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Classic and Postclassic Eras, Central America (200 - 1519)

Classic and Postclassic Eras, Central America (200 - 1519)

C O N T E N T S:

  • The evolution of Maya religion parallels that of Mexican religions from the Classic to the Postclassic era, with the sun worship and human sacrifice complex gaining importance as it did in Mexico proper.(More...)
  • Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation3500 BCE), the Archaic (35002000), the Preclassic (2000 BCE200 CE), the Classic (200 CE1000CE), and the Postclassic (1000 CE1697 CE).(More...)

  • Its immense pyramid is the largest such structure in the Americas, and it is located in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of the central Mexican highlands.(More...)
  • POSSIBLY USEFUL When did Mesoamerica begin?(More...)


The evolution of Maya religion parallels that of Mexican religions from the Classic to the Postclassic era, with the sun worship and human sacrifice complex gaining importance as it did in Mexico proper. [1] In the Postclassic Era many of the great nations and cities of the Classic Era collapsed, although some continued, such as in Oaxaca, Cholula, and the Maya of Yucatán, such as at Chichen Itza and Uxmal. [2]

KEY TOPICS El Castillo Introduction The Maya developed an advanced civilization around 2600 the Yucatan area in Mexico and Central America The Postclassic was a period of rapid movement and population growth -- especially in Central Mexico post-1200 --, for instance, in Yucatán, dual rulership apparently replaced the more theocratic governments of Classic times, whilst oligarchic councils operated in much of Central Mexico. [1] There are many ways of analyzing the pre-Hispanic eras, but one common (if oversimplified) framework divides into three main periods: Preclassic, before AD 250; Classic, AD 250-900; and Postclassic, AD 900-1521 To the north (the Huasteca), Late Postclassic archaeological sites (Cempoala and Castillo de Teayo) dominate the region, while in the central lowlands (the Totonac area), Classic sites (such as Cerro de las Mesas, El Tajin, and El Zopotol) are significant. [1] There are many ways of analyzing the pre-Hispanic eras, but one common (if oversimplified) framework divides into three main periods: Preclassic, before AD 250; Classic, AD 250-900; and Postclassic, AD 900-1521 Archaeologists typically divide Mesoamerican cultural history into five major stages: Paleo-Indian (before 8000 bc); Archaic (8000-2000 bc); Preclassic, or Formative (2000 bc-ad 200); Classic (200-900); and Postclassic (900-1521). [1]

Throughout the Progressive Era and well into the 1920s, the United States followed a policy of intervention in the Caribbean and Central America Gardner D. Stout President The American Museum of Natural History INTRODUCTION Before the voyages of Columbus and Cortes made it known to Europeans in the early 16th century, Mexico and Central America were occupied by various peoples -- Mayas, Aztecs, Zapotecs, Totonacs, and many others. [1] Tom Barry's Belize: A Country Guide, Julio A. Fernandez's Belize: Case Study for Democracy in Central America, and O. Nigel Bolland's Belize: A New Nation in Central America all deal with Belizean politics and government in the post-independence era and are recommended. [1]

Only in the Postclassic era did this practice become as frequent as in central Mexico. [1] Mesoamerica : The area of Mexico and Central America in which the presence of certain pre-Hispanic culture traits permits the classification of the cultures of the region as one civilization; includes central and southern Mexico, the Yucatan peninsula, Guatemala, El Salvador, and parts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. [1] As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice, the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. [1]

Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century. [1] Mesoamerica, cultural area encompassing present-day Mexico and most of Central America, where a number of civilizations with shared traits and cultural traditions developed before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century. [1]

Mesoamerica may also refer to the contemporary region (largely coincident with the ancient region) comprising the countries of Central America and nine southeastern states of Mexico : Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, and Yucatán. [1] The Maya are people of southern Mexico and northern Central America (Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador) with some 3,000 years of history. [1] The Maya peoples constitute a diverse range of the Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America. [1] The Maya civilization occupied a wide territory that included southeastern Mexico and northern Central America. [1] The Maya civilization flourishes in what is now southern Mexico and northern Central America. [1]

John Lloyd Stephens, the outgoing American writer, and Frederick Catherwood, a quiet English artist, were the first explorers to accurately describe and illustrate the art of the pre-Hispanic Maya of Mexico and Central America. [1] The later history of the Maya was connected with a very unusual man -- the fourth Quetzalcoatl! When the Spaniards arrived in Mexico and Central America, they were astonished to find the Maya Indians practising what appeared to be tenets of the Roman Catholic Church! The Catholic priests accompanying the conquistadors discovered that the Maya religion had many affinities with the stories and customs of the Bible. [1] The Complete Illustrated History of the Aztecs & Maya: The definitive chronicle of the ancient peoples of Central America & Mexico- including the Aztec, Maya, Olmec, Mixtec, Toltec & Zapotec. [1] During the Cretaceous period, what is now the western part of the Maya Mountains stood above sea level, creating the oldest land surface in Central America, the Mountain Pine Ridge plateau. [1] The Maya occupied the general area of Yucatn and adjacent parts of Central America from very early times. [1] The term Mesoamerica denotes the part of Mexico and Central America that was civilized in pre-Spanish times. [1] Mesoamerica would deserve its place in the human pantheon if its inhabitants had only created maize, in terms of harvest weight the world's most important crop. But the inhabitants of Mexico and northern Central America also developed tomatoes, now basic to Italian cuisine ; peppers, essential to Thai and Indian food ; all the world's squashes (except for a few domesticated in the United States); and many of the beans on dinner plates around the world. [1] Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much, but not all, of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America and it is generally accepted that Clovis people hunted mammoths, as Clovis points have repeatedly been found in sites containing mammoth remains. [1] The five rubber balls found at one Olmec site date from 1600 BC, and come from the Panama rubber tree, which was native to tropical Central America and southern Mexico. [1] In 1521 Hernán Cortés, along with a large number of Nahuatl speaking indigenous allies, conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztec Triple Alliance under the leadership of Hueyi Tlatoani Moctezuma II. Subsequently, the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the ruined Aztec capital, from where they proceeded with the process of colonizing Central America. [1] The Mayan civilization flourished over large areas of northern Central America and souththern Mexico for an incredible 3,500 years. [1] If one accepts the idea of a limited geographical setting, where then should the Book of Mormon scene be located? Complex and impressive civilizations were found both in the Andean area of South America and also in Mexico and adjacent areas of Central America. [1]

The Mesoamerican civilizations of Central America are divided into three periods although there is some disagreement about the exact dates involved. [1] The Maya were an advanced civilization that emerged in the fifth century B.C. and flourished between the years 250 to 900 A.D. They had mastered mathematics and astrological calendars of astounding accuracy, perfected the most complex writing system in the hemisphere, and built massive pyramids all over Central America. [1] The Mayan languages (alternatively: Maya languages) form a language family spoken in Mesoamerica and northern Central America. [1] Mesoamerica -- Cultural and ecological region within Central America but with a northern boundary within central Mexico. [1] This agricultural development process, which continues slowly over thousands of years, will form the basis of the first villages of Mesoamerica (including Mexico and Central America). [1] The Maya today survive in southern Mexico and Central America. [1] Typically when we discuss Mesoamerican art we are referring to art made by peoples in Mexico and much of Central America. [1] By the time Spain lost control of Mexico and Central America in 1821, Britain had extended its control over the area, albeit informally and unsystematically. [1] An example of such diversity was the great number of languages spoken in the area; one source notes the presence of 351 native languages in Mexico and Central America (McQuown 1955). [1] Beginning around 950, a culture based in northern Mexico at Tula began to dominate Central America. [1] After independence from Spain some three centuries later, in 1821, Guatemala was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America and after its dissolution the country suffered much of the political instability that characterized the region during mid to late 19th century. [1] Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, from the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced chronic instability and civil strife. [1]

In Stephen's Incidents of Travel in Central America, the author quotes what Fuentes (chronicler of the ancient kingdom of Guatemala and of the Toltecan Indians) said of the origin of the leaders of the Quiche Maya. [1] Guatemala is home to at least 8,681 species of vascular plants, of which 13.5 are endemic. 5.4 of Guatemala is protected under IUCN categories I V. In the department of Petn lies the Maya Biosphere Reserve of 2,112,940 ha, making it the second largest forest in Central America after Bosawas. [1] The French, on hearing the sound SIOUX, wrote it according to the French sound system; and the Spanish, upon hearing the SAME SOUND in Central America, called one of the tribes of the Mayas XIUS. This word has almost the same sound in the two languages, but the written representation appears different at first glance. [1]

Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation3500 BCE), the Archaic (35002000), the Preclassic (2000 BCE200 CE), the Classic (200 CE1000CE), and the Postclassic (1000 CE1697 CE). [1] There are many ways of analyzing the pre-Hispanic eras, but one common (if oversimplified) framework divides into three main periods: Preclassic, before AD 250; Classic, AD 250-900; and Postclassic, AD 900-1521. [1] Over twenty pages of data (including five figures and a six-page table detailing eleven design motifs) are employed to explicate four eras: 1) Initial, Early Preclassic and Middle Preclassic (collectively 2000-600 B.C.), 2) Late (600-100 B.C.) and Terminal Preclassic (100 B.C. -A.D. 300), 3) Classic period (300-900), and 4) Postclassic (900-1519). [1]

Following Charnay, the term "Toltec" has since been associated with the influx of certain Central Mexican cultural traits into the Maya sphere of dominance during the late Classic and early Postclassic periods. [1] Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. [1] A Classic period (c. 250 – 900 ce) and a Postclassic period (c. 900 – 1519 ce) have been distinguished in the cultural development of the Maya. [1] Iconographic comparisons between representations of these kinds and other religious Mesoamerican effigies from the Classic (c. 250 – 900 ce) and the Postclassic periods (c. 900 – 1519 ce) reveal that the nucleus of the Mesoamerican pantheon was already developing in the Olmec epoch. [1]

Many of the contrasts were drawn from events in the lowland Maya area and applied to the entire culture area; others were concluded essentially by a comparison of the Classic Maya of the lowland tropical forest of northern Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula with the Postclassic Aztec living in central Mexico in a dry mountain basin 7,000 feet above sea level. [1] The Postclassic was a period of rapid movement and population growth -- especially in Central Mexico post-1200 --, for instance, in Yucatán, dual rulership apparently replaced the more theocratic governments of Classic times, whilst oligarchic councils operated in much of Central Mexico. [1] The Postclassic was a period of rapid movement and population growth--especially in Central Mexico post-1200--and of experimentation in governance, for instance, in Yucatán, 'dual rulership' apparently replaced the more theocratic governments of Classic times, whilst oligarchic councils operated in much of Central Mexico. [1]

The early Postclassic period (900-1200) in central Mexico is associated with three major sites, all of which began in Classic times: Cholula in Puebla, Xochicalco in Morelos, and Tula in Hidalgo. [1]

The Classic Era ended earlier in Central Mexico, with the fall of Teotihuacan around the 7th century, than it did in the Maya area, which continued for centuries more. [1] The Classic Era was dominated by numerous independent city-states in the Maya region and also featured the beginnings of political unity in central Mexico and the Yucatán. [1]

" alt"Objectives Understand how people may have first reached the Americas Calakmul was the major seat of power of the Kaan or "Kingdom of the Snake", which first arose further north but built Calakmul into a Late Classic Era superpower ally of Caracol and rival to Tikal. [1] Many consider Maya art of their Classic Era (c. 200 to 900 AD) to be the most sophisticated and beautiful of the ancient New World. [1]

Various population movements occurred, caused by the incursion of groups from Aridoamerica and other northern regions, who pushed the older populations of Mesoamerica south, among these new groups were the Nahua, who would later found the cities of Tula and Tenochtitlan, the two most important capitals of the Postclassic era. [1] Centuries later, long after Teotihuacan was abandoned c. 700 CE, cities of the Postclassic era followed the style of Teotihuacan construction, especially Tula, Tenochtitlan, and Chichén Itzá. [2] The discovery of a burial site containing very early pottery has dated the formation of the city between 2000 and 1200 BCE. Its importance peaked during the Postclassic era, and continued to be occupied even after the arrived of the Spanish. [1] Among these new groups were the Nahua, who would later found the cities of Tula and Tenochtitlan, the two most important capitals of the Postclassic era. [2]

In the Postclassic period (900 - 1519 CE) the worship of the feathered serpent deity was centered in the central Mexican religious center of Cholula. [1] Mesoamerica.asf During the classical period in Central America the Olmecs displayed many impressive achievements, including building pyramids and defining an accurate calendar. [1] Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before the arrival of spanish people. [1] These artifacts were made not in the Mayan area or in another region of Mesoamerica but in lower Central America. [1] Through several millennia and up to the present, complex forms of indigenous belief and ritual have developed in Mesoamerica, the area between North America proper and the southern portion of isthmic Central America. [1] They propose limited geographical settings for the Book of Mormon in slightly different but overlapping areas of Mexico and Central America. [1] About five kilometers west of Orange Walk, is Cuello, a site from perhaps as early as 2,500 B.C. Jars, bowls, and other dishes found there are among the oldest pottery unearthed in present-day Mexico and Central America. [1] They inhabited the Gulf Coast region of what is now Mexico and Central America. [1] Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast. [1] Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. [1] Many other cities and towns in Mexico and Central America have also retained their Nahuatl names (whether or not they were originally Mexica or even Nahuatl-speaking towns). [1] In Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America, edited by Susan Evans and David Webster, pp. 138 - 142. [1] Empire and Early Republic Upon the withdrawal of Spain, Iturbide declared himself emperor of Mexico and Central America. [1] Like the hall itself, it conveys superbly the extraordinary ambience of the splendid civiliza- tion that once flourished south of us, in Mexico and Central America. [1] Many of the points I raise have been discussed by others who have explored the challenges encountered when attempting to locate Book of Mormon events in Mexico and Central America. [1] The percentages of immigrants who were from Mexico and Central America, the numbers of foreign-born refugees, and the numbers of Belizeans who had been born in other countries all increased. [1] An exhibition hall devoted to the archaeology of Mexico and Central America was in existence in the Museum as early as 1 899; from this base the hall has gone through many stages of change and development. [1] The feathered serpent god Quetzalcoatl is linked to this city, whose worship was widespread from central Mexico to Central America at the time the Spanish arrived. [1] Its participation in the circum-peninsular exchange route, possible through its port site of Isla Cerritos, allowed Chichén Itzá to remain highly connected to areas such as central Mexico and Central America. [1] It spans an area of 108,890 km2 and has an estimated population of 15,806,675, making it the most populous state in Central America. [1] Guatemala - With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populated state in Central America. [1] Military advisers from the United States Army Special Forces were sent to Guatemala to train these troops and help transform its army into a modern counter insurgency force, which eventually made it the most sophisticated in Central America. [1] Over the course of the twentieth century, an increasing number of Garifuna men became migrant workers, first along the Caribbean coast of Central America, and later in the United States. [1] The US$350 million in assistance to the region, provided under the auspices of the CBI as a supplement to annual allocations, contributed to a dramatic increase in United States assistance to Central America and the Caribbean, from US$300 million in 1981 to nearly US$1.5 billion in 1985. [1] The paper of Washburn was interested in whether cacao from Central America was traded to indigenous peoples of the American Southwest, Midwest, and Southeast; the study found that cacao was being used by populations as far away as Florida (1000 AD). [1] Due to the humid climate of Central America few Maya paintings have survived to the present day. [1] Tracing the spread of cacao from Central America requires us to examine how culture, economics, and biology interact.For most of history, the world has borrowed the process of cacao production without paying homage to the cultures that discovered the process. [1] In the course of many millennia, their descendants settled in and adapted to different environments, creating many cultures in North America, Central America, and South America. [1] In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850, Britain and the United States agreed to promote the construction of a canal across Central America and to refrain from colonizing any part of Central America. [1] On February 24, 1982, in a speech before the Organization of American States, President Ronald Reagan unveiled a new proposal for the economic recovery of Central America and the Caribbean. [1] United States policy clearly damaged sugar exports, however, through the reimposition of sugar quotas in 1981 and through the 75 percent reduction in Caribbean and Central America quotas from 1981 to 1987, a trend that offset export growth among CBI-exempted products. [1] Antigua Guatemala -- Colonial Spanish capital of Central America, a World Heritage site, and the most popular among tourists. [1] Bilingual magazine about development and human rights issues in Guatemala and Central America, published bimonthly and distributed throughout Quetzaltenango, and other areas. [1] Though the birds lived mostly in Guatemala, ancient records show the presence of their feathers all over Central America and into North America. [1] Guatemala attained its independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved in 1841. [1] Other parts of the country, however, tended to share an ethnic and religious identity with the peoples of Central America. [1] A considerable of influx of people from Central America shifted these percentages, however, so that the 1991 census showed the Mestizos to be the larger group, a change that distanced the country from the anglophone Caribbean and made it increasingly resemble its Hispanic neighbors on the isthmus of Central America. [1] Whatever its location -- geographically or imaginatively -- its influence on the cultural psyche on the region stretching from Central America to the Southwestern U.S. is unquestionable. [1] BELIZE IS A CULTURAL ANOMALY in Central America, with a society oriented more to Britain, the English-speaking Caribbean countries, and North America, than to neighboring Spanish-speaking republics. [1] In its native Central America and South America, rubber has been collected for a long time. [1] The changing political, economic, and social climate of Central America and the Caribbean, including the emancipation of slaves throughout the British empire in the 1830s, contributed to a desire to regularize the status of the settlement. [1] The Mexican empire was dissolved when the United Provinces of Central America declared their independence in July 1823. [1] Many sites in the Yucantan and northerm Central America include temple-pyramids, palaces, and observatories. [1] Once Spain began to consume chocolate, demand for cacao rose, and cultivation then extended to Venezuela, being the first cacao grown outside of Central America for commercial use. [1] Although George Price and the PUP successfully campaigned against British Honduran participation in the proposed West Indies Federation in the late 1950s, Belize saw itself as a bridge between the English-speaking Caribbean and Central America. [1] This map shows a 19th century map of Belize and all the countries in Central America. [1] The history of Belize, Central America begins over 4,00 years ago as postrayed and evidenced by many Mayan pyramids, such as Santa Rita and Cerros Right in Corozal. [1] Continent: Map of Central America and the Caribbean External Links: Instituto Nacional de Antropolog'a e Historia Website of the National Institute of Anthropology and History. [1] Guatemala is the largest economy in Central America, with a GDP per capita of US5,200; nevertheless, this developing country faces many social problems and is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. [1] Revue Magazine, 6a calle poniente No 2, La Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala, Central America. 8 to 5 Guatemala's English language magazine. [1] Volcán Tajumulco is the highest mountain in Guatemala and Central America, at 4,220 m (13,845 feet). [1] The huipil is the most common traditional garment worn today by indigenous women from central Mexico to Central America. [1] The Guatemalan provinces formed the United Provinces of Central America, also called the Central American Federation, which dissolved in civil war from 1838 to 1840. [1] President Reagan initially announced twenty-one beneficiary nations or territories from the Caribbean, Central America, and the northern coast of South America. [1] Belize is located on the Caribbean coast of northern Central America. [1] Only 74.5 of the population aged 15 and over is literate, the lowest literacy rate in Central America. [1] While hunting and foraging continued to play a part in their subsistence, these farmers domesticated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and chili peppers-- which are still the basic foods in Central America. [1] This long-standing support for strong ties with Central America undoubtedly contributed to the PUP's strong performance among Spanish-speaking voters in the western and southern parts of the country in the 1989 election. [1] Although Mayans in other parts of Central America choose to limit contact with outside influences, Mayans working in the tourist industry are generally open to conversation with polite strangers and if asked will teach you a Mayan phrase or two. [1] There are no less than thirty subspecies of white-tailed deer in North and Central America and eight in South America. [1] There has been a suggestion that the Circum-Caribbean cacao already existed in Central America before humans arrived. [1] Barrios had ambitions of reuniting Central America and took the country to war in an unsuccessful attempt to attain it, losing his life on the battlefield in 1885 against forces in El Salvador. [1] His Belize: A New Nation in Central America is the best general introduction to historical and contemporary social conditions, while his Colonialism and Resistance in Belize provides in-depth treatment of more specific issues. [1] A good general study of Belize that is historical in its perspective is O. Nigel Bolland's Belize: A New Nation in Central America. [1] The economic chapter in O. Nigel Bolland's book Belize: A New Nation in Central America discusses the economic structure of the country in the context of Belize's historical experience. [1] Cedric H. Grant's The Making of Modern Belize: Politics, Society, and British Colonialism in Central America examines in detail Belizean politics between 1950 and 1974, and Assad Shoman's Party Politics in Belize, 1950-1986 analyses the emergence and development of the electoral and party system. [1] The great majority of gold ornaments found in Central America are in pendant form, almost all suspended from a ring like the one on the chest of this alligator. [1] During the Spanish colonization of Central America, all indigenous languages were eclipsed by Spanish which became the new prestige language. [1] During the 1980s, Belize remained on the fringes of the diplomatic initiatives and United States-coordinated military activities in Central America. [1] Several major faults rive these highlands, but much of Belize lies outside the tectonically active zone that underlies most of Central America. [1] This map shows Belize and all the countries in Central America. [1] This was followed by various Spanish priests and colonial officials who left descriptions of ruins they visited in Yucatán and Central America. [1] This situation was due both to Guatemala's presumed opposition to Belize's participation and its fear of being drawn into the regional conflicts of Central America (by 1989, these conflicts had pushed some 30,000 refugees into Belize). [1] This map shows a physical relief view of Belize and all the countries in Central America and the Caribbean. [1] Some critics accused the UGWU of being communist because of the union's ties to trade union federations affiliated with the Soviet-controlled World Federation of Trade Unions, its sending of members to study in Cuba and the Soviet Union, its open support for revolutionary movements in Central America, and because of the ideological stance of Gombay, a magazine edited by UGWU leaders. [1] Where the Canaanite HITTITES migrated to from Central America should surprise no one. [1] Naylor, R.A. "British Commercial Relations with Central America 1821-51." (Ph.D. dissertation.) [1] One was the fear of being locked into a Caribbean arrangement at the expense of ties with the rest of Central America. [1] Such restructuring was especially found among Caribbean countries because of the larger share of depressed primary products in their export baskets relative to those of Central America. [1] The principal trafficking threat came from Colombian organizations that transshipped cocaine through Central America. [1] The question that has again not been considered is whether the specimens were of local manufacture or represent trade pieces from lower Central America. [1] The labor shortage was eased by the employment of large numbers of migrant workers from Central America. [1] The Guatemalan provinces formed the United Provinces of Central America. [1]


Its immense pyramid is the largest such structure in the Americas, and it is located in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of the central Mexican highlands. [3] Oaxaca Valley - The Central Valleys of Oaxaca, also simply known as the Oaxaca Valley, is a geographic region located within the modern-day state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. [3] Apart from the West, where the tradition of the Tumbas de tiro had taken root, in all the regions of Mesoamerica the cities grew in wealth, with monumental constructions carried out according to urban plans that were surprisingly complex, the circular pyramid of Cuicuilco dates from this time, as well as the central plaza of Monte Albán, and the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan. [3] In the 9th century, there was a political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities. [3] A date in the Maya calendar corresponding to 889 is inscribed on the last dated monuments in the Central Subregion; soon after the close of the 9th century it is clear that almost all of this region was abandoned. [4]

The four extant Maya codices --the Madrid Codex, the Paris Codex, the Dresden Codex, and the Grolier Codex --none dating earlier than 1100, contain a strong phonetic component, in fact a kind of syllabary, which can be successfully read as Yucatec Maya, but the Classic peoples of the Central Subregion more likely spoke an ancestor of the Cholan branch of Maya. [4] Because of the Maya penchant for covering older structures with later ones, Tzakol remains in the Central Subregion have to be laboriously dug out from their towering Late Classic overburdens. [4] The cultural situation in Late Classic Mesoamerica is the reverse of that prevailing in the Early Classic: Central Mexico now played only a minor role, while the lowland Maya reached their intellectual and artistic heights. [4] Stylistic influence from the lowland Maya, Classic Central Veracruz, and Teotihuacán can be detected among others. [4] In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful, the Classic period also saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. [3]

Whatever the case, they were probably not far removed from the classic Mesoamerican tradition; in fact, they shared many characteristics with the people of central Mesoamerica. [3] Mesoamerican chronology - Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods, the Paleo-Indian, the Archaic, the Preclassic or Formative, the Classic, and the Postclassic. [3] It describes Postclassic rather than Classic religion, but given the deeply conservative nature of Maya religion, it is highly probable that much of this description is pertinent for the earlier period. [4] The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic through the Terminal Classic and into the early portion of the Postclassic period. [3] The Early Postclassic in some areas may be described as a continuation of the Late Classic; on the Gulf coast, for example, sites like El Taj'n continued to be occupied, while in the Valley of Oaxaca (although Monte Albán was abandoned) the Zapotec tradition continued with the new centre at Mitla. [4] Tula, on the other hand, a small centre in the Late Classic, went through a rapid growth during the period 900-1200 and then declined to a provincial centre in the Late Postclassic. [4] The contrast between Postclassic and Classic was in part based on the presumed even greater emphasis on religion in the art and architecture of the latter period. [4] The Classic, as well as the Postclassic, Maya practiced human sacrifice, although not on the scale of the Aztecs. [4] Both the Classic and Postclassic Maya practiced a typically Middle American ritual ball game, as evidenced by numerous grandiose ball courts at Tikal, Copán, and Chichén Itzá. [4]

The concept of a "Classic" period is a case of the Maya tail wagging the Mesoamerican dog, since the usual span given to that stage--250-900 ce --is the period during which the Maya were erecting dated stone monuments. [4] Lowland Maya civilization falls into two chronological phases or cultures: Tzakol culture, which is Early Classic and began shortly before 250 ce, and the Late Classic Tepeu culture, which saw the full florescence of Maya achievements. [4] There is still controversy over whether the Late Classic sites built by the lowland Maya were actually cities or whether they were relatively empty ceremonial centres staffed only by rulers and their entourages. [4]

During the next 40 years this cultural paralysis spread gradually eastward, by which time the great Classic civilization of the Maya had all but atrophied. [4] In the study of the Classic stage, there has been a strong bias in favour of the Maya ; this is not surprising in view of the fact that the Maya have been studied far longer than any other people in Mesoamerica. [4]

The tendencies in central Veracruz art and architecture that began in the Late Formative culminated in the Late Classic at the great centre of El Taj'n, placed among jungle-covered hills in a region occupied by the Totonac, whose capital this may well have been. [4] While there are some important differences between the architecture of the Central and Northern subregions during the Late Classic, there are many features shared between them. [4] Despite the definite presence of the style at Teotihuacán and Cholula, Classic Central Veracruz is focused upon north central Veracruz, where the type site of El Taj'n is located, and contiguous parts of Puebla. [4] Tikal is the largest and best-known Classic site of the Central Subregion. [4] The entire coastal plain from Cerro de las Mesas north to the borders of Classic Central Veracruz culture is famed for Remojadas-style pottery figurines, which must have been turned out in incredible quantity for use as burial goods. [4] Whether or not Classic Central Veracruz culture was a Totonac achievement, the style persisted through the Classic period and strongly influenced developments in distant regions. [4] At Monte Albán in the Valley of Oaxaca, the Zapotec had begun developing culturally independent of the Olmec, adopting aspects of that culture but making their own contributions as well, on the southern coast of Guatemala, Kaminaljuyú advanced in the direction of what would be the Classic Maya culture, even though its links to Central Mexico and the Gulf would initially provide their cultural models. [3] Cities and large states comparable to those built by the Toltec and Aztec were present in Early Classic times at Teotihuacán in central Mexico and probably at Monte Albán in Oaxaca. [4]

One of the very few centres of the Late Classic in central Mexico that amounted to much was Xochicalco, in Morelos. [4]

Puuc sites may be said to represent a lowland Maya "New Empire" in the sense that their apogee occurred in the 9th and 10th centuries, a time during which the great Petén, or Central Subregion, centres were in decline or had collapsed. [4] The Puuc sites were for the Northern Subregion what the Petén sites were for the Central, for they are very numerous and clearly were the focal point for Maya artistic and intellectual culture. [4] Most are in the Central Subregion, with probably the greatest concentration in northern Petén, where Maya civilization had its deepest roots. [4] Northward from the Central Subregion, in the drier and flatter environment of the Yucatán Peninsula, the character of lowland Maya civilization changes. [4] Tepeu culture began about 600 and ended with the final downfall and abandonment of the Central Subregion about 900. (These dates, based on the correlation of the Long Count system of the Maya calendar with the Gregorian calendar, are the most generally accepted; but there is a slight chance that a rival correlation espoused by the American archaeologist Herbert J. Spinden may be correct, which would make these dates 260 years earlier.) [4] The former consist of historical chronicles mixed with myth, divination, and prophecy, and the latter (which shows definite central Mexican influences) embodies the mythology and cosmology of the Postclassic Guatemalan Maya. [4] In Postclassic times, central Mexican influences were introduced--e.g., the Toltec Feathered Serpent ( Quetzalcóatl ), called Kukulcán in Yucatán and Gucumatz in the Guatemalan highlands. [4]

The northern border of Mesoamerica runs west from a point on the Gulf coast of Mexico above the modern port of Tampico, then dips south to exclude much of the central desert of highland Mexico, meeting the Pacific coast opposite the tip of Baja (Lower) California. [4] The period was brought to an end by the Tiwanaku- Huari horizon (Middle Horizon; 600-1000), which was generated from the highland cities of Tiwanaku (in modern northern Bolivia) and Huari (in central highland Peru). [4] Archaeologists have divided the entire area occupied by speakers of Mayan languages into three subregions: (1) the Southern Subregion, essentially the highlands and Pacific Coast of Guatemala, (2) the Central Subregion, which includes the department of Petén in northern Guatemala and the immediately adjacent lowlands to the east and west, and (3) the Northern Subregion, consisting of the Yucatán Peninsula north of Petén proper. [4] An equally widespread family, the Nahua (to which the Aztec belonged) occupied most of the Central Plateau, a huge area in the northwest frontier, portions of Guerrero, the Pacific coast of Chiapas and Guatemala (where they were known as the Pipil), and the Gulf coast. [4]

Towards the end of the period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. [3] Aztec - The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. [3]

The Toltec for a time dominated central Mexico in the 11th-13th century, the northern Maya were for a time united under Mayapan, and Oaxaca was briefly united by Mixtec rulers in the 11th-12th centuries. [3] During the early period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec. [3] Around the start of the common era, Cuicuilco had disappeared, and the hegemony over the Mexican basin had passed to Teotihuacan, the next two centuries marked the period in which the so-called City of the gods consolidated its power, becoming the premier Mesoamerican city of the first millennium, and the principal political, economic, and cultural center for the next seven centuries. [3] The cities of this era were characterized by their multi-ethnic composition, which entailed the cohabitation in the same population centers of people with different languages, cultural practices, and places of origin, during this period the alliances between the regional political elites were strengthened, especially for those allied with Teotihuacan. [3]

This Olmec horizon (i.e., a cultural diffusion that is contemporaneous at widely scattered sites) represents the first climax, or era of "unification," in the history of Mesoamerican civilization. [4] Rising in the late Pre-Classic era after the decline of the Olmec civilization, on a few monuments at this archaeological site, archaeologists have found extended text in a glyphic script. [3] This applies to other pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations as well. 3500-2000 BCE During the Archaic Era agriculture was developed in the region, Late in this era, use of pottery and loom weaving became common, and class divisions began to appear. [3] After about 500 bce the Olmec "unification" gave way to an era (consisting of the Late Formative and Classic periods) of separate regional styles and kingdoms. [4] Hunter gatherers began to occupy the valley of the state around 7000 BCE. The oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools, in the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. [3]

Its fate was not much different from that of other cities such as La Quemada in the north and Teotihuacan in the center: it was burned and abandoned; in the last century of the Classic era, hegemony in the valley of Oaxaca passed to Lambityeco, several kilometers to the east. [3] The city-state of Monte Albán dominated the Valley of Oaxaca until the late Classic, highly sophisticated arts such as stuccowork, architecture, sculptural reliefs, mural painting, pottery, and lapidary developed and spread during the Classic era. [3]

The Late Classic occupation of Oaxaca, especially of the Valley of Oaxaca, is designated as Monte Albán III-B (450-700). [4] The cultural phases designated as Monte Albán III-A and III-B mark the Classic occupation of this major site in the Valley of Oaxaca. [4]

In general, the Valley of Mexico was a cultural and political vacuum in Late Classic times. [4]

There can be little doubt that the people of Monte Albán were Zapotec speakers, who during Classic times had unequaled opportunity to develop their civilization unaffected by the major troubles that disturbed Teotihuacán and the Maya at the close of the Early Classic. [4] In the last century of the Classic period, Maya civilization went into a decline from which it never recovered. [4] The Middle Preclassic period saw the beginnings of the process of urbanization that would come to define the societies of the Classic period; in the Maya area, cities such as Nakbe c. 1000 BCE, El Mirador c. 650 BCE, Cival c. 350 BCE, and San Bartolo show the same monumental architecture of the Classic period. [3] Long thought to be a center, it is now known that the site was one of the most important regional political centers of the Maya Lowlands during the Classic Period. [3] Militarism was at least significant enough to be a major artistic theme throughout the Classic period, even among the lowland Maya. [4] Chichen Itza - Chichen Itza was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. [3] El Mirador is the largest Maya city, it has been argued that the Maya experienced a first collapse c. 100 CE, and resurged c. 250 in the Classic period. [3] It is 19 kilometres south of the contemporary Maya city of Uaxactun and 30 kilometres northwest of Yaxha, the city was located 100 kilometres southeast of its great Classic Period rival, Calakmul, and 85 kilometres northwest of Calakmuls ally Caracol, now in Belize. [3]

Normally, the Classic period in Mesoamerica is characterized as the stage in which the arts, science, urbanism, architecture, and social organization reached their peak, this period was also dominated by the influence of Teotihuacan throughout the region, and the competition between the different Mesoamerican states led to continuous warfare. [3] The early Classic period began with the expansion of Teotihuacan, which led to its control over the principal trade routes of northern Mesoamerica, during this time, the process of urbanization that started in the last centuries of the early Preclassic period was consolidated. [3] The Middle Classic period ended in Northern Mesoamerica with the decline of Teotihuacan, this allowed other regional power centers to flourish and compete for control of trade routes and natural resources. [3]

Of Teotihuacán, which during the Early Classic played a role in Mesoamerica similar to that which Olmec had performed in the Early Formative. [4] At one time it was thought that the date marked the collapse of all of the regional Classic civilizations of the area as the result of massive population dislocation. [4] Most of the distinctive cultures that were to become the great Classic civilizations began to take shape at this time. [4] The Classic has been further characterized by the absence of true cities, by theocratic rather than secular government, and by an overall superiority of arts and crafts, with the exception of metallurgy, which appears for the first time in the Postclassic Period. [4] The Postclassic Period as a whole has also been distinguished from the Classic on the basis of assumed major changes in Meso-American political, economic, and social institutions. [4] The separation between Postclassic and Classic is therefore little more than a convenient way of splitting up the long chronicle of Meso-American cultural development into manageable units for discussion and analysis. [4] Most of the cultural characteristics of the area go back at least to the beginning of the Postclassic, and many appeared in Classic times. [4]

In the highland areas of Meso-America the Late Postclassic was a period of maximum population growth. [4] The period is usually divided into two phases: Early Postclassic (900-1200) and Late Postclassic (1200-1519), the former equivalent with the period of the Toltec, the latter with that of the Aztec. [4]

In the Guatemalan highlands, Kaminaljuyú declined rapidly after 600 ce, and the entire Southern Subregion was to play little part in Maya culture until the Late Postclassic. [4]

The Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city in 1697. [3] After their decline (in the Late Postclassic Period), another interregnum of warring states lasted until 1428, when the Aztec defeated the rival city of Azcapotzalco and emerged as the dominant force in central Mexico. [4] This tradition assumes that much of central Mexico was dominated by a Toltec Empire between the 10th and 12th century CE, the Aztecs referred to several Mexican city states as Tollan, Place of Reeds, such as Tollan Cholollan. [3]

At the height of the Aztec Empire, many Mixtecs paid tribute to the Aztecs and they put up resistance to Spanish rule until they were subdued by the Spanish and their central Mexican allies led by Pedro de Alvarado. [3]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(10 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (213) Classic and Postclassic Eras, Central America (200 - 1519)

2. (101) Pre-Columbian civilizations |

3. (65) Mesoamerican chronology - WikiVividly

4. (34) Mesoamerican chronology - Wikipedia

5. (5) The History of the Native Peoples of the Americas/Mesoamerican Cultures/Appendix A - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

6. (3) List of time periods - Wikipedia

7. (2) A List of Historical Time Periods to Take You Through the Past

8. (1) Chronology of Mexico

9. (1) Medieval Times - Traveling within the World

10. (1) Art of the Book Terminology Flashcards | Quizlet

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