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The Bronze Age

The Bronze Age

C O N T E N T S:

  • The Yamna culture is a Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th-23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit-Grave Culture or Ochre-Grave Culture.(More...)
  • …the centuries of the Copper, Bronze, and Iron ages; but these were gradual changes initiated and managed largely internally and at a rate dictated from within.(More...)
  • Copper-arsenic alloys were used throughout mainland Europe and the Middle East during the 'Copper Age', the slow transition from the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age between about 4000 and 2500 BC. These prehistoric 'arsenical coppers' span the period between the first smelting of copper and the development of bronze, which is an alloy of copper and tin.(More...)
  • The era of the Shang and the Zhou dynasties is generally known as the Bronze Age of China, because bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, used to fashion weapons, parts of chariots, and ritual vessels, played an important role in the material culture of the time.(More...)
  • The year 1177 BCE roughly demarks the disintegration of humanity's first global civilization: the Late Bronze Age.(More...)

  • Historian W. C. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (256 BC)" and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period, or to 221 BC. (More...)
  • The types of weapons used in the Middle Bronze period continue into the Late Bronze.(More...)


The Yamna culture is a Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th-23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit-Grave Culture or Ochre-Grave Culture. [1] The Late Harappan culture, which dates from 1900-1400 BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately. [1] The name "Israel" first appears c. 1209 BC, at the end of the Late Bronze Age and the very beginning of the Iron Age, on the Merneptah Stele raised by the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah. [1] The period is divided into three phases: Early Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), Middle Bronze Age (1500-1200 BC), and Late Bronze Age (1200- c. 500 BC). [1] In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. [1] By convention, the "Early Bronze Age" in China is sometimes taken as equivalent to the " Shang dynasty " period of Chinese prehistory (16th to 11th centuries BC), and the "Later Bronze Age" as equivalent to the " Zhou dynasty " period (11th to 3rd centuries BC, from the 5th century also dubbed " Iron Age "), although there is an argument to be made that the "Bronze Age" proper never ended in China, as there is no recognizable transition to an "Iron Age". [1] The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with the Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule. [1] The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the period of approximately 1300-700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia and the British Isles. [1] The Bronze Age in Northern Europe spans the entire 2nd millennium BC ( Unetice culture, Urnfield culture, Tumulus culture, Terramare culture, Lusatian culture ) lasting until c. 600 BC. The Northern Bronze Age was both a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, c. 1700 -500 BC, with sites that reached as far east as Estonia. [1] Bronze Age, third phase in the development of material culture among the ancient peoples of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, following the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods (Old Stone Age and New Stone Age, respectively). [2] The civilization developed in the Middle and Late Bronze Age, between the 17th and the 13th centuries BC. [1] The Srubna culture was a Late Bronze Age (18th-12th centuries BC) culture. [1] The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture (1300-700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials. [1] The Oxus civilization was a Bronze Age Central Asian culture dated to c. 2300 -1700 BC and centered on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus). [1] The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age ( c. 1400 -1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. [1] The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600-1200 BC) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). [1]

The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around 2000 BC, when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. [1] This early copper phase is commonly thought of as part of the Bronze Age, though true bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was used only rarely at first. [2] An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. [1] The Aegean Bronze Age began around 3200 BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network. [1] The Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement - the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom ). [1] If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC (as most chronologists now think) then its immediate effects belong to the Middle to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age; but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall. [1]

In Ban Chiang, Thailand, ( Southeast Asia ) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC. However, according to the radiocarbon dating on the human and pig bones in Ban Chiang, some scholars propose that the initial Bronze Age in Ban Chiang was in late 2nd millennium. [1] The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700-450 BC). [1] In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800-1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubing, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. [1] The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is around 1000-800 BC. Although the Korean Bronze Age culture derives from the Liaoning and Manchuria, it exhibits unique typology and styles, especially in ritual objects. [1] The Bronze Age in Nubia, started as early as 2300 BC. Copper smelting was introduced by Egyptians to the Nubian city of Mero", in modern-day Sudan, around 2600 BC. A furnace for bronze casting has been found in Kerma that is dated to 2300-1900 BC. [1] In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 750 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. [1] In Mesopotamia, the Mesopotamian Bronze Age began about 3500 BC and ended with the Kassite period (c. 1500 BC - c. 1155 BC). [1] The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c. 2300 BC, corresponding to level V at Namazga-Depe. [1] The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. [1] A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik ( Serbia ), although the civilization is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age. [1] Even though Northern European Bronze Age cultures were relatively late, and came into existence via trade, sites present rich and well-preserved objects made of wool, wood and imported Central European bronze and gold. [1] The Golasecca culture developed starting from the late Bronze Age in the Po plain. [1] These forests are known to have existed into later times, and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late Bronze Age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years. [1] The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. [1] Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. [1] …approximate dates as shown: the Bronze Age (2300-700 bce ) and the Iron Age (700-1 bce ), which followed a less distinctly defined Copper Age ( c. 3200-2300 bce ). [2] The Bronze Age includes the first historically verified dynasty, the Shang ( c. 1600-1046 bce ), and China’s first written records. [2] Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. [1] In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Otomani and Gyulavarsand cultures. [1] The Castellieri culture developed in Istria during the Middle Bronze Age. [1] The usual tripartite division into an Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age is not used. [1] Ur, Kish, Isin, Larsa and Nippur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon, Calah and Assur in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. [1] The Arameans were a Northwest Semitic semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated in what is now modern Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. [1] "Smelting and Recycling Evidences from the Late Bronze Age habitat site of Baioes". [1] In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian Plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. [1] Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. [1] Trade and industry played a major role in the development of the ancient Bronze Age civilizations. [1] The Minoan civilization based in Knossos on the island of Crete appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. [1] As such, most African civilizations outside of Egypt did not experience a distinct Bronze Age. [1] Located in Sardinia and Corsica, the Nuragic civilization lasted from the early Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD, when the islands were already Romanized. [1] From about 1000 bce the ability to heat and forge another metal, iron, brought the Bronze Age to an end, and the Iron Age began. [2] The date at which the age began varied with regions; in Greece and China, for instance, the Bronze Age began before 3000 bce, whereas in Britain it did not start until about 1900 bce. [2] Bronze Age collapse theories have described aspects of the end of the Age in this region. [1] A few examples of named Bronze Age cultures in Europe in roughly relative order. [1] In the Early Bronze Age the culture of the Kopet Dag oases and Altyndepe developed a proto-urban society. [1] The Apennine culture (also called Italian Bronze Age) is a technology complex of central and southern Italy spanning the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age proper. [1] This Bronze Age culture is called the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC). [1] Another example site is Must Farm, near Whittlesey, which has recently been host to the most complete Bronze Age wheel ever to be found. [1] The climate was deteriorating; where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. [1] The Atlantic Bronze Age was defined by a number of distinct regional centres of metal production, unified by a regular maritime exchange of some of their products. [1] Whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow housed the dead, Early Bronze Age people buried their dead in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. [1] During the Bronze Age the Germanic peoples spread over southern Scandinavia and penetrated more deeply into Germany between the Weser and Vistula rivers. [2] Although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas (such as Sub-Saharan Africa ), the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. [1] At the end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean region, the Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy. [1] Archaeology also suggests that Bronze Age metallurgy may not have been as significant a catalyst in social stratification and warfare in Southeast Asia as in other regions, social distribution shifting away from chiefdom-states to a heterarchical network. [1] Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time. [1] After the Bronze Age collapse, their political influence was confined to a number of Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC. [1] The Bronze Age in Central Europe has been described in the chronological schema of German prehistorian Paul Reinecke. [1] The archetypal Bronze Age divisions of the Near East have a well-established triadic clearness of expression. [1] The great bronze age of China: an exhibition from the People's Republic of China. [1] One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe. [1] Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials. [1] Art of the Bronze Age: southeastern Iran, western Central Asia, and the Indus Valley. [1]

The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory. [1]

The Late Bronze Age Collapse, often alternately referred to as the Mycenaean Palatial Civilization Collapse, was a period of time roughly between the years of 1250-1000 BC (3250-3000 years ago) that was violent, and catastrophically disruptive with regard to cultures, social systems/practices, government institutions, languages, ethnic identities, trade routes, literacy, and technologies. [3] Once smelting of sulfide ores became economic from about 1600 BC, Cyprus became a vital link in the trade of Eastern Mediterranean Bronze Age cultures for 500 years, serving not just as a convenient island in the center of many trade routes, but producing large quantities of copper for export. [4]

I use 1177 BC as shorthand for the entire Late Bronze Age collapse, just as we commonly use 476 AD as shorthand for the fall of the Roman Empire; we know that neither took place entirely in exactly that year, and yet we understand that those dates are representative. [5] An archaeologist and ancient historian by training, Dr. Cline's primary fields of study are biblical archaeology, the military history of the Mediterranean world from antiquity to present, and the international connections between Greece, Egypt, and the Near East during the Late Bronze Age (1700-1100 BC). [5] The Bronze Age Timeline Timeline Description: The Bronze Age was a period of time between the Stone Age and the Iron Age when bronze was used widely to make tools, weapons, and other implements. [6] The Bronze Age refers to a time when bronze was the primary metal used to create tools and weapons. [7]

At Fenan, which was mined for copper in Chalcolithic times (Chapter 3), Bronze Age workings began around 2000 BC. The Fenan miners now followed the ores far underground, in inclined shafts that were as much as 15 to 20 m underground and at least 55 m long. [4] Eratosthenes, writing of the Late Bronze Age, say 1200 BC, reports that Cyprus was so heavily forested at that time that even smelting copper and silver, and felling trees for shipbuilding, had made little inroads on the forest. [4] My main thesis is that there must have been a 'perfect storm' of calamitous events at that turning point in order to cause the Late Bronze Age civilizations to collapse shortly after 1200 BC. There is both direct and circumstantial evidence that there was climate change, drought and famine, earthquakes, invasions and internal rebellions, all at that approximate time. [5] Map of invasions, destructions, and possible population movements during the collapse of Late Bronze Age civilizations, c. 1200 BC. (Uploaded by Alexikoua on Wikipedia in 2013 and licensed CC BY-SA 3.0.) [5] I told him that what I really wanted to write was a book about what collapsed, because the Late Bronze Age and the cultures and civilizations that were thriving in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean between about 1700 and 1200 BC have always fascinated me. [5] Every Anatolian site that was important during the preceding Late Bronze Age shows a destruction layer, and it appears that here civilization did not recover to the level of the Indo-European Hittites for another thousand years. [3] The period around 1500 BC (the middle-late Bronze Age) saw a new set of religious beliefs come into play, says Pryor, with huge centralised structures like Stonehenge abandoned in favour of localised religious sites like Flag Fen. [8] Built in c2500 BC, Stonehenge was an important site of early pilgrimage until the early Bronze Age, when one of the greatest concentrations of round barrows in Britain was built in the surrounding area. [8] Water drips constantly onto the Bronze Age posts and timbers that date to c1200-1100 BC - it is the waterlogged peat that has preserved the site for so long. [8] Syrian sites previously showed evidence of trade links with Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia), Egypt and the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age. [3] Rock carvings are found worldwide, with the highest concentrations in Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America and Australia dating between the late Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic periods, although some date to the Bronze Age. [9] The Atlantic Bronze Age is the period of approximately 1300 to 700 BCE that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, and the British Isles. [9] The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around 2,000 BCE, when copper was alloyed with tin and used primarily in the field of metallurgy. [9] The Bronze Age spanned from 3,300 to 1,200 BCE and is characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacturing of implements and weapons. [9]

Professor Cline, why were earlier generations of scholars so keen to find a single explanation for the decline of Bronze Age civilizations? In the past, many scholars blamed the Sea Peoples, whose identity remains shrouded in mystery, for the collapse of various Bronze Age cultures. [5] The Bronze Age saw the birth of civilization and the development of advanced cultures in Europe, the Near East, and East Asia. [9] All three civilizations of the Bronze Age had many characteristics in common, while at the same time were distinct in their culture and disposition. [10] The Bronze Age is the time in which bronze was the primary material used in many cultures. [7] Just preceding the Late Bronze Age Collapse (and during), Syria turned into a battleground between some of the largest empires of the time the Hittites, the Assyrians, the Mitanni, and the Egyptians. [3] Professor Eric H. Cline speaks to Ancient History Encyclopedia's James Blake Wiener about his new title and the circumstances that lead to the collapse of the cosmopolitan world of the Late Bronze Age in this interview. [5] This ties in nicely with your theories about the Collapse of the Late Bronze Age in the Near East. [3] T he decline of the Late Bronze Age civilizations of the Mediterranean and Near East has puzzled historians and archaeologists for centuries. [5] Discover the Bronze Age in Bible History Daily, from the Minoans in Crete to the Hittites in Turkey, and learn more about the cataclysmic international Late Bronze Age collapse. [11] Your article above on Late Bronze Age Collapse was a link in the course I did run by University of Southampton in February 2016 on Shipwrecks and Underwater Archaeology (shipwrecks of Uluburun and Gelidonia off southern Turkey in 1300 and 1200 BC). [3] Whatever the truth of earlier stories though, the evidence for, and of, the more recent Late Bronze Age Collapse is widespread, well-attested, and fascinating in many ways. [3] Before the Late Bronze Age collapse, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was mostly dominated by various Indo-European people's in particular, the Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni, and Mycenaean Greeks. [3]

Many thousands of tonnes of copper were produced during the thousand years of the Bronze Age in this part of Europe: some of the slag heaps have up to 500 tonnes of slag, and there are hundreds of them. [4] On a time scale longer than 10 years, however, a Bronze Age copper mining operation must have caused local deforestation on a large scale, and ever-increasing costs for hauling the wood to keep the industry going. [4] Archaeologists have estimated that the Bronze Age copper mines at Mitterberg, in the Austrian Tyrol near Salzburg, must have employed about 180 miners and smelters to produce about 20 tonnes of copper a year. [4] The discovery of bronze, produced by combining copper and tin, was a major advancement in metallurgy during the Bronze Age. [9] "We found items made of tin mined in central Europe: tin that was probably exchanged among the more powerful members of Bronze Age society for other items - perhaps on the marriage of a family member, for example. [8] During the Bronze Age in China, culture was similar to that in Medieval Europe. [7] Bronze Age cultures differed in development of the first writing. [9] The dyke where Pryor first discovered the site, in 1982 - quite literally stumbling upon it when he tripped over a piece of what he quickly recognised as Bronze Age timber - is still visible. [8] Early Bronze Age I Megiddo fell during a period of widespread crisis in the region, and the Great Temple was abandoned along with half of the other sites in the Jezreel Valley. [11] The two together make up one of the largest-known Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant (with larger sites like Bet Yerah and Yarmut developing later in the EBA II/III periods). [11] The Bronze Age is part of the three-age system of archaeology that divides human technological prehistory into three periods: the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. [9] The Bronze Age, a period that lasted roughly three thousand years, saw major advances in social, economic, and technological advances that made Greece the hub of activity in the Mediterranean. [10] As varying groups of people discovered metals and metallurgy, the science of forging metal, the Bronze Age occurred at different times. [7] "It’s time to re-educate people about what life in the Bronze Age was really like," says Pryor, "and dispel the age-old image of wool-clad people huddling around fires in mud and rain, like cavemen. [8] Though it developed slowly the Bronze Age was a tremendous time of technological advancement that helped early civilizations flourish and expand. [6] It's clear that the geography and climate of southern Mesopotamia would not provide the wood fuel to support a Bronze Age civilization that worked metal, built large cities, and constructed canals and ceremonial centers that used wood, plaster, and bricks. [4] Interestingly, when we have found Iron or Bronze Age burials, the bodies are always found on the north or east of the burial chamber - the side of sleep and darkness." [8] Many regions did not have a bronze age, but changed directly from Chalcolithic to iron use. [4] The Bronze Age is marked by widespread migrations and trade, especially across Europe and in the Mediterranean region. [9] You characterize this as a "pyrrhic victory," which symbolically ends the Bronze Age networks of trade, power, and culture. [5] The Únětice culture arose at the beginning of the Central European Bronze Age (2300-1600 BCE). [9] In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is dated from around 2,100 to 750 BCE. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. [9] This discovery represented the beginning of the Bronze Age, enabling people to create metal objects that were harder than previously possible. [9] The Atlantic Bronze Age was defined by a number of distinct regional centers of metal production, unified by a regular maritime exchange of products. [9] Fuel shortage may have been the single most serious constraint on copper production as early as the Bronze Age in some areas. [4] Bronze gave its name to the Bronze Age, a major innovative period in human history. [4] The Bronze Age is the earliest period for which we have direct written accounts, since the invention of writing coincides with its early beginnings. [9] "The End Bronze Age collapse marked the start of what has been called the Greek Dark Ages, which lasted for more than 400 years. [3] Owing to the fact that much of this story wasn't put to paper until "immediately before, or during the Babylonian exile and captivity, some centuries after the Bronze Age collapse memories and folklore of the collapse might have provided material which was then used in the story of the exodus without regards to timeline or geographical location". [3] The Bronze Age also saw the development of writing systems, pyramids, and ziggurats (large, raised structures used for religious purposes). [7] Scholars traditionally depict the EB I Levant as a village-level society, with cities first appearing in the early third millennium B.C.E. (Early Bronze Age II and III). [11] In the first centuries of the Bronze Age (Early Bronze Age I, ca. 3,500-3,000 B.C.E.), Mesopotamian Uruk flourished into a monumental city, sparking what Gordon Childe controversially termed an "urban revolution" in Mesopotamia. [11] The Early Bronze Age (EBA, 3,500-2,200 B.C.E.) produced the world’s first urban and literate societies, and by the end of the era, EBA society bore witness to the construction of the pyramids at Giza and the birth of the Akkadian Empire. [11] Jezreel Valley Regional Project investigations at Early Bronze Age I Megiddo reveal that the main mound and Tel Megiddo East (TME) formed a dual site. [11] Two recent articles in the American Journal of Archaeology and Near Eastern Archaeology explore not only the excavation of the Great Temple and its construction, but also the occupation of greater Early Bronze Age I Megiddo, a "dual site consisting of a cultic acropolis at Tel Megiddo and the settlement at Tel Megiddo East." [11] The article details investigations at Tel Megiddo East, the settlement responsible for the construction of the Great Temple, as well as the broader Jezreel Valley landscape in the Early Bronze Age I. [11] The Early Bronze Age I (3300-3000 B.C.E.) saw the creation of a large, unfortified settlement in an area to the east of the mound, which today rises 100 feet above the floor of the Jezreel Valley. [11] The Bronze Age came to an end with the popularization of iron. [7] Bronze Age smiths were often buried with the tools of their trade: hammers, an anvil, knives and molds. [4] Visitors can explore its huge caverns and prehistoric landscape, as well as view Bronze Age mining tools and artefacts. [8] Thought to be around 3,500 years old, the vessel once carried cargos of supplies, livestock and passengers across the Channel, and is tangible evidence of Bronze Age trading. [8] Bronze castings : Assorted bronze Celtic castings dating from the Bronze Age, found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. [9] Caring about one’s personal appearance is not something many people would attribute to Bronze Age society, but I would argue that it formed part of everyday life." [8] I believe it would have been the Bronze Age equivalent of a parish church, or even a cathedral, where people came to make offerings to the water." [8] "One thing we do know about Bronze Age people is that they held their ceremonies at liminal zones, those at the boundaries. [8] Rivers must have been the Bronze Age equivalent of motorways: they would have been packed with people. [8] It has long been clear that it took much more than a single cause to bring down the Bronze Age civilizations. [5] Aegean civilizations resided in Greece and its islands during the Bronze Age. [7] The Bronze Age starts at different areas of the world at different times. [6] The Bronze Age marks the time at which smiths became metallurgists, makers of magic, heroes, and gods. [4] The Timna workings are some of the best-studied industries of the Early Bronze Age, typical of the entire desert copper-mining and smelting operations, even though the quantities mined were small, even by the standards of the time. [4] By the time the Bronze Age was well under way, wood was being consumed around the Eastern Mediterranean on a scale that could not possibly be sustained on a long-term basis. [4] Houses weren’t built near one another until the Iron Age, says Pryor, and in the Bronze Age, houses tended to be carefully spread out among the fields. [8] Less than 10 per cent of the site has been dug, with an artificial lake created over the largest portion of the ceremonial platform, preserving the Bronze Age timbers, and the site’s history, for future generations. [8] Complex administrative societies existed in contemporaneous Mesopotamia and Egypt, but Early Bronze Age I society in the Levant was not "globalized" like the later Bronze Age, and the Megiddo phenomenon should be evaluated primarily as a local development. [11] Egypt experienced many changes and development during the Bronze Age. [7] The story of the " Fall of Troy " is in reference to destruction of a city in Anatolia during the Lage Bronze Age Collapse. [3] In just a 250m section, eight Bronze Age boats were found, presumably abandoned. [8] Socketed axe blades. : A hoard of axes from the Bronze Age found in modern Germany. [9] Recent excavations in and around Early Bronze Age I Megiddo have exposed a complex society, "settlement explosion" and monumental construction that are unparalleled elsewhere in the late-fourth millennium Levant. [11] In the second half of the third millennium B.C.E., the great Early Bronze Age states also succumbed to widespread destruction and decline. [11] One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe, notably the Ballybeg-type flat axe. [9] Ireland is also known for a large number of Early Bronze Age burials. [9] An excited group of primary school children clad in "Bronze Age’ woollen capes borrowed from the visitor centre reminds us that Bronze Age history is now part of the National Curriculum - something Pryor campaigned passionately for. [8] During the Bronze Age, the Hittites expanded their empire to cover a large area, reaching parts of Syria and Mesopotamia. [7] "And there is even evidence of Bronze Age trade, although not in the sense that we would understand it today," says Pryor. [8] Bronze Age production at Fenan has been studied only superficially. [4] In 1992, a Bronze Age boat was discovered during construction of the A20 between Folkestone and Dover. [8] The remains of the Bronze Age timber circle discovered on Holme beach on the north Norfolk coast in 1998 are on show in Lynn Museum, along with a life-size replica. [8] Before examining the Early Bronze Age Great Temple, let's take a look the site's broader history. [11] While cultic activity surely took place in the Early Bronze Age Great Temple, the monumental structure was cleaned and the sanctuary was uncovered devoid of cultic remains. [11]

…the centuries of the Copper, Bronze, and Iron ages; but these were gradual changes initiated and managed largely internally and at a rate dictated from within. [2] "Skeletal evidence for the emergence of infectious disease in bronze and iron age northern Vietnam". [1]

It was Hesiod who categorized the "ages of man", as he was aware of them, into the Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze which were separated from the harsh and cruel "modern" world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes (the time period that Homers poems are set in). [3] A "bronze age" can only occur where copper and tin are both available, where the mining and smelting technology are developed, and where trade networks can disseminate the new technology and the new artefacts. [4] "Bronze Age sheep like the ones we have here at Flag Fen wouldn’t have needed shearing - they shed their wool naturally. [8]

Copper-arsenic alloys were used throughout mainland Europe and the Middle East during the 'Copper Age', the slow transition from the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age between about 4000 and 2500 BC. These prehistoric 'arsenical coppers' span the period between the first smelting of copper and the development of bronze, which is an alloy of copper and tin. [12] In Europe, the " Bronze Age " lasted nearly 2,000 years, from approximately 3200 BCE to roughly 600 BCE. In this period, bronze tools were forged for the first time, revolutionizing how Europeans manipulated their world and competed for resources. [13]

Bronze was the metal of choice for tools, weapons, and jewellery during the Bronze Age - hence the era's name - which began around 3300 BCE. The alloy was durable and easily available, made by smelting copper and mixing it with tin and other metals. [14] The Bronze Age was the result of a short period known as the copper age; this is because bronze is a form of copper mixed with tin. [15] Analysis of pollen grains taken from sediment beneath the Sea of Galilee have pinpointed the period of crisis that led to the Late Bronze Age collapse of civilization. [16] The mystery of the collapse of Late Bronze Age civilization bedevils archaeologists. [17] Experts have long pondered the cause of the crisis that led to the collapse of civilization in the Late Bronze Age, and now believe that by studying grains of fossilized pollen they have uncovered the cause. [16]

The results showed a sharp decrease in the Late Bronze Age of Mediterranean trees like oaks, pines and carobs, and in the local cultivation of olive trees, which the experts interpret as the consequence of repeated periods of drought. [16] The article then examines the Middle Bronze Age and the Tumulus culture, and notes that this period was marked by the emergence of new cultural trends from the south west and the north west. [18] The discussion then turns to the Early Bronze Age, which featured the Castelluccio culture and the Rod"-Tindari-Vallelunga and Moarda facies, and the Middle Bronze Age, which is characterised by the Thapsos-Milazzese facies. [19] The Late Bronze Age, on the other hand, was dominated by the Lausitz culture and led to a process of cultural transformation, specifically an increase in population density and the stabilisation of settlements. [18] They found that, in Northwestern Europe, populations began to decline more than a century before the late Bronze Age climate started to cool. [13] In addition to the unusual tools, excavations by the CRAG team of the Bronze Age site unearthed other objects that shed light on the lives of the people who lived there 4,500 years ago, including this arrowhead found this year. [20] A team of amateur archeologists excavating a Bronze Age site in the United Kingdom has unearthed a cache of unusual stone tools deposited in an ancient stream more than 4,000 years ago. [20] The CRAG team intends to continue their excavations at the Bronze Age site near Moel Arthur, and to fully document the unusual tools and other finds. [20] Archeologist Ian Brooks thinks they may have been used to chip away at rock faces and boulders to create marks and designs, such as ring shapes, a characteristic type of ornamentation found at many Bronze Age sites in Britain. [20] It discusses the culture and also talks about historical objects found there from the Bronze Age. [15] It first examines the Early Bronze Age and the Únětice culture, which slowly improved its metallurgy. [18] The Bronze Age, which ended in roughly in the first millennium B.C., saw the idea of iron smelting coming to light. [15] The Bronze Age, which was in full swing by the third millennium B.C., spread across Europe and Asia at roughly the same time to change everyday life. [15] Who started the Bronze Age is still a bit of a controversy, some feel it started in different parts of Europe, spread from Asia, or it began at roughly the same time across the known world. [15] It first observes that during the earliest stage of the Bronze Age, a system of coastal trade which extended over a major part of central Mediterranean could have existed in Sicily and in the Aeolian islands. [19] Who was it that started this Bronze Age, well that is the tricky part, many theories and ideas exist and no one knows for sure who did smelt bronze first. [15]

Historians like Brooke have long acknowledged that climate change is but one possible explanation among many for the late Bronze Age collapse. [13] He added that the uniqueness of the study also lay in the combination of precise science and archaeological and historical analysis, offering the fullest picture yet of the collapse of civilization in this area at the end of the Bronze Age. [16] This site talks about the two large civilizations that lead the Bronze Age: The Minoans and the Mycenean. [15] In many regions, small, scattered villages were all that remained of the great Bronze Age civilizations. [13] The authors argue that, all along, social and economic shifts were more than sufficient to explain the fall of regional Bronze Age civilizations. [13] The Bronze Age made life easier for people even though it soon became one of the metals that was used less extensively. [15] According to a new study, it's possible that all iron-based weapons and tools of the Bronze Age were forged using metal salvaged from meteorites. [14] Traces of this toxic element in the earliest Bronze Age tools have provided generations of archaeologists with vital clues about the spread of early metals technology. [12]

This is more than just a cool story from the Bronze Age though - it's evidence that this kind of analysis can help narrow down just when and where we developed the technological know-how to start producing our own iron goods. [14] "The present results complementing high quality analyses from the literature suggest that most or all irons from the Bronze Age are derived from meteoritic iron," writes Jambon in his published paper. [14] In a paper recently published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of scientists under lead author Ian Armit of the University of Bradford set out to reconstruct the late Bronze Age climate with unprecedented precision. [13] Tipping, Richard et al., "Response to late Bronze Age climate change of farming communities in north-east Scotland." [13] An Irish "crannog" - a defensive structure - from the late Bronze Age. [13] He noted that many small objects from the Bronze Age in Europe have been found in what once were wet locations, such as swamps or bogs, and that they may have been deposited as a form of ritual offering. [20] This article studies Bronze Age Poland, which served as the eastern section of the most culturally advanced region of Europe. [18] In Bronze Age Western Europe, Southern Germany and Denmark were the two dominant centres of power, very similar to kingdoms. [21] Pollen Study Points to Drought as Culprit in Bronze Age Mystery - The New York Times no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. [16] The Bronze Age site excavated by the CRAG team is thought to be much older: built around 2500 B.C., based on carbon dating of charcoal fragments. [20] Geophysical surveys also suggest there was at least one roundhouse, a typical type of group dwelling during the Bronze Age in Britain, at the site. [20] This site contains short and brief information about the Bronze Age, it does contain many images and maps dealing with the topic. [15] The first is the safety pin, although it was probably not called that during the Bronze Age. [15] While surveying 250,000 years of climate history, historian John Brooke of Ohio State University argues in an ambitious new book that the onset of a "cold, dry climate has to be a fundamental explanation of the demise of the Bronze Age of the greater Mediterranean." (Brooke, 2014) Harvests failed in a changing climate, and subsequent food shortages undermined palace economies while provoking mass migration. [13] It is no surprise, then, that scholars have sought to link the Bronze Age collapse to climate change. [13] The Bronze Age started in the third millennium B.C. and with it brought great advancements to the world. [15]

The ax was made using bronze as the head and wood as the handle, the two were still fashioned together the same way as in the Stone Age. [15] Trading networks and, in turn, stratified civilizations based around bronze production could not survive the advent of the Iron Age, when metals stronger than bronze were suddenly widely accessible. [13] The latter half of the article focuses on the Late Bronze, Final Bronze, and Early Iron Ages, where a new connection between Sicily, the Aeolian islands, and mainland Italy was formed that greatly changed the role of these islands in the Mediterranean. [19]

The era of the Shang and the Zhou dynasties is generally known as the Bronze Age of China, because bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, used to fashion weapons, parts of chariots, and ritual vessels, played an important role in the material culture of the time. [22] The Bronze Age was the time when men learned how to mine and smelt copper and tin to make bronze weapons and tools. [23]

BRONZE AGE, in Iranian archeology a term used informally for the period from the rise of trading towns in Iran, ca. 3400-3300 B.C., to the beginning of the Iron Age, ca. 1400-1300 B.C. It was originally adopted as part of a chronological system based on assumptions about successive changes in the use of raw materials for tool manufacture, but, along with Iron Age and other comparable terms, it has long since lost any precise meaning in relation to technology. [24] Beginning around 3300 BCE in the Near East and parts of South Asia, the Bronze Age was categorized by the widespread use of bronze in weapons, tools and decorations. [25]

At about the same time that Stonehenge was rising in England and Abraham was framing the principles of Judaism in the Middle East, a Bronze Age culture was developing in China that in many respects was seldom equaled and never surpassed. [23] In sites in Palestine, excavations show a slow but steady egyptianization of the culture as more egyptian or egyptianized artifacts appear in the latter half of the Late Bronze Age, and as egyptian practices (e.g. burial practices) become more the fashion. [26] French scientist Albert Jambon has been working on a new study that's carried out geochemical analysis on numerous iron artifacts from Bronze Age cultures across the ancient world. [27] How did Bronze Age civilizations manage to forge iron weapons before they had learned how to smelt iron ore? It turns out, they had a little bit of help from the cosmos, as many of the iron artifacts from this era appear to have an extraterrestrial origin. [27] The long period of the Bronze Age in China, which began around 2000 B.C., saw the growth and maturity of a civilization that would be sustained in its essential aspects for another 2,000 years. [22] Sherds of Andronovo pottery, derived from southern Siberia and traditionally linked by scholars with Iranian tribes, appear for the first time in central Asia at the end of the Bronze Age (i.e., the end of the Namazga/Namāzgāh VI period), half a millennium after the onset of urban decline (Biscione, 1977; L'Asie centrale, 1988). [24] There is a definite decrease in occupied settlements in the Late Bronze Age from the previous Middle Bronze period. [26] In addition to royal scarabs, many other scarabs of the Late Bronze have expression of luck and goodwill for the bearer, thus suggesting that scarabs were becoming more amuletic in this period than in the previous Middle Bronze Age. [26] FIGURINES: Although clay figurines appear first in Middle Bronze II, they main generally rare until towards the end of the Late Bronze Age. [26] Primary burials lying in a supine fully extended position becomes the more common burial fashion rather than secondary burial characteristic of Middle Bronze II. (Compare Middle Bronze II Gibeon Tomb 15 with Late Bronze Age cemetery at Tell es-Sa'idiyeh.) [26]

The divers are part of a scientific team excavating on land and underwater to investigate why a string of Late Bronze Age civilizations toppled--the Mycenaean kingdom in Greece, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia, and the New Kingdom of Egypt. [28] It is important to note that there are scant archaeological remains in the first part of the Late Bronze Age. [26] Two major types of arrowheads ( ANEP, 805 - inscribed javelin heads) occur in this period: long, slender arrowheads (most of the Late Bronze Age) and small blunt ones (generally thirteenth century). [26] A second important point about the Late Bronze Age concerns the egyptianization of this indigenous culture. [26] Egyptian and egyptianize stone vessels become common in the Late Bronze Age particularly as the local industry develops at sites like Beth Shan. [26] In the Late Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, a number of well-built square-shaped houses can be cited: Tell Sera', Tell Masos, Beth Shan, Tell Hesi, Gerar, Tell Aphek and Tell el-Farah (S). [26]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(38 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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2. (70) LB.html

3. (52) Chapter 4: The Bronze Age

4. (43) The Bronze Age | Boundless Art History

5. (33) The Great Bronze Age of China | Asia for Educators | Columbia University

6. (27) web page template

7. (22) History Explorer: Life in the Bronze Age - History Extra

8. (19) Late Bronze Age Collapse, Mycenaean Civilization Collapse - Collapse As Witnessed 3400-3000 Years Ago - Science HeathenScience Heathen

9. (18) Early Bronze Age: Megiddos Great Temple and the Birth of Urban Culture in the Levant - Biblical Archaeology Society

10. (16) Bronze Age: Timeline & Explanation - Video & Lesson Transcript |

11. (15) The Bronze Age Timeline

12. (14) BRONZE AGE - Encyclopaedia Iranica

13. (13) Climate, Crisis, and Causality at the end of the Bronze Age -

14. (10) Bronze Age |

15. (10) What Caused the Mysterious Bronze Age Collapse?

16. (9) Photos: Bronze-Age Stone Tools Unearthed at Site of Ancient Stream

17. (8) Shang and Zhou Dynasties: The Bronze Age of China | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

18. (5) The most precious Bronze Age artefacts were made with cosmic materials

19. (5) Pollen Study Points to Drought as Culprit in Bronze Age Mystery - The New York Times

20. (5) Ancient DNA Reveals How the Bronze Age Changed Europe - NBC News

21. (4) History of Greece: Bronze Age

22. (4) Bronze Age in the Polish Lands - Oxford Handbooks

23. (4) Drought and unrest sparked global societal collapse in the Bronze Age. Is it happening again? -- Quartz

24. (4) Footprints, Size 10, from Britain’s Bronze Age | The New Yorker

25. (3) Recasting the Bronze Age | New Scientist

26. (3) Bronze Age in Sicily - Oxford Handbooks

27. (3) Iron tools from the Bronze Age found to have otherworldly origins

28. (3) Iron Weapons And Tools From The Bronze Age Have An Extraterrestrial Origin | IFLScience

29. (3) Did Climate Change Bring Down Late Bronze Age Civilizations? | Hakai Magazine

30. (3) Bronze Age Woman Had Surprisingly Modern Life

31. (3) Bronze Age

32. (3) EARLY BRONZE AGE - Canaan & Ancient Israel @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

33. (2) 1177 BCE, the year a perfect storm destroyed civilization - Archaeology -

34. (2) What Was Life Like for a Girl in the Bronze Age? | Smart News | Smithsonian

35. (2) Plagues plagued the Bronze Age | Science News

36. (2) Perfectly preserved bronze age wheel unearthed in Cambridgeshire | Science | The Guardian

37. (2) bronze age : NPR

38. (1) Wine in the Bronze Age: What the Snobs Drank | Time

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