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Anterior Lý Dynasty (Vietnam)

Anterior Lý Dynasty (Vietnam)

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  • Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty.(More...)

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  • Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government.(More...)



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Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty. [1] All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xu n. [2] The Lý dynasty ( / l iː / LEE ; Vietnamese: ) ( Vietnamese : Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm : 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. [1] Various Lý dynasty cash coins on display at the National Museum of Vietnamese History, Hanoi. [1]

In foreign relations with the Song dynasty during the Lý dynasty, Vietnam acted as a vassal state, although at its zenith it had sent troops into Chinese territory to fight the Song during the Lý-Song War. [1] Private and government traders frequently visited Chinese trading ports in present Guangxi to exchange spices, ivory and salt for silk, the Lý dynasty founded the port of V n Đồn in modern Quảng Ninh Province, a major trading port in South East Asia for hundreds of years. [1] Both of them then had blossom closed relationship; in aim to overthrow the rule of Lý dynasty, Trần Thủ Độ had arranged the marriage for 2 people in next year and Trần Thừa later became the prince consort of Lý dynasty. [1] The rule of Lý was transferred to Trần.Then the former emperor Huệ Tông was forced to commit suicide by Trần Thủ Độ at Ch n giáo pagoda.The Lý dynasty was collaped and Trần dynasty was officially established. [1] Different from his brother in law, Tô Hiến Thành was the loyal subject to the Lý dynasty with skills and talents in organising military, he helped army to invade Champa and Lan Xang In 1174, dauphin Lý Long Xưởng caused debauchery with concubine of emperor, so he was deposed and emperor Lý Anh Tông made Lý Long Cán as dauphin. [1]

Soon afterwards, Vietnamese peasants began moving into the untilled former Cham lands, turning them into rice fields and moving relentlessly southward, delta by delta, along the narrow coastal plain, the Lý Emperors supported the improvement of Vietnam's agricultural system by constructing and repairing dikes and canals and by allowing soldiers to return to their villages to work for six months of each year. [1] One of the big event of Lý dynasty is changing name of country from Đại Cồ Việt (大瞿越) to Đại Việt (大越) in 1054 under reign of Lý Thánh Tông. [1] The Lý dynasty was started by Lý Công Uẩn, a former temple orphan who had risen to commander of the palace guard, succeeded Lê Long Đĩnh of the Early Lê dynasty in 1009, thereby founding the Lý dynasty. [1]

The Lý Dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few conquests against neighboring Champa in the south. [2] During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). [2] When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009 AD, a Palace Guard Commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. [2] Toward the end of the Lý Dynasty, a powerful court minister named Trần Thủ Độ forced king Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông's young daughter, to become queen. [2]

The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Anterior Lý Dynasty in 602 after the conquest by Sui China and rise of the Dương Dynasty which includes chinese styles to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. [3] Early independence movements, such as those of the Trng sisters and Lady Triu, were only temporarily successful, though the region gained a longer period of independence as Vn Xu n under the Anterior Lý Dynasty between 544 and 602 AD. By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not true independence, under the Khúc family. [4]

Through the centuries, Vietnam has been called by many different names: Văn Lang during the Hng Vương Dynasty, u Lạc during the An Dương Vương dynasty, Van Xuan during the Anterior Lý Dynasty, Đại Cồ Việt during the Đinh dynasty and Anterior Lê Dynasty. [5] The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Anterior Lý Dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. [6] It is probably safe to argue the first emperor of the Later Lý Dynasty was considerable better than his predecessor, the last king of the Anterior Lê Dynasty. [7]

Lê Hoàn, posthumous name Lê Đại Hành, was an emperor of Đại Cồ Việt (an ethnic Vietnamese polity located in what is now northern Vietnam and limited by the Chinese empire of Song to the North and the Indic kingdom of Champa to the South) and the founder of the Anterior Lê Dynasty. [8]

The Thục, Triệu, Anterior Lý, Ngô, Đinh, Anterior Lê, Lý, Trần, Hồ, Lê, Mạc, T y Sơn, and Nguyễn are usually regarded by historians as formal dynasties. [9]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government. [1] After the defeat of the Trung sisters, the Eastern Han dynasty strengthened its control over the region in 43, as the Han dynasty weakened, the prefect of Giao Chỉ, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese Emperors. [1]

It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407, the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnams history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty, there was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. [1] Under foreign rule, the Vietnamese people had to adopt foreign writing system, but lost much of their spoken language, during the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently, and the Lạc lords maintained their feudal offices. [1]

In August 1945 they declared Vietnamese independence and extended the war, known as the First Indochina War, in Saigon, the anti-Communist State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was granted independence in 1949. [1] In AD 938, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền defeated the forces of the Chinese Southern Han state at Bạch Đằng River and achieved full independence for Vietnam. [10] In January 1946, the Viet Minh held an election to establish a National Assembly, when France declared Cochinchina, the southern third of Vietnam, a separate state as the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina in June 1946, Vietnamese nationalists reacted with fury. [1] As the national language, Vietnamese is spoken throughout Vietnam by ethnic Vietnamese, Vietnamese is also the native language of the Gin minority group in southern Guangxi Province in China. [1] Vietnamese language - Vietnamese /ˌviɛtnəˈmiːz/ is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. [1] First Chinese domination of Vietnam - The first Chinese domination is a period in Vietnamese history during which Vietnam was under Chinese rule from the north. [1] It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40 AD and briefly ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han army in 43 AD. The Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and taxes to the Hans, the Han mandarins tried to occupy large areas of land and changed them into Chinese style farms and brought Chinese peasants to work them. [1]

This was the first time that Vietnamese nationalists in the northern, central, when France had finished its conquest of Vietnam in 1885, only southern Vietnam was made a direct colony under the name of Cochinchina. [1] The northern part of Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, an independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. [1] After the reunification in 1975 this Vietnam suffered more further than China, internal repression and isolation from the international community due to the Cold War, Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and an American economic embargo. [1] Between 1804 and 1813, the name was used officially by Emperor Gia Long and it was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Ch us History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party. [1] The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century and followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. [11] The founders and rulers of these governments, however, were not native to Vietnam, from the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [1]

In the first century A. D. However, modern Vietnamese now believe that the information is true, Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [1] It is the language of the Vietnamese people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. [1] Vietnamese is the official and national language of Vietnam. [1] Since the 1980s, Vietnamese language schools have been established for youth in many Vietnamese-speaking communities around the world, furthermore, there has also been a number of Germans studying Vietnamese due to increased economic investment in Vietnam. [1]

The ns and Qins were among the earliest foreign aggressions of Vietnam, but the ancient Vietnamese regained control of their country soon after their invasions. [11] The VPA is further subdivided into the Vietnamese People's Ground Forces (including Strategic Rear Forces and Border Defense Forces), the Vietnam People's Navy, the Vietnam People's Air Force and the coast guard. [12] \n Vietnam (Vietnamese: Vit Nam), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost nation on the Indochinese Peninsula. [12] This changed on 9 March 1945 when Japan officially took over, to gain the support of the Vietnamese people, Imperial Japan declared it would return sovereignty to Vietnam. [1] Archaeologists link the beginnings of Vietnamese civilization to the late Neolithic, early Bronze Age, Phung-nguyen culture, which was centered in Vinh Phu Province of contemporary Vietnam from about 2000 to 1400 BCE. By about 1200 BCE, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River and Red River plains led to the development of the Dong Son culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. [12] According to legend, during this time Lý Thường Kiệt had also composed the famous poem Nam quốc sơn hà (Rivers and Mountains of the South Nation), which asserted the sovereignty of Vietnam over its land, this poem is considered the first Vietnamese Declaration of independence. [1] Domestically, while the Lý emperors were devout to Buddhism, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the first University in Vietnam in 1070 for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families.The first imperial examination was run in 1075 and Lê Văn Thịnh became the first Trạng Nguyên( Zhuangyuan ) of Vietnam. [1] Then Vietnam was under Jin China and the first half of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the domination ended by 544, when Lý Nam Đế came to power. [1] Huệ Tông abdicated and gave the throne to crowned princess and become the first empress of Vietnam Empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng at 6 year old. [1] During emperor Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of Vietnam became Đại Việt. [1] Emperor Lý Nh n Tông was the longest reign ruler in the history of Vietnam, however he was childless so he had to choose some of kids of royal relatives as the successor and then Lý Dương Hoán (李陽煥),his nephew was chosen to be the crown prince. [1] Being one of the many great military strategists of Vietnam, Lý Thường Kiệt had placed spikes under the Như Nguyệt River before tricking the Song troops into the deadly trap, killing more than 1,000 Song soldiers and forcing the Song army to retreat. [1] Very few direct details about his parents are known, however, the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn, at least on his paternal side, was accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng. [1]

Following the brief H Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by L Li, the founder of the L Dynasty. [12]

This decision had mark major circumstance in Vietnam which opened the flourish era of the dynasty and followed by the other dynasties such as Trần, Lê, Mạc that still used Thang Long as their capital in the long time as well as nowaday republic government. [1] Trần dynasty The Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. [1]

From 602-618, this area was under the late Sui Dynasty, from 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam. [1] Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the L Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor L Thnh Tng. [12] The Nguyen dynasty took over but soon afterward Vietnam was invaded and ruled over by French colonialists (1884 1945). [13] Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam - The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty. [1] There is a dispute as to whether the period of the Triệu dynasty was part of the first Chinese domination of Vietnam, the Trưng Sisters incited a victorious armed revolt against Han authorities, took over 65 cities. [1]

Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long. [10] During the rule of the Trn Dynasty, i Vit repelled three Mongol invasions of Vietnam. [12] Vietnam reached its zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (14601497). [11]

The dynasty of Hung Kings, which marked the beginning of the Vietnamese State, was credited with brilliant achievements culminating in the Dong Son Culture (Bronze Age). [13] Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, thereafter, Vietnam was divided politically into two rival states, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. [1] Despite fewer losses Expeditionary Corps suffered one-third of the casualties of the Chinese and Soviet-backed Viet Minh during the course of the war, the French and Vietnamese loyalists eventually suffered a major strategic setback at the Siege of Dien Bien Phu, which allowed Ho Chi Minh to negotiate a ceasefire with a favorable position at the ongoing Geneva conference of 1954. [11] According to the Geneva Accords of 1954 the forces of former French supporters and communist nationalists were separated south and north, respectively, with the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone, at the 17th parallel north, between. [11] Often, the Vietnamese government groups the various provinces into eight regions:Northwest, Northeast, Red River Delta, North Central Coast, South Central Coast, Central Highland, Southeast, Mekong River Delta. [12] Sailing south, de Genouilly then captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on 18 February 1859, on 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese government was forced to cede the three provinces of Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường to France. [1]

The turmoil of succession of Dinh Tien Hoang in their southern border gave the Chinese Song a pretext to meddle and interfere into the matters of the Vietnamese, to invade the country and subjugate it again to their rule. [14] In 938 CE, a Vietnamese lord named Ngô Quyền defeated Chinese forces at the Bạch Đằng River and regained independence after a millennium under Chinese control. [11] \n In 939 CE, a Vietnamese lord named Ng Quyn defeated Chinese forces at the Bch ng River and gained independence after 10 centuries under Chinese control. [12]

Following the brief Hồ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was momentarily interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê Dynasty. [11]

For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. [1] The emperor Lý Cao Tông enjoyed the luxury life and exploit the property of civilians to build the palace and castle and the hatred of people was being cumulated and some revolts happened, typically Quách Bốc rebellion (chữ Hán: 郭卜之亂, Quách Bốc chi loạn) that was the main reason of weakening the dynasty and the power was seized by the other houses. [1] Some of the noble scholar such as Lê Văn Thịnh, Bi Quốc Khái, Doãn Tử Tư, Đoàn Văn Kh m, Lý Đạo Thành, Tô Hiến Thành made vast contributions culturally and politically, allowing the dynasty to flourish for 216 years. [1]

In the early of Lý Thần Tông era, Most of the member of government were good people who supported emperor to rule the stable Đại Việt, those people include Chancellor Lê Bá Ngọc (黎伯玉), Vice chancellor Dương Anh Nhĩ (杨英耳), Lý Công B"nh, M u Du Đô (缪攸度) and Lý Sơn (李山). [1] The crown prince of Lê Long Đĩnh was still very young and he could not take the power from his dad.Then,the conference by the members of royal court was held to discuss about the fate of nation.Finally, Lý Công Uẩn,the high position mandarin and aristocrat was chosen by Đào Cam Mộc and Vạn Hạnh buddhist monk to become the new emperor of Đại Cồ Việt. [1] Thiên đô chiếu (遷都詔), written in 1009 by Emperor Lý Thái Tổ when he decided to move from Hoa Lư to Đại La (later renamed Thang Long, as known as Hanoi today). [1]

As their territory and population expanded, the Lý Emperors looked to China as a model for organizing a strong, centrally administered state; in 1070 Lý Thánh Tông ordered to construct Royal academy school to educate people. [1] Lý Hạo Sảm then married to the daughter of Trần Lý, Trần Thị Dung (陳氏庸), after that he nominated and grant promotion to the people of Trần clan The emperor Lý Cao Tông thought prince Sảm wanted ti be the emperor and against him. [1] Prince Lý Hạo Sảm (李日旵) fled to Hải Ấp with his mother Empress An Toàn, they met the leader of Trần clan, Trần Lý (陳李) and scholar Phạm Ngu both support Lý Hạo Sảm as the emperor. [1]

Doãn Tử Tư (尹子思) envoy of Đại Việt to Southern Song, China.The Emperor Xiaozong of Song granted the title of king of Annam( An Nam quốc vương (安南國王).) to emperor Lý Anh Tông in 30/9/1164). [1] The name of the country was changed to Đại Việt in 1054 by Emperor Lý Thánh Tông. [1] He took the reign name Lý Thái Tổ, the early Lý emperors established a prosperous state with a stable monarchy at the head of a centralized administration. [1] Chiêu Linh empress dowager, mom of depose dauphin Lý Long Xưởng who tried to take the throne back for his son but not successful because of Tô Hiến Thành's determination In middle of 1179, Chancellor Tô Hiến Thành died when emperor Cao Tông was only 6 and Đỗ An Di replace him as regent; in 1188, Đỗ An Di died and Ngô Lý T'n replace his mission til death in 1190. [1] Emperor Lý Cao Tông was raised up in the luxury life and he allowed to make court position sale which led nation into crisis, the useless or rich people could be promote as the high rank officials so this increased the social unrest, corruption, poverty and thief. [1] Until the rule of emperor Lý Thánh Tông, it converted to the title of "Vạn Thặng" (萬乘); the name derived from " Mencius ": "一天萬乘". [1] At this time, emperor Lý Huệ Tông usually turn into like crazy man and calling himself as Heaven General (Thiên tướng) and helike to put the flag on chignon,holding sword and shield for dancing. [1] In 1128, Lý Nh n Tông died at aged 63, at that time, Lý Dương Hoán enthrone at 11 year olds and took temple name Lý Thần Tông. [1] According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, in the seventh year of Thiên Thành era (1034),emperor Lý Thái Tông generated the order to everyone to call himself as "triều đ"nh" (朝庭) (meaning: royal court) which is similar to Your Majesty. [1] Upon hearing the news, the Lý ruler sent Lý Thường Kiệt and Tôn Đản with more than 100,000 troops to China to carry out a preemptive attack against the Song troops; in the ensuing 40-day battle near modern-day Nanning, the Đại Việt troops were victorious, capturing the generals of three Song armies. [1] Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation went through a golden era during the Lý and Trần Dynasties. [11]

The State of Vietnam's Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam. [11] Vietnam's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Vietnam under Hng Vương was for so long an independent and self-contained state. [11]

The needs to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, cooperation in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and fight against invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states in 2879 BC. The first truly influential part of history in Vietnam occurred during the Bronze Age, when the Đông Sơn culture was in Vietnam, dramatically advancing their level of civilization. [11] Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War, the war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. [1]

Copy at www.vietnambiketours.com, After millions of Vietnamese deaths and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. [2] In the north, Chiang Kaishek's army entered Vietnam, also to disarm the Japanese, followed by the forces of the non-Communist Vietnamese parties, such as Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng and Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. [2] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh (Việt) settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [2] Vietnam reveres a number of key cultural symbols, such as the Vietnamese dragon, which is derived from crocodile and snake imagery; Vietnam's National Father, Lac Long Quan, is depicted as a holy dragon. [15] Copy at www.vietnambiketours.com, To this day, the Trung Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [2] The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam). [2] The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. [2] Written while living in Asia, the author presents the more accurate Asian view of Vietnamese numismatics based on earlier works from Vietnam, Japan, and China while correcting misconceptions that have propagated from early Western works. [16] In 938 AD, the Vietnamese Lord Ngo Quyen defeated the Chinese at Bach Dang River and achieved full independence for Vietnam after a millennium of Chinese domination. [15] In late 1978, following repeated raids by the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia into Vietnamese territory, Vietnam sent troops to overthrow Pol Pot. [2] In 1978, Vietnam sent troops to Cambodia to help fight against the Khmer Rough, who had been attacking Vietnamese border villages. [15]

With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [2] Most groups attempted to infiltrate Vietnam but eventually were eliminated by Vietnamese security and armed forces. [2] Copy at www.vietnambiketours.com, Although the American-led troops succeeded in containing the advance of Communist forces, the presence of foreign troops, the widespread bombing over all of Vietnam, and the social vices that mushroomed around U.S. bases upset the sense of national pride among many Vietnamese, North and South, causing many to become sympathetic to North Vietnam and the NLF. [2] Beside supplying materials, Chinese cadres also pressured the Vietnamese Communist Party, copy at www.vietnambiketours.com, then under First Secretary Trường Chinh, to emulate their brand of revolution, unleashing a purge of "bourgeois and feudal" elements from the Viet Minh ranks, carrying out a ruthless and bloody land reform campaign (Cải Cách Ruộng Đất), and denouncing "bourgeois and feudal" tendencies in arts and literature. [2] The Secret of early Vietnamese Coin Styles: Chinese Kai Yuan style on early Tran dynasty coins. [16] Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [2] Within French Indochina, Cochin China had the status of a French Colony, Annam was a Protectorate where the Nguyen Dynasty still ruled in name, and Tonkin had a French Governor yet local governments were run by Vietnamese officials. [2] The Later Ly was the first stable Vietnamese dynasty and helped establish many of the characteristics of the modern Vietnamese state. [17]

The first Vietnam state is generally said to be the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, established around 2879 BC, which was ruled by the Hng kings. [18] From 1407 to 1428, Vietnam was again dominated by the Chinese, and gained independence by Le Loi, the founder of the Le dynasty. [15] Emperor Bảo Đại of the Nguyễn Dynasty nominally declared Vietnam independent, but Japanese retained true control. [2] In 1789, the brother of Tay Son established a new dynasty after ending the division of the Vietnam, thought their rule was defeated by the French supported Nguyen Anh, the remnants of the Nguyen lords. [15] During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam (Giao Ch u), until the early 10th century AD. Giao Chỉ (with its capital around modern Bac Ninh province) became a flourishing trading outpost receiving goods from the southern seas. [2] Nguyen Anh quickly unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyen dynasty, taking the ruling name Gia Long. [15] Van Lang is considered the first Vietnamese state, ruled by Hung kings of the Hong Bang dynasty, from 2879 BC. In 207 BC, what is now northern Vietnam was conquered by the Chinese, and remained mostly under Chinese rule for the next thousand years. [15] The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). [2] However the last Nguyễn lords led by Nguyễn Ánh with French support managed to establish the last Vietnamese dynasty in the form of the Nguyễn dynasty. [18] Actually, the early Nguyễn Dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Vietnamese dynasties did (like building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos, etc), except those feats were not enough in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics. [2]

During the 1930s, the Vietnamese Communist Party was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Trần Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ. [2] In 1960, at the Third Party Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party (renamed Labor Party on the surface since 1951), Lê Duẩn arrived from the South and strongly proposed the use of revolutionary warfare to topple Diệm's regime, unifying the country, and build Marxist-Leninist socialism. [2] The Vietnamese Communist Party dropped its front name "Labor Party" and changed the title of First Secretary (used by China) to Secretary General (used by the Soviet Union), with Lê Duẩn remained Secretary General. [2] The Comintern sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1930, in Hongkong, with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [2] The Period of Division with many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ng m) by Đặng Trần Côn (Chinese script version) and Đoàn Thị Điểm (Nôm version), and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xu n Hương. [2]

After a long period of subjugation by the Chinese feudal empire, a period marked by numerous insurrections, the Vietnamese people finally won back their independence in the 10th century. [19] In March 1945 Japan made a full-scale takeover of the country, exploiting Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns and causing the Vietnamese famine of 1945 killing up to 2 million people. [20]

Though ignored increasing calls for Vietnam's independent to develop a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, rubber, tea and coffee…, the French maintained full control of Vietnam until World War II. [15] Ngo Dinh Diem, the State of Vietnam's Prime Minister, toppled Bao Dai in a fraudulent referendum organized by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam in 1955. [15]

The country got a longer period of independence under the Anterior Ly dynasty between 544 AD and 602 AD. And in early 10th century, Vietnam gained autonomy, but not sovereignty, under the Khuc family. [15] The Lê dynasty saw the zenith of dynastic rule of Vietnam under the rule of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông. [18] In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation to the end of the Tang Dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phng Hưng. [2] Art and architecture during the Lê Dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần Dynasty. [2]

Most notable Song-Lý battle took place on Chinese land in 1075 AD. Upon learning that a Song invasion was imminent, the Lý army and navy (about 100,000 men) under the command of Lý Thường Kiệt, Tông Đản used amphibious operations to preemptively destroy three Song military installations at Yong Zhou, Qin Zhou, and Lian Zhou in present-day Guangdong and Guangxi, and killed 100,000 Chinese. [2] Successive Lý kings continued to accomplish far-reaching feats: building a dike system to protect the rice producing area; founding Quốc Tử Giám, the first noble university; holding regular examinations to select capable commoners for government positions once every three years; organizing a new system of taxation; establishing humane treatment of prisoners. [2] Although Trần Thủ Độ had purged members of Lý nobility, most Trần kings ruled the country in similar manner to the Lý kings. [2] The country flourished after gaining independence under the Lý and Trần dynasties, with Buddhism becoming the dominant religion and three Mongol invasions repelled. [18] Unlike the Lý and Trần kings, who were more influenced by Buddhism, the Lê kings leaned toward Confucianism. [2] Leaving Hoa Lư, copy at www.vietnambiketours.com, a natural fortification surrounded by mountains and rivers, Lý Công Uẩn moved his court to the new capital in present-day Hanoi and called it Thăng Long (Ascending Dragon). [2] Lý Công Uẩn, posthumously referred as Lý Thái Tổ, changed the country's name to Đại Việt (Hán tự: 大越; literally "Great Viet"). [2]

Dinh founded the Đinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself First Emperor (Tiên Hoàng) of Đại Cồ Việt (Hán tự: 大瞿越; literally "Great Viet Land"), with its capital in Hoa Lư (modern day Ninh B"nh). [2] Dai Viet came to an end in 1802, when the Nguyen dynasty took the power and the name of the country was changed to Viet Nam by emperor Gia Long (Nguyen Anh ). [20]

The Nguyễn Dynasty is usually blamed for failing to modernize the country in time to prevent French colonization in the late 19th century. [2] Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly's reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, the investment in building large warships and cannons, and land reform. [2] In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. [2] Champa troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 AD and again in 1383 AD. However, the Trần Dynasty was successful in gaining two Champa provinces, located around present-day Hue, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Tr n to a Cham king. [2] The Trần Dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new kings: as a king aged, he would relinquish the throne to his crown prince, yet holding a title of August Higher Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor. [2]

Taking advantage of the situation, the Chinese Song Dynasty invaded Đại Cồ Việt. [2] In 111 BC the Han-Nanyue war resulted in Nanyue being absorbed into the Chinese Han dynasty empire. [18]

After the fall of the Mạc Dynasty, all real power in the north belonged to the Trịnh Lords. [2] The Mac dynasty was defeated and the Le dynasty was nominally reinstalled to power, but in this point the real power was divided between the northern Trinh lords and the southern Nguyen lords. [20] Despite the Lê dynasty defeating the Mạc dynasty its power was greatly weakened with the Trịnh lords from the northern provinces quickly engaging in decades longer civil war against the southern Nguyễn lords. [18]

After the Mạc dynasty was defeated, the Lê dynasty was nominally reinstalled, but actual power was divided between the northern Trịnh lords and the southern Nguyễn lords, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s. [10] After the Tang dynasty was ousted by the Later Liang in northern China, China split in different Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties, the Emperors of Later Liang in Northern Central China and the Southern Han in Southern China both claimed to be the sole legitimate Emperors of China. [1] Capitalizing on this, the Việt Minh launched the August Revolution across the country to seize government offices, emperor Bảo Đại abdicated on August 25,1945, ending the Dynasty. [1] He drank and slept after tiring, the emperor does not care about ruling country so all of power and right were relied on chancellor Trần Tự Khánh and the main power of dynasty was gradually belonged to Trần clan. [1] The Song Dynasty had reunified the country for the first time since the fall of the Tang. [14] From ancient times, modern northern Vietnam and southern China were peopled by many races, lộc Tục succeeded his predecessor as tribal chief and made the first attempts to incorporate all tribes around 2879 BC. According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, sng Lãm was Kinh Dương Vươngs successor and founded the Second Hng dynasty. [1] The first written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty, as the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. [1]

It is the first language of the majority of the Vietnamese population, in the Czech Republic, Vietnamese has been recognized as one of 14 minority languages, on the basis of communities that have either traditionally or on a long-term basis resided in the country. [1] As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia, Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. [1]

It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers, Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation. [1] Le Loi then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái Tổ, non-Han ethnic minorities fought in the Chinese army against the Ho. [1] Like Chinese monarchs, Vietnamese sovereigns chose the dragon as the symbol of their power. [21] Vietnamese dynasties Cash Chinese cash Japanese mon Korean mun Pham Quoc Quan, Nguyen Dinh Chien, Nguyen Quoc Binh and Xiong Bao Kang, Bao Tang Lich Su Viet Nam. [1]

In 1978, the Vietnamese army invaded Cambodia (sparking the Cambodian-Vietnamese War) which removed the Khmer Rougewho had been razing Vietnamese border villages and massacring the inhabitantsfrom power, installing a regime whose leaders rule until 1989. [11] Vietnamese revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh declared independence from France on 2 September 1945, France reasserted its colonial dominance and a war ensued between France and the Viet Minh, led by Ho. [1]

After less than two months in power, Kim organized the first primary examinations in Vietnamese, the language he intended to use in the advanced tests, education minister Hoang Xuan Han strove to Vietnamise public secondary education. [1] Vietnamese was identified more than 150 years ago as part of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family. [1] Bánh Cuốn (Vietnamese steamed rice rolls) For years, Bánh Cuốn (Vietnamese steamed rice rolls) has never stop to demonstrate its long. [11] Every Vietnamese person knows the legend of Lac Long Quan and Au Co. Lac Long Quan (King Dragon of the Lac Bird Clan) is known as the forefather of the Vietnamese people. [21] The land began as several states, with King Kinh Dương Vương grouping all the vassal states at around 2879 BC. The ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period are known as the Hng kings. [1] The Ngo, Dinh and anterior Le dynasties marked the period of national restoration while the subsequent Ly and Tran dynasties (11th 14th centuries) developed the Vietnamese feudal State to its apex. [13]

The Vietnamese Government declares itself ready to welcome amicably the French Army when, conforming to international agreements, a Supplementary Accord, attached to the present Preliminary Agreement, will establish the means by which the relief operations will be carried out. [1] \n Upon taking control, the Vietnamese communists banned other political parties, arrested people believed to have collaborated with the U.S. and sent them to reeducation camps. [12] From the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [11] In the United States, Vietnamese is the sixth most spoken language, with over 1.5 million speakers and it is the third most spoken language in Texas, fourth in Arkansas and Louisiana, and fifth in California. [1] North Vietnamese forces unsuccessfully attempted to overrun the South during the 1968 Tet Offensive and the war soon spread into neighboring Laos and Cambodia, both of which the United States bombed. [12]

The legendary Hồng Bàng Dynasty of the Hng kings is considered by many Vietnamese as the first Vietnamese state, known as Văn Lang. [11] The same type of currency circulated in China, Japan and Korea for centuries, the first Vietnamese coins were cast under the rule of the Đinh Dynasty. [1]

Their rule did not last long and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyn Lords with the help of the French, who established the Nguyn Dynasty. [12] In 1858, the period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Da Nang by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Diplomat Charles de Montignys mission having failed, Genouillys mission was to stop attempts to expel Catholic missionaries and his orders were to stop the persecution of missionaries and assure the unimpeded propagation of the faith. [1]

In 939 Ngô Quyền proclaimed himself king but not emperor, established the Ngô Dynasty and his capital at Cổ Loa, after his death Annam became embroiled in the Anarchy of the 12 Warlords. [1] During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions. [11] The division of the country ended a century later when the T y Sơn brothers defeated both and established their new dynasty. [11] The Chinese-supported Mạc dynasty challenged the Lê dynasty's power. [10] During the Tran Dynasty (early 13th to end of 14th centuries), the dragon retained the sophisticated style of the Ly dragon, yet changed to reflect the greater authority of the dynasty which defeated invading Mongol forces three times. [21]

Early Ly dynasty with the name of the country: Van Xuan (544- 603AD); followed by the 2nd struggle against Chinese rule. [13] In 1009, the Early Lê dynasty passed from flourish and downfall in 29 years with 3 Emperors Lê Đại Hành, Lê Trung Tông and Lê Ngọa Triều.The last emperor Lê Ngọa Triều died in 1009 after evil and brutal ruling in Đại Cồ Việt which made him and his dynasty becoming unpolular to civilians. [1]

To support South Vietnam's struggle against the communist insurgency, the United States began increasing its contribution of military advisers. [11] Vietnam's independence was gradually eroded by Franceaided by large Catholic collaborator militiasin a series of military conquests from 1859 until 1885 when the entire country became part of French Indochina. [11] \n Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-1800s, when the country was colonized by the French. [12]

The disputed Gulf of Tonkin Incident was the immediate reason the U.S. cited for its military assault on North Vietnamese military installations and the gradual deployment of more than 500,000 troops into South Vietnam. [12]

In 1968, the NLF launched a massive and surprise Tết Offensive (known in South Vietnam as "Biến Cố Tết Mậu Th n" or in the North as "Cuộc Tổng Tấn Công và Nổi Dậy Tết Mậu Th n"), attacking almost all major cities in South Vietnam over the Vietnamese New Year (Tết). [2] Despite some early successes, the Vietnamese Communists made many serious long-term mistakes and caused an overall decline of the country over many years. [2] The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam ) more commonly known as North Vietnam is a country located in Southeast Asia. [18] From China, other non-Communist Vietnamese parties also joined Việt Minh and established armed forces with backing from the Guomingtang. [2]

Since the Han, Chinese imperial dynasties made Confucianism the state doctrine; the Vietnamese monarchy gradually adopted it. [19] Learning a lesson from the Trung revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. [2] He stressed the need to educate the masses, modernize the country, foster understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and a peaceful transition of power. [2]

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