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Coptic Period (Egypt 300 - 900)

Coptic Period (Egypt 300 - 900)

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  • Textile fragment, Coptic period century), probably century Egypt Silk, linen; plain weave, embroidered Gift of George F. During the reporting period, violence targeting Coptic Orthodox Christians increased and the Egyptian government failed to convict those responsible for the violence.(More...)
  • During the reporting period, violence targeting Coptic Orthodox Christians increased and the Egyptian government failed to convict those responsible for the violence.(More...)
  • Ancient Nabatean Warrior Carving Temenos Gate Entrance Petra City Jordan Petra built between 3rd Century BC to 300 AD. Ruins of the ancient city of El Pital that peaked between 300 and 900 AD. History - Jomon Period (before 300 AD, The clothes of this period were made of hemp and loosely fastened.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • Christopher H. Smith, Chairman, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe Good afternoon and welcome to our hearing on the escalating violence against Coptic women and girls in Egypt following the Arab Spring, including the outrageous crimes of abduction, forced conversion, and forced marriage, which the Egyptian government is doing all too little to prevent--if indeed it is doing anything at all.(More...)
  • Egyptians stopped speaking Coptic between 1000 and 1500 C.E. Depuydt estimates that there were few Coptic speakers in Egypt during the 12th or 13th centuries and that by 1500 C.E., nearly everyone spoke Arabic.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
Textile fragment, Coptic period century), probably century Egypt Silk, linen; plain weave, embroidered Gift of George F. During the reporting period, violence targeting Coptic Orthodox Christians increased and the Egyptian government failed to convict those responsible for the violence. [1] In its later phase, namely the Byzantine or Coptic period (395-640 A.D.), the culture had changed so much that it would not be recognized as Egyptian by the Dynastic people. [1] Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits ) is the modern term given to a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Egyptian mummies from the Coptic period. [1] The Princeton collections also include papyri in Egyptian languages (Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, Demotic, and Coptic); Arabic papyri from the Islamic period (from 640 CE); and a smaller number of Latin papyri from Roman Egypt and Ravenna. [1] It is critical during the transitional period between the Mubarak regime and the future political era, that the United States play a constructive role that ensures balance between all players in Egypt, and particularly in support of the weakest elements of society, namely from the bottom up, Christian women, the Coptic community, Egyptian secular women, youth and the rest of civil society that is committed to pluralist and liberal democracy. [1]

The recent massacre at Maspero, in Cairo, where Egyptian armed forces attacked Christians engaged in a peaceful demonstration, augurs little favor for the future of Egypt's Coptic population. [2]


During the reporting period, violence targeting Coptic Orthodox Christians increased and the Egyptian government failed to convict those responsible for the violence. [1] A considerable number of medical works have been preserved from the Middle and New Kingdom; then, following a gap of many centuries between the 19th Pharaonic dynasty, and the 2nd half of the 2nd century AD)., the date of our papyrus, a period during which this category of scientific sources is scarcely represented by native Egyptian documents, only one complete manuscript can be cited from the Coptic era. [1]

Egyptian Cartonnage Pectoral Winged Isis, Ptolemaic Period, Ca. 300 BC. Well preserved in original condition, a linen and plaster painted vignette with the female protector deity holding feathers in either raised arm, kneeling and with wings spread. [1] Egypt's Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3-6, ca. 2649-2150 BC) was one of the most dynamic periods in the development of Egyptian art. [1] The ancient Egyptian military was responsible for defending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintaining Egypt's domination in the ancient Near East, the military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods. [1] Egypt's Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3-8, ca. 2649-2130 B.C.) was one of the most dynamic periods in the development of Egyptian art. [1] Even during the Amarna Period, when Egypt's attention was focused internally on the religious reforms instituted by Akhenaten, the Egyptians were a major player in international events of the time. [1]

When the Greeks moved in around 300 B.C., in numbers large enough to swell Oxyrhynchus until it was Egypt's second or third largest city, they assimilated to the existing Egyptian scribal culture. [1] The term Demotic in the context of Egypt, that is, "indigenous" from a Hellenistic point of view, came to refer to both the script and the language that followed the Late Ancient Egyptian stage from the Nubian 25th dynasty until its marginalization by the Greek Koine in the early centuries C.E. This second Persian Period--and the Late Period as a whole--ended with Egypt's takeover by the Macedonian Greek Alexander the Great, whom the Egyptians welcomed as a liberator. [1] Similar examples of sword are recorded from several Greek Late Bronze Age sites, ranging in date from LH IIIA to LH IIIC. The Sandars's classification catalogue the various type of Greek Bronze Age swords in eight main groups identified from the letter A to H. This second Persian Period--and the Late Period as a whole--ended with Egypt's takeover by the Macedonian Greek Alexander the Great, whom the Egyptians welcomed as a liberator. [1]


Ancient Nabatean Warrior Carving Temenos Gate Entrance Petra City Jordan Petra built between 3rd Century BC to 300 AD. Ruins of the ancient city of El Pital that peaked between 300 and 900 AD. History - Jomon Period (before 300 AD, The clothes of this period were made of hemp and loosely fastened. [1] Ancient Nabatean Warrior Carving Temenos Gate Entrance Petra City Jordan Petra built between 3rd Century BC to 300 AD. Ruins of the ancient city of El Pital that peaked between 300 and 900 AD. The Yayoi period is traditionally dated from 300BC to 300 AD. The earliest archaeological evidence of the Yayoi is found on northern Kyūshū, but that is still debated. [1]

It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD. Iron objects were introduced to the Korean peninsula through trade with chiefdoms and state-level societies in the Yellow Sea area in the 4th century BC, just at the end of the Warring States Period but before the Western Han Dynasty began. [1] It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD. Women until then had held important roles in government which thereafter gradually diminished, though even in the late Heian period women wielded considerable court influence. [1]

The " Coptic period " is an informal designation for Late Roman Egypt (3rd−4th centuries) and Byzantine Egypt (4th−7th centuries). [1] Coptic christian Limestone gravestone possibly from Thebes, century AD, Coptic period, Egypt. [1] Extensive use of Naga ed-Deir as a burial ground resumed in the later Coptic period (circa AD 600-900) and continued into recent times. [1] Once inside, the archaeologists found five or six coats of paint on the walls, the last of which was from the Coptic period of the first Christians. [1] Below are examples of violent incidents, primarily during the reporting period, impacting the Coptic Orthodox community, who comprise approximately 10 to 15 per cent of Egypt's 80 million people. [1]

Back in 2005 the Migration Period was defined as the 600 years between 300 and 900 AD. Some of the Migration Period narratives are repackaged storylines from German History that were documented during the era of the Holy Roman Empire. [1] Back in 2005 the Migration Period was defined as the 600 years between 300 and 900 AD. The German term Völkerwanderung ("the migration of peoples"), is used in historiography as an alternate label for the "Migrations Period", of Germanic, Slavic and other tribes on the European continent during the period AD 300-900. [1] Migration Period art (aka "Barbarian art") is the artwork of Germanic peoples during the Migration period of 300 to 900. [1]

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS The first evidence of Jomon period pottery. 900 BC People from southeast Asia came to Japan and are now called the Japanese. 300 BC The Japanese settled down in villages. 310 BC The Japanese started rice farming. 400 BC In 400 BCE the Koreans and Chinese taught the Japanese how to make metal. [1] It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD. The Yayoi Period lasted from about 400 or 300 BC to 250 AD. It is named after Yayoi town, the subsection of Bunkyo, Tokyo where archaeological investigations uncovered its first recognized traces. [1] It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD " alt"History Timeline of Japanese History Jomon period: Before 300 BC The early Japanese were hunters, gatherers, and fishers. [1] It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD. The mortuary evidence suggests that the initial use of iron in Lingnan belongs to the mid-to-late Warring States period (from about 350 BC). [1] It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD. According to this model, the Jomon population, which was present in Japan by at least the end of the Pleistocene, was followed by agriculturalists from the Korean peninsula during the Yayoi period (ca. 400 BC to AD 300). [1] It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD. During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. [1]

Egyptian Polychrome Painted Wood Falcon, Late Period, Ca. 715 BC. to 300 BC. Seated with wings folded under and wearing a broad collar, with some polychrome paint remaining. 1-7/8in. (4.7cm.) [1] Egyptian Green Painted Wood Mummy Mask, Late Period, Ca. 300 BC. Lovely painted triangular shaped wood carved mask with pleasing facial features in black pigment and large wig. 12-7/8 in (32cm)H. + custom mount. [1] Egyptian Wood Carved Hand from a Sarcophagus, Late Period, Ca. 715 to 300 BC. Flat carved clenched hand with protruding thumb, gessoed and overall covered in yellow pigment. [1] Egyptian Green-glazed composition Ushabti, Late Period, Ca. 715 to 300 BC. Uninscribed standing mummiform with hands folded across chest. [1]

To learn more about Egypt’s Coptic Christian period and the Coptic language, read Leo Depuydt’s full article "Coptic--Egypt’s Christian Language" in the November/December 2015 issue of BAR. The phases of ancient Egyptian are Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian (Classical Egyptian), Late Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic. [1] Another shift in religion brought about the end of Egypt’s Coptic period in the ninth century. [1] "in the Coptic period there is hardly anything known about Memphis. [1]

Ancient Egyptian Faience Beaded Strand Necklace, Late Period, Ca. 715 to 300 BC. Faience composition, multicolored tubes and spacer beads. 18 in L. restrung modern and with sterling silver clasp, Ex English Collection. [1]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
Christopher H. Smith, Chairman, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe Good afternoon and welcome to our hearing on the escalating violence against Coptic women and girls in Egypt following the Arab Spring, including the outrageous crimes of abduction, forced conversion, and forced marriage, which the Egyptian government is doing all too little to prevent--if indeed it is doing anything at all. [2] In October, Egypt state media falsely accused Coptic Christians of attacking the Egyptian military during peaceful protests marching toward the Maspero state television station. [2]

Attempts to reestablish Egyptian power in Asia were turned back (605 BC) by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, and Egypt fell easy prey (525 BC) to the armies of Cambyses of Persia. [3] C, Egyptian security and judicial authorities have not helped in general terms the families of these girls and have not actually conducted an investigation, a thorough national investigation of who is that network in Egypt that basically has been perpetrating those attacks for the last five years at least documented. [2] The significant frequency of B-M60 in this group might be a relic of a history of colonization of southern Egypt probably by Nilotics in the early state formation, something that conforms both to recorded history and to Egyptian mythology." [4] The United States should increase pressure on Egypt to bring to justice those who have committed violence against fellow Egyptians on account of their religion. [2]

While USCIRF's 2012 Annual Report chapter on Egypt includes a list of some of the most tragic acts of violence committed against the Coptic Orthodox community, let me note the following significant incident: Last October, Egypt's state media falsely accused Copts of attacking the military when Muslim and Christian protestors marched toward the state television station. [2] The 2010 U.S. Department of States Annual Trafficking in Persons Report referenced our report, and stated that "During the reporting period, an international NGO released a report about alleged forced marriages of Coptic females in Egypt, indicating an allegation of forced prostitution, though the allegations have not been confirmed.'' [2] During the period of Roman-Byzantine rule, Egypt became a Christian society with its own distinctive Coptic tradition. [5] The U.S. Department of State's 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report referenced the 2009 CSI report, claiming, "During the reporting period, an international NGO released a report about alleged forced marriages of Coptic Christian females in Egypt, including an allegation of forced prostitution, though the allegations have not been confirmed.'' \21\ \21\ http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57813/david-hoffman/ beyond-public-diplomacy. [2] My testimony is based directly on the report introduced today, "The Disappearance, Forced Conversions and Forced Marriages of Coptic Christian Women and Girls in Egypt II'', and I would therefore like to request that the report be included along with my testimony into the record of these hearings. [2]

Although Egyptian government officials claim that there is no law or policy that prevents Christians from holding senior positions, the Coptic Orthodox Christian community faces de facto discrimination in appointments to high-level government and military posts. [2] The Report also included recommendations for the Egyptian government, the Coptic Church and the international community. [2] Coptic activists and NGOs -including the Washington DC based Coptic Solidarity International- have accused Egyptian security services under the Mubarak regime, of using Salafists to conduct attacks against Coptic targets to maintain the community under the protection of the government. [2] As for the role of the Egyptian state, Khalil explains: The government does not meet to plan how to abduct Coptic girls, but it is a conniver and a collaborate partner that contributed in creating this environment. [2] What the government plans for and implements is the lateralization of the Copts within the Egyptian society. \10\ \10\ "Who is responsible for abducting Coptic Girls?'' Jihad Watch, August 26, 2005. http://www.jihadwatch.org/2005/08/magdy-khalil- who-is-responsible-for-abducting-coptic-girls.html. [2] They take heart from the Muslim solidarity shown by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who in 2015 became the first Egyptian leader to visit a Coptic cathedral at Christmas and has returned for the past two years. [6] The photo on the cover of the report shows average Egyptians, Muslim and Coptic, mourning the victims of the Maspero violence. [2] Egyptians held prayers for 25 Christians killed the day before at a church next to the city's main Coptic cathedral in what was one of the deadliest attacks on the religious minority in recent memory. [7] By failing to protect its Coptic citizens, the Egyptian Government will be perceived as incapable of protecting other segments of the population also targeted by the Salafists and the jihadists. [2]

Before the Arab Spring in Egypt, the Egyptian government of Hosni Mubarak, our ally, despite repetitive demands by the Congress to look into the issue, their representative in the Human Rights Council in Switzerland has blocked--has been blocking the issues. [2] Calling for an "Egypt for Egyptians," they demanded a new government with a constitution. [5] If you want to send foreign aid to Egypt, if you want to send hundreds of millions of dollars, we also need to earmark part of that air to the NGOs that are representative of the weakest elements of the Egyptian society, that will be women and minorities. [2] Descendants of Egyptians are in Egypt and if you want to learn Egyptian history, you can learn it from Egyptians not Black American Afrocentrics. [4] After Muslim armies conquered Egypt in the 600s, Islam became the force that shaped Egyptian life. [5] In 1972, Sadat ousted all Soviet military personnel stationed in Egypt and placed Soviet bases and equipment under Egyptian control, thus reversing a 20-year trend of increasing dependence on the USSR. Unrest in 1973 led to the forced resignation of the governmental cabinet and to Sadat's assumption of the premiership. [3] Isrealite Moses was mistaken for being Egyptian, so do you mean Jews were black?!! Egyptians were something between Berbers and Semitics as Egypt is located between North Africa and Levant. [4] A picture of a Greco-Roman Egyptian, 3rd century (Not autochthonous to Egypt). [4]

Qur'anists--a tiny group that accepts only the Qur'an as the sole source of religious guidance and thus has been accused by the Egyptian government of deviating from Islamic law--ing the reporting period, members of the Qur'anist community report discrimination in employment and continue to suffer from harassment and surveillance by security services. [2] During the reporting period, Egyptian transitional government officials were concerned that increasing numbers of mosques were operating independently of any government oversight and that some of these mosques were used to incite violence. [2] The Egyptian government has failed to protect religious minorities from violent attacks during the transitional period when minority communities have been increasingly vulnerable. [2] The XVIII dynasty is the most important and the best-recorded period in Egyptian history. [3] Begin in the "Roman Period" galleries in the Egyptian wing, and then take a look at the "Byzantine" galleries beside and underneath the main staircase. [8]

This is due to the Islamic conquest of Egypt, in which the Arabs had conquered Egypt in 642 AD. Only 15% of Copts are genetically close to the Copts in the Roman period, possessing their Western European haplogroup, R1b. [4] Egypt remained a part of the Roman Empire throughout the period when the Eastern Roman Empire evolved into the Byzantine Empire. [5] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Entrance and embarkation point to the river Nile, Egypt, 30th Dynasty to Roman period, 380 BC - 300 AD. Yayoi culture (300 BC to 250 AD) followed the Jomon period and introduced organized rice cultivation to Japan. [1] Entrance and embarkation point to the river Nile, Egypt, 30th Dynasty to Roman period, 380 BC - 300 AD. He left no monuments with his name and this dynasty reigned for six years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty ruled from Mendes, for the period from 398 BC to 380 BC, the Thirtieth Dynasty took their art style from the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. [1]

The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. By 3300 BC, just before the first Egyptian dynasty, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper Egypt to the south, and Lower Egypt to the north. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL "The Hyksos (/ˈhɪksɒs/ or /ˈhɪksoʊz/; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ancient Greek: Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta, some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. [1] This map reveals the Egyptian Empire during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt at its greatest extant around 1450 BC. Dynasty XVIII was a very interesting period because Egypt reached her greatest extant during this time which was approximately 1550 BC to 1290 BC. It is also the time period of Moses and the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt which took place around 1400 BC, although no one knows for certain. [1] Early Dynastic Period of Egypt - The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c.3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the end of the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686 BC, with the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. [1] Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC. Mitanni - Mitanni, also called Hanigalbat in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from ca.1500 BC-1300 BC. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon, at the beginning of its history, Mitannis major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. [1] "that the transformation from a land of disparate farmers into a state ruled by a king was more rapid than previously thought … Previous records suggested the pre-Dynastic period, a time when early groups began to settle along the Nile and farm the land, began in 4000 BC. Egypt enters a long period of British rule, and becomes dependent on imports of British manufactured goods and exports of Egyptian cotton. [1] The Middle Kingdom of Egypt lasted from 2055 to 1650 BC. During this period, the Osiris funerary cult rose to dominate Egyptian popular religion. [1] Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period. [1] Middle Egyptian was retained as a literary standard language, and in this usage survived until the Christianisation of Roman Egypt in the 4th century CE. It was during this period the horse and chariot were introduced into Egypt, which the Egyptians had no answer to until they introduced their own version of the war chariot at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. [1]

It contained salicylic acid, an ingredient of modern aspirin. (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6) c1.340k BC A bust of Nefertiti was made that later ended up in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin. (SFC, 7/7/96, T5) 1.336k BC - 1.334k BC The period of the 18th Dynasty under Smenkhkare. (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm) 1.334k BC - 1.325k BC Tutankhamen (10), son of Akhenaten, was Pharaoh of Egypt. [1] Egyptian civilization begins during the second phase of the Naqda culture, known as the Gerzeh period, around 3500 BC and coalesces with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt around 3150 BC. Farming produced the vast majority of food; with increased food supplies, the populace adopted a much more sedentary lifestyle, and the larger settlements grew to cities of about 5,000 residents. [1] Late Period of ancient Egypt - It ran from 664 BC until 332 BC. Libyans and Persians alternated rule with native Egyptians, but traditional conventions continued in the arts and it is often regarded as the last gasp of a once great culture, during which the power of Egypt steadily diminished. [1] Silver statuette from about 500 BC, 27th Dynasty, Late Period of Ancient Egypt, on display in the Staatliches Museum Agyptischer Kunst (State Museum of Egyptian Art) in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. [1] Sened’s tomb has not been found; however, there is mention of him during the Late Period of Ancient Egypt (664-332 BC) so this shows us that he was important enough to the later Egyptians to be remembered even though modern scholars know little about him (Wilkinson 2001, p. 88). [1]

Egyptian art and architecture, the ancient architectural monuments, sculptures, paintings, and decorative crafts produced mainly during the dynastic periods of the first three millennia bce in the Nile valley regions of Egypt and Nubia. [1] It is made of limestone, is pear-shaped, and is attributed to the Scorpion II (Ancient Egyptian: possibly Selk or Weha), also known as King Scorpion, referring to the second of two kings or chieftains of that name during the Protodynastic Period of Upper Egypt, due to the glyph of a scorpion engraved close to the image of a king wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt. [1] The victory of Ahmose I begins the period known as the New Kingdom of Egypt, the best-known and most well-documented era in Egyptian history. [1] Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332-1323 BC) during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. [1] Aside from the mythical and highly questionable pre-dynastic period (c. 5000 BC ), for which there is scant archaeological evidence, the first Egyptian dynasty is now conventionally believed to have begun under King Narmer (Menes in Greek) or Aha, or both contemporaneously, around 3400 BC. Victorian era ( United Kingdom, 1837 - 1901); British hegemony, much of world, around the same time period. [1] The period between c. 1200 and 1150 BC saw the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms ; the Kassite dynasty of Babylonia ; the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and the Levant and the Egyptian Empire ; and the destruction of Ugarit and the Amorite states in the Levant, the fragmentation of the Luwian states of western Asia Minor and a period of chaos in Canaan. [1]

Afterwards, the Egyptians extended their empire along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean into Mesopotamia, primarily under the great warrior Thutmose III. A dynasty from Upper Egypt began this period of the New Kingdom, and it extended throughout Syria, Palestine and, to the south, Nubia. [1]

TULUNID DYNASTY: Ahmad Ibn-Tulun began as the Caliphate governor of Egypt, but swiftly increased his power to a more-or-less autonomous level, the first independent Egyptian rule in better than 900 years. [1] Demotic Egyptian first appears about 650 BC and survived as a spoken language until fifth century AD. Coptic Egyptian appeared in the fourth century AD and survived as a living language until the sixteenth century AD, when European scholars traveled to Egypt to learn it from native speakers during the Renaissance. [1] Decipherment of the language system was made possible by the discovery of the Rosetta Stone by Napoleon's cavalry during that general"s campaign in Egypt 1799 AD. The inscribed stele dates to the Ptolemaic era, ca. 196 BC, and records a tax dispensation conferred on presiding priests of an Egyptian temple by King Ptolemy V. It was inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic, and ancient Greek. [1] It is likely (though not proven) that the New Kingdom Egyptians hired Greek mercenary soldiers to fight in their wars with them about 1500 BC. By 3300 BC, just before the first Egyptian dynasty, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper Egypt to the south, and Lower Egypt to the north. [1] Other inteesting example of Achaean bronze knives with ivory handles from Kolophon Asian Minor dated around 1200 BC. The earliest known Ugarit contact with Egypt (and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization) comes from a Carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, 1971 -1926 BC. A Stela and a statuette from the Egyptian pharaohs Senusret III and Amenemhet III have also been found. [1]

The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. It lasted from 1975 BC to 1640 BC. The Middle Kingdom was the second peak period of the Ancient Egyptian civilization (the other two being the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom). [1] The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC. Egyptian Turquoise Ushabti, Ca. 21st Dynasty, Ca. 1069 to 945 BC. Molded servant figure in green glaze, the details in added black, with striped wig and frontal column of text inscribed for '.Amun', 3½ in. (9.1cm.)H. + mount. [1] This Sothic period r era of 1460 years, during which the Egyptian New Years day travelled all round the Sothic year, is recorded by Greek and Roman writers at least as early as the 1st century B.C. The epagomenal days appear on a monument of the Vth Dynasty and in the very ancient Pyramid texts. [1] The civil year had 365 days and started in principle when Sirius, or the Dog Star--also known in Greek as Sothis (Ancient Egyptian: Sopdet)--became visible above the horizon after a period of absence, which at that time occurred some weeks before the Nile began to rise for the inundation. [1]

On the death of the ex-caliph he was confirmed in the prefecture of Egypt as deputy of Nureddin; and on the decease of the latter in 1174 (12th of April) he took the title sultan, so that with this year the Ayyubite period of Egyptian history properly begins. [1] An Egyptian priest, Manetho, wrote a history of Egypt and divided its rulers into dynasties, each dynasty representing a family whose members ruled over Egypt for a period of time." [1] I love Egypt and Egyptian history especially XVIII DYNASTY, Amarna Period and Akhenaten's reign. [1] It was during this period the horse and chariot were introduced into Egypt, which the Egyptians had no answer to until they introduced their own version of the war chariot at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. [1] The Sanctuary of Ayia Irini contained over 2,000 figurines, in 570 BCE, Cyprus was conquered by Egypt under Amasis II. This brief period of Egyptian domination left its influence mainly in the arts, especially sculpture, where the rigidity, Cypriot artists later discarded this Egyptian style in favour of Greek prototypes. [1] The Hyksos invasion interrupted Egyptian expansion to the south, and it only resumed in the New Kingdom during the same period when Egypt conquered land in Palestine. [1] Considered by scholars to be the most important period in Egyptian history, it began with the reign of the King Ahmose who succeeded in defeating the Hyksos and reuniting Egypt. [1] The site is called Umm el-Gaab (mother of pots) -The early dynastic was a period of rapid increases in economic an administrative organization of Egypt that laid the foundation for the Pyramid Age. - a dynamic period during which the fundamental characteristics of Egyptian civilization evolved. [1] Bunson also notes that knife handles and cylinder seals from Mesopotamia have been found in Egypt dating to about the same period whose designs were used by later Egyptian artisans. [1] Since the mainstream dates assigned to Egyptian history go back over 7,000 years (around 5,000 BC ) to alleged 'proto-dynastic' and 'pre-dynastic' periods, many wonder how Egyptian culture became so advanced, so quickly. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL A mature culture with writing and art was developed by this time. (eawc, p.4) 1.35k BC - 1336k BC Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) ruled during the 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt The period in Greek history from the death of Alexander the Great until the rise of the Roman empire and its conquest of Egypt in 30 BC is known as the Hellenistic period. [1] This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: theWestern Han or Former Han (206 BC 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25220 AD) Certainly many Greek soldiers fought for Egypt while Egypt was revolting against Persian rule in the 500s and 400s BC. Ptolemaic Egypt lasted from 332 BC to 30 BC. It begins when Ptolemy I, a general under Alexander the Great, declared himself pharoah and ends with Queen Cleopatra during the Roman Invasion. [1]

The ministry said they belonged to the Late Period, which spanned almost 300 years up to Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt in 332 BC. The pharaohs of the 4th dynasty constructed the pyramids of El G"za, which culminated in the massive Great Pyramid of the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) c. 2550 BC. This period lasted from 1500 - 500 BC. So, it lasted roughly 1000 years. [1] The Primor’e sites are associated with early Iron Age Yankovskaia (ca. 850-350 cal yr BC) and Krounovskaia (ca. 500 cal yr BC-200/300 cal yr AD) cultures, the Iron Age Ol'ginskaia culture (ca. 300 cal yr BC-300/400 cal yr AD), the early medieval Mohe culture (ca. 5th-11th century AD), the Bohai State (698-926 cal yr AD), the period following the defeat of the Bohai State (10th century AD), and the Eastern Xia State (1215-1233 AD). [1] KEY TOPICS The Migration Period was a time of widespread migrations of peoples, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns, within or into Europe in the middle of the first millennium AD. The Migration period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or Völkerwanderung (German: wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between the years 300 to 700 CE in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. [1]

The powerful "sickle sword" are in fact well attested in Egypt, Israel, Syria, lebanon, and other Middle East areas both in art representation and finding like this specimen from Ugarit Syria dated 14th century BC. The period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was an age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Caucasus, Mediterranean and Balkan regions, with great upheavals. [1] Certainly many Greek soldiers fought for Egypt while Egypt was revolting against Persian rule in the 500s and 400s BC. The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze Age collapse, the 8th and 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. [1] The period in Greek history from the death of Alexander the Great until the rise of the Roman empire and its conquest of Egypt in 30 BC is known as the Hellenistic period. [1] After 214 years the XII dynasty came to an end in 1786 BC In the dimly known period that followed, Egypt passed for more than a century under the Hyksos (the so-called shepherd kings), who were apparently Semites from Syria. [1] It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Naqada III archaeological period until about the beginning of the Old Kingdom, c. 2686 BC. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by a god-king. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL White argues that iron did not supplant bronze 'at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (256 BC)' and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the, or to 221 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. [1]

POSSIBLY USEFUL Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC. Since an Egyptian sword bearing the name of Pharaoh Merneptah was found in the destruction levels, 1190 BC was taken as the date for the beginning of the LH IIIC. Two bronze statues, about BC, first discovered in Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia, Reggio Calabria, Italy. [1] The Middle Kingdom stretched from c. 2050 BC to 1650 BC. This period saw the beginning of expansion of Egyptian empire through conquests. [1] Evidence suggests that they had adapted to animal husbandry by 8000 BC and agriculture by 5000; however, they did not acquire bronze technology until 2000 BC Egyptian history was characterized by three sustained periods of centralized authority, stability and order, when the kingdom of the Nile was unified The symbols could thus be assembled in any necessary order to sound out spoken communication. [1] This opened the most flourishing period of Egyptian history, the XVIIIth Dynasty, 1587-1328 BC. The profusion of painted tombs at Thebes, which were copied and popularized by Gardner Wilkinson, has made the life of this period very familiar to us. [1] Very conventionalized portrait statues appear from as early as Dynasty II, before 2,780 BC, and with the exception of the art of the Amarna period of Ahkenaten, and some other periods such as Dynasty XII, the idealized features of rulers, like other Egyptian artistic conventions, changed little until after the Greek conquest. [1] DNA was extracted from the heads of five Egyptian mummies, all the specimens were dated to between 806 BC and 124 AD, a timeframe corresponding with the Late Dynastic and Ptolemaic periods. [1] It dates from the Ptolemaic and Roman period (180 BC to AD 251) and is one of the last Egyptian temples ever built. [1] The cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Israel, the scission of long-distance trade contacts and sudden eclipse of literacy occurred between 1206 and 1150 BC. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Troy and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter (for example, Hattusas, Mycenae, Ugarit ). [1] The first Egyptian battleaxes were produced during the Old Kingdom period, around 2000 BC, and were constructed of bronze. [1] Asenath is best attested in the archaeological record in the first millennium, and Joseph’s Egyptian name (and its formula) is found most during the period 664-332 BC (Hoffmeier 1996, pp. 85-87). [1] The Bronze Age in Nubia, started as early as 2300 BC. Copper smelting was introduced by Egyptians to the Nubian city of Mero", in modern-day Sudan, around 2600 BC. A furnace for bronze casting has been found in Kerma that is dated to 2300-1900 BC. In Mesopotamia, the Mesopotamian Bronze Age began about 3500 BC and ended with the Kassite period (c. 1500 BC - c. 1155 BC). [1] The Bronze Age in Nubia, started as early as 2300 BC. Copper smelting was introduced by Egyptians to the Nubian city of Mero", in modern-day Sudan, around 2600 BC. A furnace for bronze casting has been found in Kerma that is dated to 2300-1900 BC. In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 750 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. [1]

The Egyptians began making spearheads out of iron around 1000 BC. This was a large village, consisting of about 180,000 square meters and it remained populated for about 1,000 (one thousand) years, until about 4000 BC. At the end of this period, the dwellings consisted of clusters of semi-subterranean huts made from mud with mud-plastered walls and floors. [1] Middle Bronze dynasties The lasted from 2055 to 1650 BC. During this period, the rose to dominate Egyptian popular religion. [1] The Egyptians began making spearheads out of iron around 1000 BC. Middle (Ptolemaic) Demotic Middle Demotic (circa 40030 BC) is the stage of writing used during the Ptolemaic Period. [1]

Below, the changes in the pronunciation of the langauge over time are detailed, and the stages included by default are highlighted: Old Egyptian, c. 2500 BCE ; Middle Egyptian, c. 1700 BCE ; and Late Egyptian, c. 800 BCE. [9] At that time, Egypt's President Anwar Sadat had unleashed forces of Islamism in the hope of strengthening the social and cultural foundations of the Egyptian state, following the failure of the socialist Pan-Arab ideology of his predecessor, Gamal Abdel Nasser. [2] In 2007, Egyptian authorities, including the Minister of Culture and the head of the Ministry's Supreme Council of Antiquities, pledged to move forward over the next few years with the restoration of at least seven synagogues, as well as the possible development of a Jewish museum, sought by the Jewish community to memorialize Egypt's substantial and historic Jewish religious and cultural properties and relics. [2] The events of the so-called "Arab Spring'' swept Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak out of power, but they have scarcely begun to address the deep-seated Muslim and male supremacism that permeates large swathes of Egyptian society and provides the cultural context of the forcible marriages and conversions. [2] In return for Egypt's anti-Iraq stance and its sending of troops in the Persian Gulf War (1991), the United States dismissed $7 billion in Egyptian debt. [3] Egypt's Universal Periodic Review In February 2010, the UN Human Rights Council examined the human rights record of Egyptian authorities under the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) procedure. [2]

Government failure and Collaboration In parallel, reports by human rights groups as well as Coptic community and liberal Egyptian NGOs, have openly accused local Egyptian police and security forces, national security agencies, including the defunct state security agency "amn al dawla,'' of either covering up the attacks, or protecting the perpetrators. [2] He has established the Centers for Intercultural Dialogue and Translation and the Center for Arab-West Understanding, and through these instruments is active player in the foreign relations of the Egyptian state and church. \14\ Hulsman's Arab-West consortium has long campaigned against Copts who accuse Muslim men of using force to kidnap, marry and convert Coptic women and girls [2] First of all, we interviewed four Egyptian lawyers who provided us access to claims filed on behalf of Coptic women who had disappeared as well as young women who had returned from a forced marriage and conversion and were attempting to regain their Christian identities. [2] Their minority status is the basis for legal and social discrimination Coptic women and girls are vulnerable because of their minority status, yet little effort is made by the Egyptian Government to document this vulnerability or its consequences. 7. [2] Under an Islamist authoritarian Government, these practices are highly likely to continue and increase, endangering not only Coptic women but also the rights of Egyptian secular women at large. [2] In March, the Egyptian government released Coptic Christian priest Mitaus Wahba from prison, where he had served three years of a five-year sentence for presiding over a wedding of a Christian convert from Islam. [2] Outside the community, the attacks against Coptic Christian women and their results will bring other consequences, Mr. Chairman, to bear on secular Egyptian women in general, meaning Muslim secular Egyptian women in general, both liberal and conservative. [2] For with the arrival of Muslim Brotherhood presidency in M. Mohammed Morsi at helm of the Egyptian republic and with a possible ruling coalition inside the disbanded parliament or the next elected assembly, the ideological agendas of the Islamist movement at large would constitute a greater menace to the liberal segments of civil society and particularly against the Coptic community and its women. [2] Incitement to violence in media and government-funded mosques In the months leading up to the November 2011 parliamentary elections, an increase in incitement to violence in Egyptian media and government-funded mosques exacerbated sectarian tensions between Muslims and Coptic Christians. [2] In another case, Egyptian telecom mogul and Coptic Christian parliamentarian Naguib Sawiris was tried in January 2012 for blasphemy under Article 98(f) of the Penal Code because he tweeted cartoons in June 2011 of Mickey and Minnie Mouse wearing conservative Muslim attire. [2] The Egyptian delegation also characterized relations between Muslims and Coptic Christians as "healthy and positive,'' attributing recent sectarian tensions to extremism and asserting that the law is implemented whenever violent incidents occur. [2]

Under Egyptian law, Muslim men can marry Christian women but Muslim women are prohibited from marrying Christian men. [2] In recent years, in response to sectarian violence, Egyptian authorities have conducted, quote, "reconciliation sessions'' between Muslims and Christians as a way of easing tensions and resolving disputes. [2] Opposition from Islamic fundamentalists heightened during the 1990s; from 1992 to 1997, more than 1,200 people, mostly Egyptian Christians, were killed in terrorist violence. [3] Copt is a word established by the conquering Arabs to distinguish those peoples who were Christian within its Egyptian territories; regardless of race or original ethnicity. [4]

In October 2011, the first known implementation of the new ruling was made public when an Egyptian mother's twin sons received new identity cards identifying them as Christian. [2] The draft was criticized widely by Muslims, Christians and Egyptian human rights groups. [2] Many Egyptians carried signs saying "Muslim + Christian Egyptian.'' [2] On January 1, 2011, President Obama issued a strong statement condemning the New Year's Day bombing of a church targeting Christians in Alexandria and offered assistance to the Egyptian government to bring the perpetrators to justice. [2] The claim of the Egyptian government that this is the story of every one of the thousands of disappeared women and girls absolutely defies the evidence. [2] The Egyptian Government does not restore the religious identities of women who return to their communities and families. [2] The United States should more actively press the Egyptian government to prosecute perpetrators of sectarian violence and to ensure that responsibility for religious affairs is not placed under the jurisdiction of the domestic security agency. [2] According to official Egyptian government media reports in November 2011, an Egyptian state security court intends to retry the two defendants who were acquitted. [2] The Islamic State claimed responsibility and the Egyptian government has declared a three-month State-of-Emergency. [7] State media called on Egyptian citizens to support the Egyptian military in "protecting Egypt'' from Christian protestors. [2] Egyptian state-owned media incited the violence when broadcasters urged Egyptians to go out into the streets to protect security forces from attacks by Christian protestors. [2] Violence Targeting Christians Since early 2011, hundreds of Egyptians were killed in the streets as a result of a decrease in security and a dramatic increase in violence. [2]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(18 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (158) - ESCALATING VIOLENCE AGAINST COPTIC WOMEN AND GIRLS: WILL THE NEW EGYPT BE MORE DANGEROUS THAN THE OLD?

2. (155) Coptic Period (Egypt 300 - 900)

3. (22) Ancient Egypt: Greek and Roman rule - Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

4. (16) Since the Copts (who are brown, Middle Eastern people) are proven to be the direct descendants of the Ancient Egyptians, then why do people still argue that the Ancient Egyptians were black? - Quora

5. (14) What Is Coptic and Who Were the Copts in Ancient Egypt? - Biblical Archaeology Society

6. (12) Behind the Name: Ancient Egyptian Submitted Names

7. (11) List of books and articles about Egyptian History | Online Research Library: Questia

8. (10) Egypt - Oxford Islamic Studies Online

9. (3) Coptic period - Wikipedia

10. (3) Egypt, 500-1000 A.D. | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

11. (3) A List of Historical Time Periods to Take You Through the Past

12. (3) Ireland’s Copts all set to celebrate Christmas

13. (3) Gallery Crawl: "Unearthing the Truth: Egypt’s Pagan and Coptic Sculpture" at the Brooklyn Museum of Art

14. (2) History Resources - Quantum Gaze

15. (2) Coptic Churches Bombed In Egypt On Palm Sunday | WBEZ

16. (1) Egyptian Literature Timeline - Ancient History Encyclopedia

17. (1) 64 best Coptic anything images on Pinterest | Ancient egypt, Embroidery and History

18. (1) Appendix:Egyptian pronunciation - Wiktionary


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