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Dương Đình Nghệ (Vietnam)

Dương Đình Nghệ (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • In 937, Liu Yan, the Southern Han ruler, took the chance to step in Vietnam again after the death of the Annam Lord Protector Dương Đ"nh Nghệ.(More...)
  • According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn Hống and Nghĩa Lĩnh.(More...)
  • The Chinese reconquered the Vietnam land and ruled the same they did during their first rule, almost erasing Vietnamese culture.(More...)

  • In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam.(More...)


In 937, Liu Yan, the Southern Han ruler, took the chance to step in Vietnam again after the death of the Annam Lord Protector Dương Đ"nh Nghệ. [1] The decision to again invade Vietnam was contributed from the death of Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, Ngô Quyền ’s father-in-law, who was Annam Lord Protector previously and a very decisive man. [2]

As isolation was growing so was nationalism, over the next 1000 years, the people in what now Vietnam consider themselves not Chinese but Vietnamese. [2]

In 931, Dương Đ"nh Nghệ defeated the Southern Han army, and briefly achieved independence until he was assassinated by Kiều Công Tiễn, one of his general who defected and fled. [2] After Dương Đ"nh Nghệ was murdered by one of his aides (Kiều Công Tiễn), the fight was led by Ngô Quyền, who in 938 clashed with a Southern Han expeditionary corps approaching by sea. [3] He had been foiled by Dương Đ"nh Nghệ in 931, but now that Dương Đ"nh Nghệ was dead, he thought the time was right for another attempt. [1]

Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc clan, followed by Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, ruled Tĩnh Hải qu n autonomously under the Tang title of Jiedushi ( Vietnamese : Tiết Độ Sứ), Virtuous Lord, but stopped short of proclaiming themselves kings. [4] The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese. [4] Modern central and southern Vietnam were not originally part of the Vietnamese state. [4] For the most part of its history, the geographical boundary of present-day Vietnam covered 3 ethnically distinct states: a Vietnamese state, a Cham state, and a part of the Khmer Empire. [4] A Giao Chỉ prefect, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese emperors.Taylor, Keith Weller. [4] To this day, the Trưng Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [4] In this conflict, the North and the Viet Cong--with logistical support from the Soviet Union--defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. [4] This lead to the withdrawal of the last U.S. forces in 1973, Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, and 2 years later the Vietnamese succeeded in controlling over the South and in 1976, the government of united Vietnam renamed Saigon as Hồ Ch' Minh City in honor of Uncle Hồ, who died in 1969. [5] Two years after the withdrawal of the last U.S. forces in 1973, Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the communists, and the South Vietnamese army surrendered in 1975. [4]

At certain periods during these 1,100 years, Vietnam was independently governed under the Triệus, Trưng Sisters, Early Lýs, Khúcs and Dương Đ"nh Nghệ--although their triumphs and reigns were temporary. [4] At certain periods during these 1,100 years, Vietnam was independently governed under the Triệus, Trưng Sisters, Anterior Lýs, Khúcs and Dương Đ"nh Nghệ --although their triumphs and reigns were brief. [6]

According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn Hống and Nghĩa Lĩnh. [4] The country began as several tribal states, with King Kinh Dương Vương grouping all the vassal states at around 2879 BC. The ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period are collectively known as the Hng kings. [5] Lộc Tục succeeded his predecessor as tribal chief and made the first attempts to incorporate all tribes around 2879 BC. As he succeeded in grouping all the vassal states within his territory, a convocation of the subdued tribes proclaimed him King Kinh Dương Vương, as the leader of the unified ancient Vietnamese nation. [4]

The United States, in addition to citing Vietnam's minimal cooperation in accounting for Americans who were missing in action (MIAs) as an obstacle to normal relations, barred normal ties as long as Vietnamese troops occupied Cambodia. [4]

Hồng Bàng dynasty Văn Lang 文郎 2524-258 BC Territory reduced to modern Northern Vietnam including the three modern provinces of Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh. [4] The presence of Homo erectus around 500,000 BC was found in caves of Lạng Sơn and Nghệ An provinces in Northern Vietnam. [4]

Ngô Quyền, Dương Đ"nh Nghệ's son-in-law, defeated the Southern Han fleet at the Battle of Bạch Đằng. [4] Ngô Quyền, Dương Đ"nh Nghệ's son-in-law, defeated the Southern Han fleet at the Battle of Bach Dang River (938). [7] Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc family, followed by Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, ruled Giao Ch u autonomously under the Tang title of Tiết Độ Sứ (Virtuous Lord), but stopping short of proclaiming themselves kings. [7] The first leader of this dynasty, Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, was respected and well-liked. [8]

The Chinese reconquered the Vietnam land and ruled the same they did during their first rule, almost erasing Vietnamese culture. [8] In the north, Chiang Kaishek's army entered Vietnam, also to disarm the Japanese, followed by the forces of the non-Communist Vietnamese parties, such as Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng and Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. [7] Most groups attempted to infiltrate Vietnam but eventually were eliminated by Vietnamese security and armed forces. [7] The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. [7] The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam). [7] Copy at, To this day, the Trung Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [7] Copy at, Although the American-led troops succeeded in containing the advance of Communist forces, the presence of foreign troops, the widespread bombing over all of Vietnam, and the social vices that mushroomed around U.S. bases upset the sense of national pride among many Vietnamese, North and South, causing many to become sympathetic to North Vietnam and the NLF. [7] In 1968, the NLF launched a massive and surprise Tết Offensive (known in South Vietnam as "Biến Cố Tết Mậu Th n" or in the North as "Cuộc Tổng Tấn Công và Nổi Dậy Tết Mậu Th n"), attacking almost all major cities in South Vietnam over the Vietnamese New Year (Tết). [7]

The X'ch Tỵs and Qins were among the earliest foreign aggressors of Vietnam, but the ancient Vietnamese managed to regain control of the country soon after the invasions. [6] The ns and Qins were among the earliest foreign aggressions of Vietnam, but the ancient Vietnamese regained control of their country soon after their invasions. [9]

During the existence of South Vietnam, nevertheless, South Vietnamese learned many American practices that became useful for the country even many decades later, such as in the fields of economics, business and public management, and infrastructure management. [7]

It also gave rise to the first story of espionage in Vietnamese history, which resulted in the downfall of king An Dương Vương. [7] On November 1 1963, with secret blessing from the U.S., South Vietnamese generals led by Dương Văn Minh overthrew Ngô Đ"nh Diệm and killed both him and his brother, Ngô Đ"nh Nhu, who was also his official advisor. [7]

In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [10] In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [10] The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Lý Nam who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [10] From 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam.This began when the king of Early Lý dynasty ( Lý Nam Đế II ) surrendered to Emperor Wen of Sui in Sui-Former Lý War until Khúc clan seized the capital Đại La and install the autonomous state in Vietnam in 905.At that moment, the Emperor Ai of Tang lost the power to Zhu Wen and stayed as the figurehead. [3] After 10 years of war, Vietnam regained its independence and the Ming Dynasty recognised Vietnam as an independent state. [2] This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [10] Some people believe that the control of Triu Dynasty was the beginning of China's domination in Vietnam, as Triu à used to be a commander under dynastic China. [10] Others claim that this is still an independent period of Vietnam because of during this period, the people of Triu Dynasty were assimilated into the culture of Âu Lc. [10]

After that, a large number of Chinese people including ordinary people, mandarins and scholars moved to the south to live and impose the centralized state system to Vietnam. [10] Northern Chinese dynasties of Zhou, Han, Wu, Jin, Tong, Qi, Liang, Chen, Sui, Tang, Hau Luong, and Southern Han conducted to plunder natural, human and material resources in Vietnam. [10] The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Early Lý dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. [3] The Southern Han fleet entered Vietnam via the Bạch Đằng estuary (mouth of the river which flows into Hạ Long Bay ) where iron-tipped stakes had been sunk into the riverbed by Ngô Quyền. [3] Vietnam back then, official gained independence from being a province of China in 938, after the Battle of Bạch Đằng on the Bạch Đằng River. [2]

China do not rule vietnam with flowers you know, like Roman empire, chinese rule to some degree was characterized by repression, brutality, demands for huge tributes and forced labor. [2] During Chinese domination period, Vietnam was an important port in the region, a bridge of sea routes between China and India. [10] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. [10]

He founded the Hng Bàng Dynasty, whose members ruled Vietnam until 258 BC. So much of the vestiges from this time is now lost to the ages. [10] The Lê dynasty was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six year interruption of the Mc dynasty usurpers (1527-1533). [10] The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Li after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. [10] In 1407, Vietnam fell under Ming dynasty domination, which lasted until 1427, they renamed the area " Giao Ch ". [10] We earned it by iron and blood, Vietnam declared independence after Tang collapse and had fought with Song dynasty. [2] It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bo i abdicated the throne and transferred power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [10]

Champa is an ancient Indochinese kingdom lasting from the 2nd to the 17th century CE and extending over the central and southern coastal region of Vietnam from roughly the 18th parallel in the north to Point Ke Ga (Cape Varella) in the south. [10] Nanzhao invaded the area of Jiaozhi modern day Vietnam multiple times in the 9th century until the Cao Bian (Cao Biền) was ordered by the Tang dynasty to defeat Nanzhao and restored Tang rule to Jiaozhou. [3] Between 1190 and 1220 the Chams again came under Cambodian control, and later in the 13th century they were attacked by the Trnn kings of Vietnam, as well as by the Mongols in 1284. [10] The man who was credited with the victory, Ngô Quyền, a brilliant general and afterwards, King of Vietnam. [2]

Vietnam fought with the french in the 1940s in the first Indochina war eventually defeating the french in 1954. [1] Conflict between the two sides became intense with the united states heavily interfering, and what was also known as the Vietnam war. [1]

This battle concluded the fourth invasion as well as ended 1000 - year Chinese domination of Vietnam. [10] This rebellion ended the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. [10]

During the broad sweep of Vietnamese history, Vietnam has had several capitals. [10] The Vietnamese government announced in 2007 that there was a new public holiday in Vietnam called the Hùng Kings' Festival at the Hùng Temple. [10]

The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. [10] Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Later Lê dynasty early period (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Later Lê dynasty warlord period (1533 to 1788) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords. [10] This is an important historic period proving the patriotism of the Vietnamese people through revolts of the Trung Sisters, Ly Nam De, Khuc Thua Du, and Ngô Quyn to regain autonomy. [10] Although Âu Lc people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over the next 1000 years. [10] It also saw massive changes to Vietnamese society: the previously Buddhist state became Confucian after 20 years of Ming rule. [10] Ming only can rule for only 20 years after defeat by vietnamese and this time for good. [2]

Founder of the Vietnamese Le family "Le Loi" and his forces finally defeated the Ming army in 1428. [2] The Vietnamese forces, under the command of Trn Hng o (1228-1300), lay in wait for the invasion fleet, comprising 18,000 men and 400 vessels commanded by the Mongol general Omar Batur, knowing that they would have to return to China through the estuary at the mouth of the Bach Dang River. [10] Vietnamese became independent in AD 938 following the victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng river which was fought in 938. [1]

Chinese forced Vietnamese people to follow Chinese rites and customs. [10] When Liu Hongcao arrived in Vietnamese waters with the Southern Han expedition, his plan was to ascend the Bch ng River and to place his army in the heart of Giacannoto Chau before disembarking; the Bch ng was the major river route into the Red River plain from the north. [10] The descendants took the title of Hùng Vng after the first king, and many Vietnamese folktales include mention of them. [10] It began with Kinh Dng Vng as the first Hùng King ( Hùng Vng ), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. [10]

In the 10th century the Vietnamese kingdom of i Vit began to exert pressure on Champa, forcing it to relinquish Quang Nam in 1000 and Bình nh in 1069. [10]

The first Hùng king came to power in 2879 BC, ruling an area covering what is now North Vietnam and part of southern China. [10] The other contributing factor was that the Ming Dynasty that ruled North Vietnam (during the period of the 4th and final Chinese Domination) was weakening. [2] The independence of Vietnam was just secured for 60 years until in 602 AD when Sui Dynasty reestablished control over northern Vietnam, starting the third domination. [10] This period saw two Chinese imperial dynasties rule over an area of northern Vietnam roughly corresponding to the modern Hanoi region. [3] The Tang Dynasty quelled three revolts in northern Vietnam between 722 and 728, using an army of natives pressed into service under the leadership of Chinese generals. [3] Giao Ch ( pinyin : Jiozh ) was the name for various provinces, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (c. [10]

The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Li's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sn brothers took over. [10] Lê Li, one of Vietnam's most celebrated heroes, is credited with rescuing the country from Ming domination in 1428. [10]

Professor Liam Kelley (Le Minh Khai) suggested that the "north" in B"nh Ngô đại cáo referred to the Ming collaborationist Hanoi scholars while the south referred to Thanh Hóa, the base of Lê Lợi since the text referred to "Dai Viet" and did not introduce China before mentioning north. cited John Whitmore and challenged the claim that "Ngô " referred to Ming dynasty China but instead referred to the Chinese settled Red River Delta area of Vietnam. [4] He believes that it was the Ming collaborationist scholars of Hanoi who were referred to as the "Ngô" and that it was not a term used for Chinese as is currently though in Vietnam, and that the B"nh Ngô đại cáo not directed at China. [4] The "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" criticized a people called "Ngô" in Vietnam, and it did not refer to the Ming Chinese. [4]

John D. Phan has suggested a new analysis of the linguistic situation in Vietnam under Chinese rule suggesting that a Middle Chinese dialect was spoken by the people of the Red River Delta during the Tang dynasty by drawing on Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary which showed evidence that it was derived from an existing language and that this Middle Chinese dialect was later displaced by a Muong language influenced by Chinese. [4] During the rule of the Chinese Kingdom of Eastern Wu over Vietnam the local people learned Chinese after Chinese people were moved down to live with them. [4] Once Vietnam did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, and for 1,100 years, Vietnam had been successively governed by a series of Chinese dynasties: the Han, Eastern Wu, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han; leading to the loss of native cultural heritage, language, and much of national identity. [4] Many anti-Vietnam war protesters bought into a narrative that Vietnam's history consisted of Chinese invasion for 2,000 years and that Vietnam was a united country. [4] The history of Vietnam is one of the longest continuous histories in the world, with a cultural history of around 25,000 years and an eventful history with so many wars and calamities. [5] As a result of the Vietnam (Second Indochina) War (1954-75), Viet Cong and regular People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces of the DRV unified the country under communist rule. [4]

The 1954 Geneva Conference left Vietnam a divided nation, with Hồ Ch' Minh's communist DRV government ruling the North from Hanoi and Ngô Đ"nh Diệm's Republic of Vietnam, supported by the United States, ruling the South from Saigon. [4] Worrying about the raising Communists problem in Asia which could cause a Domino Fall, American aided to form up Ngô Đ"nh Diệm - a Church Father to be the President of Republic of Vietnam, supported by the United States, ruling the South from Saigon. [5]

It was English and French foreign languages translations which bowdlerized "south" into "Vietnam" and "north" into China even though people today have no true idea of what south and north referred to in the original text. [4] Territorial disagreements along the border and in the South China Sea that had remained dormant during the Vietnam War were revived at the war's end, and a postwar campaign engineered by Hanoi against the ethnic Chinese Hoa community elicited a strong protest from Beijing. [4] Vietnam also faces disputes, mostly with Cambodia over the border, and especially, China, over the South China Sea. [4]

People from Song dynasty China like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao fled to Tran dynasty ruled Vietnam after the Mongol invasion of the Song. [4] Nguyễn dynasty and French Protectorate French Indochina, consisting of Cochinchina (southern Vietnam), Annam (central Vietnam), Tonkin (northern Vietnam) 1887-1945 Present-day Vietnam. [4] Triệu dynasty Nam Việt 南越 207-111 BC North and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Hoành Sơn Range), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [4] Han Domination Giao Chỉ (Jiaozhi) 交趾 111 BC - 39 AD Present-day north and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Ma River and Cả River delta), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [4] Trưng Sisters Lĩnh Nam 嶺南 40-43 Present-day north and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Ma River and Cả River delta). [4]

In 111 BC, Han troops invaded Nam Việt and established new territories, dividing Vietnam into Giao Chỉ now the Red River delta; Cửu Ch n from modern-day Thanh Hóa to Hà Tĩnh; and Nhật Nam ( pinyin : Rinan), from modern-day Quảng B"nh to Huế. [4] Nguyễn dynasty Việt Nam 越南 1804-1839 Present-day Vietnam plus some occupied territories in Laos and Cambodia. [4] Lê, Mạc, Trịnh-Nguyễn lords, T y Sơn dynasty, Nguyễn dynasty Đại Việt 1428-1804 大越 Gradually expanded to the boundary of present-day Vietnam. [4]

Champa was made a tributary state of Vietnam in 1312, but ten years later regained independence and Cham troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 and again in 1383. [4] In July 1949, the State of Vietnam was officially proclaimed, as a semi-independent country within the French Union, with Bảo Đại as Head of State. [4] Vietnam's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Vietnam under the Hng kings was for so long an independent and self-contained state. [4] When Ngô Quyền (King of Vietnam, 939-944) restoring sovereign power in the country, the next millennium was advanced by the accomplishments of successive dynasties: Ngôs, Đinhs, Early Lês, Lýs, Trầns, Hồs, Later Trầns, Later Lês, Mạcs, Trịnhs, Nguyễns, T y Sơns and again Nguyễns. [4] He then proclaimed himself King Ngô and effectively began the age of independence for Vietnam. [4] Vietnam independent time passed through many dynasties with Ngô, Đinh, & Early Lê dynasties (939-1009), Lý, Trần, & Hồ dynasties (1009-1407). [5]

Specially in Tran Dynasty, Vietnamese won Mongolian with the troop of Genghis Khan 3 times in 1258, 1285 and 1288 marking the top development period of Vietnam history. [5] The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century, followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. [4] The born of Vietnamese Communist party in 1930 lead by Ho Chi Minh became an important milestone to Vietnamese people as now Vietnam is still lead by this communist party. [5] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Vietnamese settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. [4] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [4] Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the u Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). [4] Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [4] Recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese referred to their country as Vietnam. [4]

Modern Vietnamese historians inserted word changes and altered the meanings of texts written by ancient Vietnamese historians on how battles between rebels in Vietnam and the Chinese states such as the Chen dynasty and Southern Han were viewed. [4] Except the Hồng Bàng and T y Sơn dynasties, all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the king's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are dictated by the dynasty founders and often used as the country's name. [4] Both Chinese and Vietnamese sovereigns were honored at a temple constructed by the Nguyen dynasty. [4]

In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Th" Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs. [4] Noted Trần dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [4]

Japan's defeat by World War II Allies created a power vacuum for Vietnamese nationalists of all parties to seize power in August 1945, forcing Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate and ending the Nguyễn dynasty. [4] Within French Indochina, Cochinchina had the status of a colony, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and Tonkin had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials. [4]

The period of the Fourth Hng dynasty (c. 2252-1913 BC) saw the evidence for early Vietnamese calendar system recorded on stone tools and the population from the mountainous areas moved out and began to settle in the open along the rivers to join the agricultural activities. [4] It was also during this period that the Trần emperors waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Vietnamese long history of southern expansion (known as Nam tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence in the 10th century. [4] This period is controversial as on one side, some Vietnamese historians consider Triệu's rule as the starting point of the Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general, whereas others consider it still an era of Vietnamese independence as the Triệu family in Nam Việt were assimilated to local culture. [4] In 1927, the Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party), modeled after the Kuomintang in China, was founded, and the party launched the armed Yên Bái mutiny in 1930 in Tonkin which resulted in its chairman, Nguyễn Thái Học and many other leaders captured and executed by the guillotine. [4] The basic nature of Vietnamese society changed little during the nearly 1,000 years between independence from China in the 10th century and the French conquest in the 19th century. [4] As the French suppressed both movements, and after witnessing revolutionaries in action in China and Russia, Vietnamese revolutionaries began to turn to more radical paths. [4] In early 1945, over 2 millions of Vietnamese died in a famine which resulted from French, Japanese and Vietnamese Feudalism forcing people to replace rice by jute plants for dynamite. [5] Chinese clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn. [4] While governors and top officials were Chinese, the original Vietnamese nobles (Lạc Hầu, Lạc Tướng) from the Hồng Bàng period still managed in some of the highlands. [4] Learning a lesson from the Trưng revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. [4] Initially, Chinese was used for writing purposes, but by the 13th century, a set of derivative characters known as Chữ Nôm emerged that allowed native Vietnamese words to be written. [4] From the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [4] Ngô Th" Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to question the relations between Zhao Tuo's Nanyue Kingdom in Guangdong and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red River Delta was a mere vassal to Nanyue and not an integral part of it in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty. [4] The need to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, to cooperate in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and to fight invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states approximately 2879 BC. Ancient time Lê Huyền Thảo Uyên, 2012-13. [4] The Vietnamese nation originated in the Red River Delta in present-day Northern Vietnam and expanded over its history to the current boundary. [4]

The Hồ dynasty's rule and Vietnamese who worked with the Ming were attacked in the "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" by Lê Lợi. [4] Modern Vietnamese have retroactively labelled figures like Trần Ích Tắc as "traitor" to Annam, even though the word for traitor did not exist in Vietnamese during his time and Vietnamese histories like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư do not refer to him as a traitor. [4] Emperor Lê Đại Hành was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [4] In 1930, the Communist International (Comintern) sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to Hong Kong to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party (CPV) with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [4] The Period of Division with its many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse, including the epic poem The Tale of Kiều ( Truyện Kiều ) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife ( Chinh Phụ Ng m ) by Đặng Trần Côn and Đoàn Thị Điểm, and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by a female poet, Hồ Xu n Hương. [4] The Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams. [4] In the late of 1972, American bombers bombed the North seriously in the hope to win the talk in Paris but Vietnamese could stand with So Viet and China weapons support. [5] Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. [4] The New Economic Zones program was implemented by the Vietnamese communist government after the Fall of Saigon. [4]

Declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500. cf. cf. In the South, Diem went about crushing political and religious opposition, imprisoning or killing tens of thousands. [4] Within this time, Alexandre de Rhodes, a French Jesuit priest, improved on earlier work by Portuguese missionaries and developed the Vietnamese Romanized alphabet Quốc Ngữ in Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum in 1651. [5] Phan Ch u Trinh, who favored a peaceful, non-violent struggle to gain independence, led a second movement, Duy T n ( Modernization ), which stressed education for the masses, modernizing the country, fostering understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and peaceful transitions of power. [4]

By this time, Vietnamese nationalism had reached a point where attempts to sinicize them could only strengthen further resistance.Almost immediately, Trần loyalists started a resistance war. [4] From 1963 to 1973, 59.000 American Youngs died in the war and the Vietnamese side is around 40 times than that number. [5] The Ming court reluctantly decided on a military intervention into the Vietnamese civil war, but Mạc Đăng Dung offered ritual submission to the Ming Empire, which was accepted. [4] In 1479, King Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos in the Vietnamese-Lao War and captured its capital Luang Prabang, in which later the city was totally ransacked and destroyed by the Vietnamese. [4]

Overall, Vietnam remained very efficiently and stably governed except in times of war and dynastic breakdown, and its administrative system was probably far more advanced than that of any other Southeast Asian states and was more highly centralized and stable governed among Asian states. [4] The government of Vietnam says that 4 million of its citizens were exposed to Agent Orange, and as many as 3 million have suffered illnesses because of it; these figures include the children of people who were exposed.Ben Stocking for AP, published in the Seattle Times May 22, 2010 The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems due to contaminated Agent Orange. [4] From 1954 to 1960, talks between 4 sides: Vietnam Northern by Ho Chi Minh - Vietnam Southern by Ngo Dinh Diem and Vietnam Southern By Vietnam Southern People and American could not get to any result. [5] Along with the split between northern and southern Vietnam in geographical territory came the divergence in their distinctive choices for institutional political structure. [4]

At various points during the imperial dynasties, Vietnam was ravaged and divided by civil wars and witnessed interventions by the Songs, Mongol Yuans, Chams, Mings, Dutch, Manchus, French. [4] In 1858, French army defeated Nguyễn’ Royal troop and Vietnam is under French domination till 1945. [5] He went to the French territory of Pondichéry (India), and secured two ships, a regiment of Indian troops, and a handful of volunteers and returned to Vietnam in 1788. [4] In 1946, Vietnam had its first National Assembly election which drafted the first constitution, but the situation was still precarious: the French tried to regain power by force. [5] Before modern times scholars in Vietnam wanted to copy China's civilization which they perceived as more civilized but since the French introduced nationalism Vietnam sought to present itself in a different aspect as a civilizational rival. [4] Various European efforts to establish trading posts in Vietnam failed, but missionaries were allowed to operate for some time until the mandarins began concluding that Christianity was a threat to the Confucian social order since it condemned ancestor worship as idolatry. [4] The war alter on known as Vietnam - American war began in 1960 with Ben Tre Rebellions. [5]

Pre-historic Vietnam was home to some of the world's earliest civilizations and societies--making them one of the world's first people who practiced agriculture. [4] Vietnam was annexed directly as a province of China, the old policy of cultural assimilation again imposed forcibly, and the country was ruthlessly exploited. [4] In the north, most movements were led by former court officers and lasted decades, with Phan Đ"nh Phng fighting in central Vietnam until 1895. [4] In 1976, the government of united Vietnam renamed Saigon as Hồ Ch' Minh City in honor of Hồ, who died in 1969. [4] A Provisional Central Government was formed in 1948, reuniting Annam and Tonkin, but the complete reunification of Vietnam was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchina's legal status. [4] A few years later, French troops landed in northern Vietnam (which they called Tonkin) and captured Hà Nội twice in 1873 and 1882. [4] French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam (Trung Kỳ, central Vietnam), Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ, northern Vietnam), Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ, southern Vietnam, and Cambodia, with Laos added in 1893). [4] From ancient times, modern northern Vietnam and southern China were peopled by many races. [4] As an action to support the pro-Beijing Khmer Rouge regime, China increased its pressure on Vietnam, and sent troops into Northern Vietnam in 1979 to "punish" Vietnam. [4]

In 1941 Nguyễn Ái Quốc, now known as Hồ Ch' Minh, arrived in northern Vietnam to form the Việt Minh Front, and it was supposed to be an umbrella group for all parties fighting for Vietnam's independence, but was dominated by the Communist Party. [4] Republican Era Việt Nam (with variances such as Democratic Republic, State of Vietnam, Republic of Vietnam, Socialist Republic ) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945-1976 in North Vietnam), State of Vietnam (1949-1955), Republic of Vietnam (1955-1975 in South Vietnam), Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976-present) Present-day Vietnam. [4] South Vietnam retained elements of Chinese culture and grammar in their language while North Vietnam actively engaged in a campaign to remove them- while North Vietnam maintained a pro-China position. it was the Cultural Revolution which led to North Vietnam encouraging anti-China sentiment. [4] During the Chinese domination of North Vietnam, several civilizations flourished in what is today central and south Vietnam, particularly the Funanese and Cham. [4]

He then renamed his newly acquired state from Văn Lang to u Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê in the present-day Phú Thọ town in northern Vietnam, where he tried to build the Cổ Loa Citadel (Cổ Loa Thành), the spiral fortress approximately ten miles north of that new capital. [4] Northern Vietnam (Dai Viet) opted for a centralized bureaucratic regime while the southern is based on a patron-client mechanism heavily relied on personalized rule. [4] Archeological excavations in Thailand and northern Vietnam (Dong Son, Hòa B"nh) revealed a major surprise: the first Southeast Asians had agriculture and pottery at the same time as the city-states of ancient Mesopotamia. [4]

The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư contained a constructed genealogy tracing back the political legitimacy of Vietnam's rulers to the Chinese Emperor Shennong similar to how the Northern Wei traced the legitimacy of the Tuoba to the Yellow Emperor. [4]

In 257 BC, a new kingdom, u Lạc, emerged as the union of the u Việt and the Lạc Việt, with Thục Phán proclaiming himself "An Dương Vương" ("King An Dương"). [5] After assembling an army, he defeated and overthrew the eighteenth dynasty of Hng kings, around 258 BC. He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương ("King An Dương"). [4] Triệu Đà later appointed himself a commandant of central Guangdong, closing the borders and conquering neighboring districts and titled himself "King of Nam Viet" In 179 BC, he defeated King An Dương Vương and annexed u Lạc. [4] In 207 BC, Qin warlord Triệu Đà defeated King An Dương Vương and annexed u Lạc into his domain located in present-day Guangdong/Guangxi area. [5]

In 257 BC, a new kingdom, u Lạc, emerged as the union of the u Việt and the Lạc Việt, with Thục Phán proclaiming himself "An Dương Vương". [4]

Sng Lãm (c. 2825 BC - ?) was Kinh Dương Vương's successor and founded the Second Hng dynasty. [4] The Mongols were then countered decisively at their weak points, which were battles in swampy areas such as Chương Dương, Hàm Tử, Vạn Kiếp and on rivers such as V n Đồn and Bạch Đằng. [4]

After 1000 BC, the ancient Vietnamese people became skilled agriculturalists as they grew rice and kept buffaloes and pigs. [4] The peoples of those areas developed a distinct culture from the ancient Vietnamese in the Red River Delta region. [4]

In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the U.S. or the Saigon government, confounding Western fears. [4]

The need to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, to cooperate in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and to fight invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states approximately 2879 BC. Another truly influential part of history in Vietnam occurred during the late Bronze Age, when the Đông Sơn culture dramatically advanced the civilization. [6]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(10 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (112) Vietnam: History

2. (37) Vietnamese History - VIETNAMESE CULTURAL GARDEN

3. (17) Vietnam History

4. (12) Vietnam history

5. (11) How did Vietnam gain independence from China after 1,000 years? - Quora

6. (7) WikiZero - Third Chinese domination of Vietnam

7. (5) Vietnam by victoria kaho on Prezi

8. (3) History Of Vietnam

9. (2) Henry Whittaker History Of A Land Project - Vietnam Timeline | Preceden

10. (1) History of Vietnam | Vietnam Information - Discover the beauty of Vietnam through Culture, Cuisine, People and Travel

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