic words are found as Akkadian loans in Sumerian texts of about 3300 BC, and the first full Akkadian texts are from about 2500 BC. Much information is given about the development of the Afro-Asiatic consonants in the various daughter languages. [1] The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. Just thinking out loud, but Afansievo dates to c. 3300 BC (although some earlier articles had placed to 3600 BC - perhaps and 'old wood' effect). [1] Proto-writing in the region dates to around 3500 BC, with the earliest texts dating to 3300 BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3000 BC. It was also during this period that pottery painting declined as copper started to become popular, along with cylinder seals. [1] It flourished in the Indus and Ganges valleys from around 3300 BC. The Indus civilization had indigenous roots and that its cultural precursors were the chalcolithic cultures of the northwest that flourished in the fourth and third millennia BC. Contrary to the views of some early scholars, Indus cities were not created either through the dissemination of the idea of civilization or by migration of population groups from West Asia. [1] In other words there is no racial evidence of any such Indo-Aryan invasion of India but only of a continuity of the same group of people who traditionally considered themselves to be Aryans" (The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India, by David Fawley). 3300 BC to 1700 BC was characterized by the Indus Valley civilization. 3300 BC - Origin of the Indus Valley civilization beginning with the Ravi phase. [1] If the migration happened after the Indus valley civilization as mentioned in point 3, the Rigveda can not be dated back before 1300 BC. The Bronze Age began in the Indian sub-continent around 3300 BC with the early age of Indus valley civilization. [1]

Kenoyer's archeological evidence suggests that the city got its start as a farming village around 3300 B.C. Situated near the Ravi River, one of several tributaries of the ancient Indus River system of Pakistan and northwestern India, Harappa lay on a fertile flood plain. [1] Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. [1] Ten years later, a second invasion was launched by Darius' son Xerxes, the city-states of northern and central Greece submitted to the Persian forces without resistance, but a coalition of 31 Greek city states, including Athens and Sparta, determined to resist the Persian invaders. [1] It is important to recognize, therefore, that ancient Greece was neither a country nor a territory, but rather an assemblage of more than 300 Poleis, or separate autonomous Greek city states scattered along the shores of the Aegean and beyond. [1] People looked back into the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome to protest the religious (sacred) orientation of the Middle Ages. [1] Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history, the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus. [1] Bells of fairly small size were known across ancient Greece from the Archaic period onwards, both in bronze and terracotta. [1] The so-called Palaikastro Kouros (not to be confused with the stylized male sculptures of ancient Greece), which dates to the Late Minoan period (late fifteenth century BCE), stands at almost 20 inches (50 cm) tall. [1] The origins of periodization are very old and first became part of the Western tradition in the myths of Ancient Greece, virgil spoke of a distant Golden Age and recurrent cycles of history. [1] Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with ancient Greece, a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. [1] It has also been applied to ancient Anatolia, the Levant and Iran, and used to refer to culture predecessors--such as Ancient Greece as the predecessor of Western Civilization --even when such sites are not understood as an independent development of civilization, as well as within national rhetoric. [1]

The roots of Metaxas New State were sought in Greeces classical history, Metaxas thought Hellenic nationalism would galvanize the heathen values of ancient Greece, specifically those of Sparta, along with the Christian values of the Medieval empire of Byzantium. [1] Stryker-Post Publications. p.337. for ancient Greece was the cradle of Western culture. [2]


Hellas and the Near East were ruled by Alexander's successors until Octavius (later known as Augustus Caesar) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra (the last of the Greek pharaohs) at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. 200-100 BCE. The classical epics of India were composed or written down, the tragic Mahabharata having similarities to the Iliad, the romantic fantasy Ramayana comparable to the Odyssey. [1] It refers to the timeframe of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. [3] Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of western civilization. [2] Ideas from literature and science also have their roots in ancient Greece. [2]


The Indus Valley Civilisation starts around 3300 BC with what is referred to as the Early Harappan Phase (3300 to 2600 BC). [2]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (216) Ancient Greece - WikiVisually

2. (157) Ancient Greece (Greece and Near East, C. 3300 BC- 31 BC)

3. (91) Timeline 3300 to 1300 BCE

4. (75) Bronze Age - Wikipedia

5. (68) Digital Exhibition Ancient Art

6. (56) 4th millennium BC - WikiVividly

7. (49) Cradle of civilization - Wikipedia

8. (47) Ancient Near East - Wikipedia

9. (46) 100 Must-Read Books about Ancient History

10. (41) History of the Middle East - Wikipedia

11. (35) Brooklyn Museum

12. (12) Ancient Egypt - New World Encyclopedia

13. (11) 4th millennium BC - Wikipedia

14. (7) For whom did the bell toll in ancient Greece? Archaic and Classical Greek bells at Sparta and beyond1 | Annual of the British School at Athens | Cambridge Core

15. (7) Ancient Near Eastern - Classical Art History

16. (6) art of ancient egypt Flashcards | Quizlet

17. (6) Timeline of ancient history - Wikipedia

18. (4) History Resources - Quantum Gaze

19. (3) Ahtr ancient near-east

20. (3) Senatus Consulto sells neolithic axe, spear, cylinder seal, scarab, tools, ceramic online catalog - Antiques, Regional Art, Ancient World

21. (2) Timeline of Middle Eastern history - Wikipedia

22. (2) List of Bronze Age states - Wikipedia

23. (1) Geni World History Timeline


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