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Cold War (Soviet Union and United States, and Their Allies, 1945 - 1989 or 1991)

Cold War (Soviet Union and United States, and Their Allies, 1945 - 1989 or 1991)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • The Cold War, often dated from 1945 to 1991, was a longstanding state of political and military tension between the Soviet Union and its allies and the West, primarily the United States and the NATO nations.(More...)
  • Do note that USSR in 1945 was Russia post-1917 and included all the various countries that now exist individually (Ukraine, Georgia etc) but after the war they were part of this huge country up until the collapse of the Soviet Union (the other name for the USSR).(More...)
  • The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-Communist side in the Greek Civil War ) and creating the NATO alliance.(More...)
  • Unlike its predecessor, the League of Nations, the U.N. would act militarily, but only with the authorization of its Security Council - an upper tier made up of WWII’s victors: the United States, USSR (Soviet Union), United Kingdom, France, and China (Taiwan between 1949-1971).(More...)
  • They explain the spread of the cold war from Europe to Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America by focusing on decolonization, the rise of newly independent states, and the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and enjoy higher standards of living.(More...)
  • The Soviet Union denounced the Marshall Plan, saying it would infringe upon European sovereignty.(More...)
  • Tensions ran highest, perhaps, during the "first Cold War," which lasted from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s, after which followed a period of relaxed tensions and increased communication and cooperation, known by the French term détente, until the "second Cold War" interceded from roughly 1979 until the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.(More...)
  • I dont believe anyone really won this war because it has caused lasting tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union now present day Russia.(More...)
  • It started after the Second World War and ended in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.(More...)
  • The Anglo-American assault on the Soviet Union and communism, as well as the bipolar division of the world that ensued, had a profound and lasting global impact.(More...)
  • According to some, the beginning of the Cold War was between 1945 and 1948, while the end was in 1989, with the dispute being over the way Europe was divided.(More...)
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin is frequently cited as calling the collapse of the Soviet Union "the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century."(More...)
  • To establish their influence and prove their military superiority the two opposing blocks of the cold war undertook major arms development programs, trying to overtake each other, This resulted in kind of competition between them frequently described by terms such as arms race, nuclear race, and space race.(More...)
  • December 31, 1991, the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist and was replaced with 15 independent states.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • February-March 1982: Arms Reductions Refused by United States In early 1982, Brezhnev proposed a two-thirds cut in U.S. and Soviet medium-range nuclear weapons arsenals in Europe by 1990.(More...)
  • The Soviets were communists, while the United States were capitalists.(More...)
  • Within a ten-month span beginning in 1949, for instance, the USSR developed a nuclear bomb, China fell to Communism, and over 300,000 American soldiers were deployed to fight a land war in Korea.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
The Cold War, often dated from 1945 to 1991, was a longstanding state of political and military tension between the Soviet Union and its allies and the West, primarily the United States and the NATO nations. [1] The Cold War, often dated from 1947 to 1991, was the sustained state of political and military tension between the powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO and other allies; versus the powers in the Eastern Bloc; dominated by the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact and its allies. [1] Within five years, his revolutionary program swept communist governments throughout Eastern Europe from power and brought an end to the Cold War (1945-91), the largely political and economic rivalry between the Soviets and the United States and their respective allies that emerged following World War II. His actions also inadvertently set the stage for the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. [1] What was the Cold War? The Cold War (1945 - 1991) was the name given to the tense relationship and "non-hostile belligerency" between the United States and its NATO allies, and the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact Why was it called the Cold War? The Cold War was so called because of the icy relationship between the USSR and USA starting at the end of WW2. [1] What was the Cold War? In simple terms the Cold War was the non-shooting war, i.e., the non "hot" war, waged between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies from about late 1945 to the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. [1] Cold War is the name given to the mutually hostile relations after the end of World War II in 1945 between the now fallen communist systems of Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and Asia and the world's capitalist societies and their allies led by the United States. [1] The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others). [1] The Cold War (1947 - 1991) was the tense relationship between the United States (and its allies ), and the Soviet Union (the USSR and its allies) between the end of World War II and the demise of the Soviet Union. [1]

Military forces from the countries involved, rarely had much direct participation in the Cold War--the war was primarily fought by intelligence agencies like the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; United States), Secret Intelligence Service (MI6; United Kingdom), Bundesnachrichtendiens (BND; West Germany), Stasi (East Germany) and the KGB (Soviet Union). [2] The Cold War was a period of economic, political and military tension between the United States and Soviet Union from 1945 to 1991. [1] The Cold War is the name for the overarching rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union that came to define the epoch from the end of World War II in 1945 until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. [1] Although the Cold War is typically used in referencing the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1945 until 1989, the competing ideologies of Communism versus Capitalism was also in play between the U.S. and what was then referred to as "Mainland" China. [1] The beginning of the end of the Cold War is said to be in 1989, with the fall of the Berlin Wall, or in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed, with many American conservatives claiming this marked a victory for the West and the United States in particular. [1] From 1945 to 1991, the global Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union dominated the lives and fears of Americans and Russians. [1] Due to the cold war being a continuous state of political and military tension between the United States with NATO and other allies; against powers like the Soviet Union with the Warsaw Pact and other allies.These effects created a deteriorating relationship between the USA and the USSR, the Cuban Missile Crisis and contributed to the financial downfall of the Soviet Union in it's final days. [1] The Cold War was a twentieth-century conflict between the United States of America (US), the Soviet Union (USSR), and their respective allies over political, economic, and military issues, often described as a struggle between capitalism and communism (but actually far grayer than that). [1] The Cold War began soon after World War II as a result of military and political misunderstandings between two former allies, the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] The Cold War was all in all an extended period of political and military tensions between the United States and our allies in the Western Bloc, and the pre-existing Soviet Union and their allies involved in the Warsaw Pact. [1] The Cold War was mainly between Western powers (the United States and its NATO allies) and the Easter Bloc powers (the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies). [1] NATO was founded in the early years of the Cold War, as relations between the former allies of World War II (the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and the United States) broke down. [1] Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. [1] After World War II, the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its satellite states began a struggle for supremacy known as the Cold War. [1] Throughout the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union avoided direct military confrontation in Europe and engaged in actual combat operations only to keep allies from defecting to the other side or to overthrow them after they had done so. [1] The following decades were called the Cold War, where the Soviet Union competed against the United States and their allies in a nuclear arms race and the Space Race. [1]

The Cold War was a global political and ideological struggle between capitalist and communist countries, particularly between the two surviving superpowers of the postwar world: the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). [1] This was well received by the United States, which led to an end of the Cold War and, inadvertently, the collapse of the Soviet economy and, in 1991, the dissolution of the USSR. The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. [1] Towards the end of the Cold War in the 1990s, the Soviet Union suffered considerable economic decline as a direct result of the Cold War because of huge military spending. (Young & Kent, 2004) thus the effects of the Cold War are far-reaching and they added to the ultimate fall down of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the end of bipolarity, which left the United States as the only hegemony power in the world. [1]

The Cold War is the term used to define the period between the end of World War II in 1945 and the ultimate collapse of the Soviet Union and its satellite states in 1991.The protatgonists in the Cold War were the West, led by the United States, and the eastern bloc, led by the Soviet Union. [1] Though the Cold War did not begin until the end of World War II, in 1945, relations between the United States and the Soviet Union had been strained since 1917. [1]

The Cold War emerged after World War II when the United States and the Soviet Union--wartime allies against Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy--reverted to their prewar ideological rivalry between U.S. promotion of capitalism and Soviet support for Communist revolutions. [1] The Cold War was characterized by mutual distrust, suspicion, and misunderstandings by both the United States and the Soviet Union, and their allies. [1] As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to post-war tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists, and journalists. [1] "Cold" because it was never a "hot," direct shooting war between the United States and the Soviet Union, the generations-long, multifaceted rivalry nevertheless bent the world to its whims. [1]

Their large military forces had been critical to the ending of the war in Europe, at whose end these two allies raced to take and hold as much territory as possible, and Europe became split in two between a west and south supported by the United States and an eastern half dominated by the Soviet Union. [1] This war followed the First Indochina War (1946-54) and was fought between North Vietnam--supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies--and the government of South Vietnam--supported by the United States, Philippines and other anti-communist allies. [1]

The Cold War came to a sudden end with the East European revolutions of 1989, in which every communist government was overthrown, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union and formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1991. [1] By 1989, most Eastern European countries had non-communist governments, and, in 1991, the Soviet Union disintegrated under economic and political pressure - thus definitely ending the Cold War. [1]

The Soviet Union was the world ’ s first Communist state, the West ’ s principal adversary during the cold war, and a dominant force in international affairs until its collapse in 1991. [1] The Cold War Presidents (1945 - 1991) Nine U.S. Presidents were in office during the uncertain time in history which started in 1945 and ended in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union. [1] Bernard Baruch, senior advisor of U.S. President Harry Truman, was the first to use the term "Cold War," in 1947, referring to the frequent and deepening crises between the United States and the Soviet Union, in spite of their alliance against Germany in World War II. The term was popularized by the 1947 book of the same title by American columnist Walter Lippmann. [1] The Cold War was the protracted ideological, geopolitical, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. [1] The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (U.S.), who soon entered the Cold War. [1] The Cold War, of course, was a prolonged period of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union, lasting between the end of World War II and the fall of communism. [1] During the Cold War the Soviet Union and the United States avoided direct military conflict but battled against each other in a nuclear arms race for which Philadelphia’s military shipbuilding industry was not prepared. [1] Initially the United States was the sole nuclear power but nuclear secrets were leaked to the Soviet Union and both sides began a dangerous nuclear arms race that would come to define the Cold War period of history. [1] Cooperation between the USSR and the Western powersalready shaky during the warceased soon after the armistice, and relations between the Soviet Union and the United States (which emerged from the war as the two chief powers in the world) became increasingly strained, leading to the international tension of the cold war. [1] Khrushchev ’ s efforts to improve relations with the West suffered many setbacks, especially after the Cuban Missile Crisis (a cold war conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union regarding a Soviet buildup of nuclear missiles in Cuba ). [1] The Cold War was a conflict that lasted for decades between the communist countries of the world, led by the Soviet Union, and the non-communist countries of the world, led by the United States. [1] The Cold War was the ideological conflict between the two superpowers of the world, the democratic United States of America and the communist Soviet Union. [1] The Cold War was a four-decade period in the twentieth century in which the United States and the Soviet Union competed for economic, military, and political dominance of the globe. [1] The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. [1] The Cold War thus was global competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to shape and control the post-World War II global economic and political order. [1]

The Cold War was the geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle between two world superpowers, the USA and the USSR, that started in 1947 at the end of the Second World War and lasted until the dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 26, 1991. [1] The Cold War was the tense relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) during the 46-year period following the World War II's end, but before the end of the Soviet Union. [1] The Cold War, although called a war, was not actually a war, but the name given to the conflict between the two powerful nations of the world, namely the United States of America (USA) and the Soviet Union (USSR). [1] While these Estimates helped the United States maintain its defenses, they also made it possible for U.S. policymakers to engage the Soviet Union in conventional and strategic arms talks that led to the end of the arms race even before the Cold War itself had ended. [1] The actions of the Soviet Union during the Cold War and the American response to those actions through the containment policy can be viewed in relation to the Heartland concept of Sir Alfred J. Mackinder, and the Rimland theory of Nicholas Spykman, as well as the organic state theory. [1] Unlike the economies of Western Europe and the United States, which experienced booms during the Cold War, the communist economies of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union stagnated. [1] Although the Cold War did not begin until the end of World War II, relations between the United States and the Soviet Union had been strained for decades. [1] This made Stalin angry, and the tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union started to rise, and it didn’t take long before the relations between the superpowers were so bad, that the world had to begin to worry about a third World War: the Cold War had started. [1] The Cold War began after the Second World War had ended, although tensions between the two new superpowers, United States and Soviet Union, had been lasting since 1917 with the start of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. [1] The Cold War was the term used to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union following the Second World War. [1] The global confrontation between the West and communism was popularly termed The Cold War because direct hostilities never occurred between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] The Cold War was a decades-long struggle for global supremacy that pitted the capitalist United States against the communist Soviet Union. [1] This war was a part of the Cold War, since in also involved the United States (and to a lesser extent), Great Britain, aiding their ally France, while the Communist rebels (the Viet Minh, Pathet Lao, and Khmer Issarak), enjoyed aid from the Soviet Union and Communist China. [1] This article attempts to untangle these relationships with data examining events and statements of the political leaders (belligerence) of both the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war. [1] The Cold War was the period between 1949-1991 in which the United States and the Soviet Union were at political odds. [1] During the Cold War, the Soviet Union vied with the United States of America for geopolitical influence ; this competition manifested itself in numerous treaties and pacts dealing with military alliances and trade agreements, and in proxy wars. [1] The actions of both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War clearly indicate that both parties sought to expand the territory under their control in an effort to expand their base of power while denying critical resources to the other. [1] The United States and the Soviet Union also tried to fight the Cold War by demonstrating their power and technology. [1]

As a result of the Sino-Soviet splt, tensions along the Chinese-Soviet border reached their peak in 1969, and United States President Richard Nixon decided to use the conflict to shift the ballance of power towards the West in the Cold War. the Chinese had sought improved relations with the Americans in order to gain advantage over the Soviets as well. [1] Steven Kreis: The Origins of the Cold War : With World War Two at an end by the end of the summer of 1945, the United States knew that the Soviet economy was in a state of near-collapse. [1]

This uneasy alliance between the Soviet Union and the United States was fragile even before the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, and set the stage for the struggle between the two sides as they fought for global influence and supremacy. [1] In accordance with a previous agreement, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan on Aug. 8, 1945, two days after the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. [1] The most immediate consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union was Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 something the Soviet Union in earlier days would have been able to stop. The United States responded in 1991 with the first Gulf War, which forced the withdrawal by the Iraqis from Kuwait. [1]

The period - which lasted some 45 years, from 1945 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 - was marked by economic competition, a nuclear arms race, military tension, espionage and proxy wars. [1] From 1989 to 1991 the cold war came to an end with the opening of the Berlin Wall, the collapse of Communist party dictatorship in Eastern Europe, the reunification of Germany, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. [1] The concluding drama of the Cold War -- the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and the end of the four-decade-old East-West conflict -- unfolded in three acts between 1989 and 1991. [1]

The Cold War was a period of military and political tensions between the Soviet Union (and Warsaw Pact members) and the U.S. (and NATO allies). [1] The Cold War was a period of suspicion and distrust between the U.S. and its alliances and the Soviet Union and its more-or-less puppet allies after World War II, and was started by Josef Stalin. [1]

The Cold War lead to the development of the First-World (United States and its allies) Second-World (Soviet Union and its allies) and Third-World (countries not allied with either superpower and with no nuclear programs) system of classifying countries. [1]

The Cold War started in 1945 during the presidency of Harry Truman and the Cold War ended in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union during the presidency of George H Bush. [3] The United States victory in the Cold War occurred in much the same way that George Kennan had theorized: the Soviet system was incapable of self-sustainment, and by limiting the industrial and economic resources available to the Soviet Union, the system collapsed upon itself. [1] This period began the Cold War in 1947 and continued until the change in leadership for both superpowers in 1953--from Presidents Harry S. Truman to Dwight D. Eisenhower in the United States, and from Josef Stalin to Nikita Khrushchev in the Soviet Union. [1] The development of mass media, television and film in particular, and their use by the governments in the Soviet Union and the United States to shape public attitudes, was what made the Cold War possible. [1] The Cold War was a prolonged state of hostility between the United States of America and Soviet Union for nearly 40 years. [1] The Cold War was the elongated tension between the Soviet Union and the United States of America. [1] The United States and the Soviet Union relationship during the Arm's Race period in the Cold War era was one of unpredictable possibility; brimming with hostility and tension. [1] Throughout the Cold War, tension between the United States and the Soviet Union often revolved around each country attempting to outdo each other. [1] The Cold War describes a period of tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. [1] In the Suez Crisis of 1956, the Cold War alliances were broken for the first time with the Soviet Union and United States favouring one side, and Britain and France the other. [1] Constituting a series of civil wars, the Congo Crisis was also a proxy conflict in the Cold War, in which the Soviet Union and United States supported opposing factions. [1] The Cold War grew out of longstanding conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States that developed after the Russian Revolution of 1917. [1] The conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union known as the Cold War has been examined in many different ways. [1] Throughout the Cold War, the United States saw the Soviet Union and communism as the greatest threat and challenge to its global leadership and dominance of an emerging global economy and industrial society. [1] Despite the imposing nature and widespread influence of the Soviet Union, the United States managed to win the Cold War without forcing regime change in either the Soviet Union or any member of the Warsaw Pact. [1] The Cuban Missile Crisis was basically a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba during the Cold War. [1] The Cold War Facts for kids : Cold War Space Race Summary and Definition: The Cold War Space Race (1957 - 1975) was a competition in the exploration of space between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] Cold War espionage involved activities aimed at the gathering of Intelligence during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] The main Cold War enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] The time in the Cold War era between 1945-1991 was a turbulent direction for both the newly amassed superpowers of the United States and Soviet Union. [1] The onset of the Cold War introduced the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective ideologies into the region as well. [1] During this time period, as China began to dislike the Soviet Union, the United States built a good relationship with China, giving the Soviet Union a disadvantage during the Cold War. [1] The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1971, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War. [1] The war saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as one of the two major superpowers alongside the United States and the two entered into the Cold War by 1947. [1] The Cold War was often fought between the superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union in something called a proxy war. [1] During the Cold War itself, with the United States and the Soviet Union invested heavily in propaganda designed to influence the hearts and minds of people around the world, especially using motion pictures. [1] In short terms, the Cold War was the name given to the relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States after WW2. [1] In a notable illustration of the nature of Cold War alliances, the Soviet Union switched from supplying aid to Somalia to supporting Ethiopia, which had previously been backed by the United States. [1] The term "Cold War" was first used in 1947 by Bernard Baruch, senior advisor to Harry Truman, the 33rd president of the United States, in reference to the frequently occurring and exacerbating crises between the United States and the former Soviet Union, despite having fought side-by-side against Nazi Germany in the Second World War. [1] What then caused the cold war? Many historians have debated this question, at first generally putting the blame on the Soviet Union, then in a drastic reversal blaming American imperialist economic expansion, and finally settling on theories of shared responsibility. 7 Perhaps one must look at forces beyond the control of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin. [1] For Stalin, during and after the war, religion provided a ready and relatively easy means of reducing the gulf that remained between him and his allies, and the evidence suggests he hoped it might prove a bridge. 4 At the end of the war, Harry Truman inherited a policy based on U.S.-Soviet co-operation, a public anxious for the peace dividends it promised, and a Soviet Union desperately in need of American aid to help repair its massive war damage. [1] …a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others). [1]

The U.S. stepped in to help the South Korean military, essentially creating a proxy war between the Soviet Union and the United States. [1] The primary objective of United States policy toward the Soviet Union is to convince Soviet leaders that it is in their interest to participate in a system of global cooperation, that there are no fundamental causes for war between our two nations, and that the security and prosperity of the Soviet Union, and that of the rest of the world as well, is being jeopardized by the aggressive military imperialism such as that in which the Soviet Union is now engaged. [1] The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to support its communist leadership, resulting in the Afghan-Soviet War (1979-1989) between a United States backed mujahedeen and the forces of the allied Soviet Union and Afghan government. [1] Later on, the Soviet Union and the United States were dragged in the war, as Germany invaded the Soviet Union, and the Japanese bombed the American naval base, "Pearl Harbor". [1] While the Soviet Union and the United States avoided direct military conflict, each became involved in proxy wars around the world, most notably in Korea (1950-53), Vietnam (1950-75), and Afghanistan (1979-89). [1] By refusing to recognizing Soviet interests and building up our global military presence to contain the Soviets, Wallace argues, we are causing the Soviet Union to believe that the United States is preparing for war against them. [1] From the perspective of the United States, Soviet repression of Eastern Europe and the Berlin blockade of 1948-49, plus their alleged complicity in the Korean War made constructive relations with the Soviet Union unacceptable. [1] The Soviet Union and the United States, two nations that had never been enemies on any field, and which had fought side by side during WWII, were now undeclared enemies in a war that would never break out in the open, but which would last for more than fifty years. [1] After a century of friendship, Americans and Russians became archenemies in 1917 when the Communists seized power, established the Soviet Union, and declared ideological war on the capitalist nations of the West. [1] According to Novikov’s observations, post-war U.S. foreign policy was aimed on achieving of world dominance and the maintenance of military potential signaled American preparations for a future war that was designed against the Soviet Union. [1]

Using a critical geopolitics perspective, one which focuses on the geopolitical "scripts’ used by foreign policy élites, the Cold War nature of U.S. foreign policy towards the Soviet Union and Europe in 1989 is documented. [1] A major feature of the Cold War was the arms race between the member states of the Warsaw Pact and those of NATO. He had helped end the Cold War and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. [1] Warsaw Pact : A collective defense treaty among the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War. [1]

Throughout the "Cold War,’ the two main protagonists the Soviet Union and the U.S., avoided direct confrontation, but there was a confrontational build up in nuclear weapons and, during the "Cuban Missile Crisis’ of 1961, the two sides came close to war. [1] The Soviet Union made sacrifices to keep the war "cold" by backing down from the Cuban missile crisis. [1]

By the time the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and the Soviet Union collapsed two years later, NATO, created as part of the Cold War, had become central to European security. [4] When did the Cold War end? The Cold War ended after a period of 46 years when the Soviet Union fell in 1991 ending the Cold War. [3]

The Cold War saw the spread of communism and Soviet influence worldwide from Eastern and Central Europe to Asia and the United States was determined to stop the spread of communism by any means necessary. [1] In the final phase (1980-1991), the United States adopted a new approach to the Cold War and launched an all-out attack -- ideological, economic, technological and military -- to undermine the Soviet system. [1] Since 1945, Americans were born into a Cold War culture that featured McCarthyist witchhunts, backyard bomb shelters, a space race, a missile crisis, détente, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the Star Wars defense proposal. [1] Definition and Summary of the Cold War (1945 - 1991) Summary and Definition: The Cold War was a period of "non-hostile belligerency" primarily between the USA and the USSR. It was a 'war of words' and competition involving the Cold War Space Race and Arms Race involving the nuclear build-up between the USA and its allies in the West and the Communist world dominated by the USSR and China in the East. [1]

The Truman Doctrine of containment was a United States policy to stop Soviet expansion during the Cold War. [1] State Department: George Keenan and Containment Despite all the criticisms and the various policy defeats that Kennan suffered in the early 1950s, containment in the more general sense of blocking the expansion of Soviet influence remained the basic strategy of the United States throughout the Cold War. [1] Just as there are issues worth debating about the origins of the cold war, so there are issues worth debating about its end, not least among them the question of whether the corroding Soviet superstructure collapsed in the late 1980's merely by virtue of its own dead weight or as a result of pressure brought to bear from the United States. [1]

The Cold War started to die down in 1989, when the Soviets removed the Berlin wall, and by 1991, the Soviets were gone. [1] The Soviet occupation of East Germany, would establish communist rule following World War II, and their influence there would remain until 1991, the end of the Cold War,. [1] Harry Turtledove's A World of Difference (fixup 1989 ) transports Cold War tensions to an alternate, inhabited Mars (called Minerva) where U.S. and Soviet expeditions become military advisers to different, contending Minervan factions. [1] The Soviets’ one and only protracted military conflict during the Cold War, lasting from December 1979 to February 1989 and costing some 14,000 Soviet lives, was a conflict with what U.S. pundits have taken to calling "Islamist terrorism." [1] The Cold War would end in 1989, when the Berlin Wall came down and Soviet Presint Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President George H. W. Bush embraced American-Soviet friendship. [1] The U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev announced the official end of the Cold War in the Malta Summit in 1989. [1]

After 1960, China split with the Soviet Union and set up its own alliances as part of its Cold War with the U.S and it's attempt to overtake the USSR as leader of the communist movement. [1] Many believe Winston Churchill’s speech marked the commencement of the cold war between the democratic Western world and the Communist Eastern bloc with the Soviet Union as its political centre. [1]

As the war ended in 1945, the Soviet Union became a superpower, controlling most of Eastern Europe: East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia (which went neutral in 1949), Romania and Bulgaria, as well as Mongolia in Asia were Soviet satellite states. [1] Between November 1945 and December 1946, a number of the coalition governments established in the Eastern European countries occupied by Soviet troops during the war transformed into Communist "People's Republics" with strong ties to the Soviet Union. [1] From 1980 until 1989, the Soviet Union was engaged in military action in Afghanistan in support of the communist government who were fighting a war with Muslim anti-communists. [1]

The alliance that held the United States and the Soviet Union together during the war was based on the fact that both of them wanted to defeat the Axis powers. [1] With the retreat from the Indochina area of the great Capitalist power of the United States, a power struggle developed between the Soviet Union and Maoist China over the Southeast Asia resources, one of which we label the Cambodian War. [1] I also attended both the United States Air Force Air Command and Staff College in Montgomery, Alabama and the United States Navy War College in Newport, Rhode Island, where I continued to study and write about the Soviet Union and the Soviet Navy. [1] Egyptian president Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal resulted in a war in which neither the United States nor the Soviet Union were involved, yet both superpowers acted after the fact to change the terms of the peace. [1] After the war in 1973, the United States began to consider the possibility of true peace in the Middle East, especially after the weakening of the Soviet Union. [1] As a result of these differences, the United States adopted a "get tough" policy toward the Soviet Union after the war ended. [1] The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. [1] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the post-Cold War world was widely considered as unipolar, with the United States the sole remaining superpower. [1] In the Soviet war in Afghanistan starting in 1979, the Soviet Union had a difficult time fighting resistance groups, some of them armed and trained by the United States. [1] Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war. [1] Despite wartime conferences and efforts to address possible postwar problems and areas of contention, the fragile alliance between the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, which showed evidence of cracking during the war, fell apart shortly after the war. [1] Though ideological enemies, the Soviet Union and the United States are allies against Hitler during World War II. At the end of the War, Europe is divided and the one-time allies now confront each other. [1] During World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union fought together as allies against the Axis powers. [1]

It is one way to understand American foreign policy between the end of World War II and the breakup of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in 1991. [1] The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the People's Republic of Poland following World War II. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union-erstwhile allies-soured soon after the Second World War. [1] The division began at the end of World War Two (WW2) in 1945 and lasted until the fall of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) in 1989, a division that lasted nearly 45 years. [1]

The Western allies feared that the Soviet Union would use force to expand its influence in Europe, and was especially concerned that Soviet agents had obtained information on making the Atom Bomb after the war. [1] During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under allied control. [1] The Soviet Union then joined the Allies against Germany and ultimately helped to win the war. [1]

When the Soviet Union dissolved and became the Russian Federation at the end of 1991, the Cold War came to an end. [4] We are accustomed to viewing the cold war as a determined and heroic response of the U.S. to communist aggression spearheaded and orchestrated by the Soviet Union. [5] Their enormous power kept the cold war from turning into a hot war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. [5] A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge its communist sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam. [1] Many scholars are now using primary documents from the former Soviet Union and other communist countries to study the cold war. [5]

From 1979 to 1989, the Soviet Union pursued a war to maintain a communist government it had installed in Afghanistan. [1] When Stalin discovered that the aid would not be unconditional, as in the war, and that the Americans saw it as a lever for opening up nationalist economies, he recalled his delegation and warned satellite countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia that participation would be regarded as a hostile act against the Soviet Union. [1] Following the surrender of Nazi Germany in May 1945 near the close of World War II, the uneasy wartime alliance between the United States and Great Britain on the one hand and the Soviet Union on the other began to unravel. [6] Tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States resumed following the conclusion of the Second World War in August 1945. [2]

While a direct military confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States, the Cold War’s principal adversaries, failed to materialize, the conflict made its mark on the region in other ways, including anti-communist suspicion, civil defense, and the 1967 summit between President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-73) and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin (1904-80) in Glassboro, New Jersey. [1]

The Cold War defined the political role of the United States after World War II--by 1989 the United States had military alliances with 50 countries, with 526,000 troops stationed abroad,with 326,000 in Europe (two-thirds of which in west Germany) and 130,000 in Asia (mainly Japan and South Korea). [1] Afterwards, Soviet policymakers increasingly accepted Reagan's administration warnings that the U.S. would make the arms race an increasing financial burden for the USSR. The twin burdens of the Cold War arms race on one hand and the provision of large sums of foreign and military aid, upon which the socialist allies had grown to expect, left Gorbachev's efforts to boost production of consumer goods and reform the stagnating economy in an extremely precarious state. [1] Many historians/analysts have pointed to the Yalta Conference (4-11 February 1945) as the real start of the Cold War, and there have been repeated criticisms raised about the behavior of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill in "selling out" Eastern Europe to the Soviets at the conference. [1] The Cold War had solidified by 1947-48, when U.S. aid provided under the Marshall Plan to western Europe had brought those countries under American influence and the Soviets had installed openly communist regimes in eastern Europe. [1] For more than a decade after the end of World War II, few American historians saw any reason to challenge the conventional "traditionalist" interpretation of the beginning of the Cold War: that the breakdown of relations was a direct result of Stalin's violation of the accords of the Yalta conference, the imposition of Soviet-dominated governments on an unwilling Eastern Europe, Soviet intransigence and aggressive Soviet expansionism. [1] American CIA analyst Aldrich Ames was one of the most successful Soviet double agents of the Cold War. [3]


Do note that USSR in 1945 was Russia post-1917 and included all the various countries that now exist individually (Ukraine, Georgia etc) but after the war they were part of this huge country up until the collapse of the Soviet Union (the other name for the USSR). [1] Some date the onset of the Cold War to the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, regarding the United States’ use of nuclear weapons as a warning to the Soviet Union, which was about to join the war against the nearly defeated Japan. [2] The most dramatic shift came at the end of the Cold War, when the alliance found it needed to justify its existence after the collapse of the Soviet Union. [4] Long before they envisioned a cold war with the Soviet Union, they labored diligently during 1943 and 1944 to design the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. [5]

May 1989: President Bush's Speech on the Soviet Union In a public address on May 12, 1989, President George H.W. Bush reaffirmed the U.S. desire for Soviet economic reform to succeed, and said that the United States sought the integration of the Soviet Union into the community of nations. [7] June 1989: U.S.-Soviet Military Agreement In Moscow in June 1989, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement designed to prevent dangerous military activities. [7] For his part, Joseph Stalin deepened the estrangement between the United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World War II was an unavoidable and inevitable consequence of "capitalist imperialism" and implied that such a war might reoccur. [8]

When did the Cold War start? The Cold War started in 1945 at the end of WW2 as the United States developed the first Atomic Bomb and the power struggle between the USA and the USSR began. [3] The Cold War Facts for kids : Key People - The Cold War Presidents The Key people during the Cold War were the leaders of the USA and the USSR. There were nine Cold War Presidents between 1945 - 1991. [3]

The Cold War Presidents (1945 - 1991) Nine U.S. Presidents were in office during the precarious period in history known as the Cold War. [3] The Cold War Facts: Fast Fact Sheet (1945 - 1991) Fast, fun facts and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) about the Cold War. [3] Many observers have noted a return to some of the conditions of the Cold War that defined international politics between 1945 and 1991. [4]


The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-Communist side in the Greek Civil War ) and creating the NATO alliance. [1] In the fall of 1962, American spy planes discovered that Castro was installing Soviet nuclear missiles capable of quickly striking targets in the U.S. The United States navy blockaded Cuba, preventing Soviet deliveries of war materials. [1] He claimed that Marshall, a war hero, had helped to "diminish the United States in world affairs," enable the U.S. to "finally fall victim to Soviet intrigue… and Russian military might." [1]

Conflict between the Western nations (including the United States, Great Britain, France and other countries) and the Communist Eastern bloc (led by the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics or USSR) began almost as soon as the guns fell silent at the end of World War II (1939-45). [1] The Western democracies and the Soviet Union discussed the progress of World War II and the nature of the postwar settlement at conferences in Tehran (1943), Yalta (February 1945), and Potsdam (July-August 1945). [8] It lasted from the end of World War II until the period preceding the demise of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991. [2]

This includes the famous fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989), the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. [2]

The failed war in Afghanistan, the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster and Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika reform programs, as well as dwindling prices of oil and other raw materials (which make up much of the Soviet economy) brought a wave of revolutions in Soviet satellite states from 1989. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(34 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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2. (106) United States Relations with Russia: The Cold War

3. (60) Cold War - New World Encyclopedia

4. (54) What was the Cold War? | eNotes

5. (52) The Soviet Union and the United States - Revelations from the Russian Archives | Exhibitions - Library of Congress

6. (47) 13 Cold War, 1945-53 | History Hub

7. (43) How Did the Cold War Start and End?

8. (40) NATOs New Order: The Alliance After the Cold War | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective

9. (39) AP United States History: Cold War and Global Hegemony, 1945-1991 | AP Central - The College Board

10. (34) 25. The Cold War | The American Yawp

11. (33) Cold War for Kids - Kiddle

12. (32) Collapse of the Soviet Union - 1989-1991

13. (30) What was the Cold War? - Quora

14. (27) The Cold War: US History for Kids ***

15. (25) Did the Cold War ever really end? - History Extra

16. (25) Cold War | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com

17. (24) AP U.S History "Cold War" Vocabulary Flashcards | Quizlet

18. (23) 10 Major Events - The cold war

19. (20) Cold War - Vikidia, the encyclopedia for children, teenagers, and anyone else

20. (19) National Churchill Museum | Winston Churchill and the Cold War

21. (18) Cold War Timeline | Titan Missile Museum : Titan Missile Museum

22. (18) An Introduction to the Cold War in Europe

23. (17) Famous people of the Cold War | Biography Online

24. (17) Cold War

25. (17) What is the Iron Curtain? -- Justine Gosling

26. (16) Cold War, 1945-1990 - Military History - Oxford Bibliographies

27. (16) Remembering Our Cold War Heroes | The Heritage Foundation

28. (16) European History/Europe: 1945 to Present - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

29. (12) American History USA

30. (9) What caused tension between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R? by Ryan Smith on Prezi

31. (9) SparkNotes: The Cold War (1945-1963): Summary of Events

32. (7) List of books and articles about Cold War | Online Research Library: Questia

33. (7) The End of the Cold War [ushistory.org]

34. (5) The Bush administration and the "end’ of the cold war: a critical geopolitics of U.S. foreign policy in 1989 - ScienceDirect


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