world history education resources
Research numerous resources on the world history topics!

Fourth Chinese Domination (Vietnam)

Fourth Chinese Domination (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. Despite lasting for a few years, the fourth Chinese domination viewed as the harshest dominating period to Vietnamese people.(More...)
  • This battle concluded the fourth invasion as well as ended 1000 - year Chinese domination in Vietnam.(More...)
  • Even during periods of independence from China, the government followed the Chinese Confucian model; the Vietnamese language was written with Chinese characters; art was heavily influenced by China.(More...)
  • Vietnam was a vassal of China in ancient times although the Vietnamese people occasionally rebelled against continued domination by China.(More...)
  • There were many small-scale revolts against the cruel domination characterized by dictatorship, forcing labor, and insatiable tributes of China from the 3rd century to 6th century.(More...)
  • Stopping in Malacca, the Chinese recognized Paramesawara as the legitimate ruler of Malacca and gave him a tablet officially declaring that the city was a vassal state of China.(More...)
  • Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including todays Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.(More...)
  • A conciliatory mood developed on both sides of the Sino- Vietnamese border in 1989, partly because Vietnam's proposal to withdraw completely from Cambodia responded to a basic Chinese condition for improved relations.(More...)
  • They were the long-established objectives of Ho Chi Minh's nationalist and anticolonialist predecessors, who had resisted Chinese rule for 1,000 years and French domination for a century.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • Military history of Vietnam - Army and warfare made their first appearance in Vietnamese history during the 3rd millennium BC. Throughout thousands of years, wars played a role in shaping the identity.(More...)
  • When China was reunified under the Sui and Tang dynasties, Vietnam fell again under Chinese control.(More...)
  • For much of its history, Vietnam was dominated by China and as a result much of the written work during this period was in Classical Chinese.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. Despite lasting for a few years, the fourth Chinese domination viewed as the harshest dominating period to Vietnamese people. [1] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. In 602 A.D. China reasserted itself under the Sui Dynasty and retook Vietnam ( 3rd Period of Chinese Domination ) and held it until 938 A.D. when Vietnam rebelled and crushed the Chinese at the Battle of Bach Dang River. [1] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The Dalai Lama, the exiled religious and political leader of Tibet, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his nonviolent campaign to end the Chinese domination of Tibet.The 14th Dalai Lama was born as Tenzin Gyatso in Tsinghai Province, China, in 1935. [1]

One millennium under the Chinese domination proved to be too much for the Vietnamese to endure the fact that China has never loosen its alertness on any stance as it has never stopped pressing Vietnam so as to subdue her into submissiveness. [1] Similar to racial composition of the Vietnamese after one thousand years under Chinese domination, all those natives still living in China South are definitely of mixed race stock as of now, portions of them having been 'Sinicized', and as defined in every aspects of the term, be it 'Qin-ized' (of Chinese charaterization of the populace in Shaanxi 陜西), 'Tang-ized' (Cant. [1]

The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. At the length of its 4000 years of history, generations of (the) Vietnamese have continuously struggled to survive (the) harsh nature as well as the Chinese aggression s from the North. [1] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. They are forever etched in the hearts of the Vietnamese for having led a rebellion against the first Chinese domination of the country. [1] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. Vietnamese tradition reveres the Trưng sisters who gave their lives in 43 AD in the first resistance movement against Chinese domination. [1]

Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam (Ming dynasty) During the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, the Ming Chinese under the Yongle Emperor castrated many young Vietnamese boys, choosing them for their handsomeness and ability, and brought them to Nanjing to serve as eunuchs. [1] The Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam lasted for twenty years before Vietnamese independence was restored under the Lê dynasty. [1] Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam (1407-1427) a 20-year occupation by the Ming dynasty army, from Vietnamese defeat in the Ming-Hồ War (1406-1407) to Vietnamese rebellion and Lê Lợi's defeat of the Chinese at the Battle of Tốt Động - Chúc Động and Battle of Chi Lăng - Xương Giang (1427). [2] The fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam was quite short-lived, lasting only about 2 decades but it caused huge lost for Vietnamese culture. [1]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [1] Nguyễn Dynasty Vietnamese art has a long and rich history, the earliest examples of which date back as far as the Stone Age around 8,000 BCE. With the millennium of Chinese domination starting in the 2nd century BC, Vietnamese art undoubtedly absorbed many Chinese influences, which would continue even following independence from China in the 10th century AD. However, Vietnamese art has always retained many distinctively Vietnamese characteristics. [1] During a thousand years of Chinese domination starting in the second century B.C.E., Vietnamese art absorbed many Chinese influences, which continued even after Vietname became independent from China in the tenth century C.E. During the period of Vietnamese independence, the Vietnamese empires had to resist repeated Chinese attempts to re-conquer the territory, which did result in a brief period of renewed Chinese domination in the early fifteenth century. [1] During a thousand years of Chinese domination starting in the second century B.C.E., Vietnamese art absorbed many Chinese influences, which continued even after Vietname became independent from China in the tenth century C.E. It is, of course, much easier to reach these conclusions now than it was in the early 1960s, when we regarded Russia and China as a Communist monolith and feared Chinese domination of the entire Far East. [1]

Vietnam was conquered and ruled by the Ming Dynasty of China between 1407 and 1427 CE. This period of Chinese domination was extremely harsh, and many classical Vietnamese books were burned as an extreme process of sinicization was enforced. [1] KEY TOPICS In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [1] The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Anterior Lý Dynasty in 602 after the conquest by Sui China and rise of the Dương Dynasty which includes chinese styles to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. [1] The millennium of Chinese domination over Vietnam formally began in the year 111 B.C., when the Han Dynasty of China, under the command of Emperor Wu Di, overran the ancient kingdom of Nam-Việt (ancient Vietnam) (Tran, 1920: 44-47). [1] Tai said Vietnam was a matriarchal society prior to 100 years of Chinese domination beginning in the 3rd century B.C. The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Lý Nam who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [1]

Do you consider France, UK, Germany, Spain as "ancient, inseparable part of Italy"? Before the first Chinese domination which was in 111 BC, Vietnam did own some areas which are parts of China now. [1] During the period of Chinese domination, Vietnam was called An Nam (安南) by Chinese rulers (means Pacified South in expectation of China). [1] During Chinese domination period, Vietnam was an important port in the region, a bridge of sea routes between China and India. [1] Second Chinese domination of Vietnam (43-544) ended by the revolt of Lý Nam Đế who led a rebellion taking advantage of internal disorder in China and the weakness of the waning Liang dynasty. [2] Second Chinese domination (History of Vietnam) -- The Second Chinese domination of Vietnam saw China strengthen its control over the region. [1]

They are ignorant on certain of undeniable truths, namely, (1) Chinese is a culture not a race, (2) China is a union of muti-racial states since the Qin-Han times, (3) one of which left the "Sino-Pact of vassal states" since 939 and has been a sovreignty that is today's Vietnam - which explains the reason why the Chinese influence on Vietnamese language has been so profound. [1] In comparison of Vietnamese with other Chinese dialects, variations between Mandarinand Yue (粵) and Minnan languages - that are spoken in 'Canton' and 'Fukien', again, with all the Sinicized elements on top of them after more than two long millenia under the rule of China - could be similar to what makes all differences between Vietnamese and Mandarin languages to the full extent despite of the fact that Vietnam was no longer a part of China for a long time ago. [1]

The Chinese seized control of Vietnam again in the early 15th century, carting off the national archives and some of the country’s intellectuals to China - an irreparable loss to Vietnamese civilisation. [1] The Chinese-Vietnamese enjoy mingling with other fellowmen freshly from Vietnam, including overseas Vietnamese, rather than with any other Chinese expats from Hong Kong, Taiwan, or mainland China, of which by and large, all early Chinese immigration waves to the U.S., until the 1980s, mostly were from Canton. [1] For instance, third or fourth generation children of Chinese immigrants in Vietnam would consider themselves Vietnamese even though some are still nostalgic but they will be ready to fight against any invaders from China, similar to the national spirit Taiwanese or Singaporeans of Chinese origin behold. [1] In the case of Vietnamese, the scale leaned on the Chinese side heavily for the same reason that Vietnam had been a prefecture of China. [1]

The Vietnamese speak of four periods of Chinese domination; the first from about the year 100 BC. The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Anterior Lý Dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. [1] The Vietnamese speak of four periods of Chinese domination; the first from about the year 100 BC. Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty. [1]

It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40 AD and briefly ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han army in 43 AD. The Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and taxes to the Hans, the Han mandarins tried to occupy large areas of land and changed them into Chinese style farms and brought Chinese peasants to work them. [1] In AD 938, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền defeated the forces of the Chinese Southern Han state at Bạch Đằng River and achieved full independence for Vietnam after a millennium of Chinese domination. [1] There are only a few hundred of these primates left on Earth, but their ancestors have survived in Vietnam through a thousand years of Chinese domination, through colonization by the French and Dutch, and through all the battles between America and the Vietnamese Communists. [1] This never happened in Vietnamese thinking, not in 4000 years ago, not during the 1000 years of Chinese domination period, and definitely not since Vietnam got the independence 1000 years ago. [1]

Despite the brutal policies in a thousand years of Chinese colonialism - which China tried very hard to assimilate Vietnamese people into Chinese culture - Vietnam still maintains its distinct culture and language. [1] Under the leadership of Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị, the people of Nam-Việt liberated the country, driving out the Han invaders in the year 40A.D. With the Chinese gone, the Trưng Sisters declared themselves the Queens of Nam-Việt and established a new Vietnamese Kingdom directly south of China. [1] We can say "what makes Chinese so Vietnamese", instead of the other way around, were the ancient Taic-Yue elements because the majority of the Yue people in China South (CS) made up the overall population of the pre-Qin-Han China since remote ancient times, that is, native people before the Chinese. [1] Regardless of the Chinese-origin of many Vietnamese, they take the pride in their long history fighting against mostly Chinese invaders, especially their incredulous victories of having unprecedentedly defeated the Mongols 3 times in the 13th century (M) who conquered and ruled China for nearly 100 years. [1] Now that they view those so-called Confucius institutes that have previously sprung up around the country at the same time with the building China-state factories with battalions of Chinese migrant workers from China moving in to have replaced Vietnamese workers after initial local hirings in recent years are parts of China's expansionist scheme. [1] What’s more, the Viet Minh secured a steady supply of weaponry, and the assistance of dozens of battle-hardened Chinese military advisers (ironically, many of the weapons they received were North American: "Mao Zedong’s victory in China gave the Vietnamese not merely an ally but, for the first time, direct material aid. [1]

Mahayana Buddhism from China first appeared in the Red River Delta area in some time around 300 AD and Theravada Buddhism is believed to have come from India into Vietnam's Mekong Delta at some point between 300 and 600 AD. Most ethnic Vietnamese adhere to the Pure Land branch of the Mahayana school of Buddhism and some ethnic minorities in southern Vietnam follow the Theravada school of Buddhism. [1] During the Second Indochina War, China acted as North Vietnam's closest ally, but, according to later Vietnamese statements, the Chinese tried to dominate the relationship from the beginning. [1] Vietnam's policy toward China hence has been a balanced act which could be found in a reconciliatory tone compromising her national pride especially in recent diplomatic makeovers in 2011, 12, 14 when Vietnam is at her best before the Vietnamese government had brutally suppressed series of anti-China demonstrations by Vietnamese activists for weeks in each of respective event. [1]

Though culturally Chinese, the Vietnamese have always feared and distrusted their giant neighbor to the north, a fear and distrust born of a thousand years of hated Chinese rule. (China occupied Vietnam from 111 B.C. to A.D. 938, and later, from 1406 to 1428.) [1] Media spotlighted a brief confrontation July 22 between a Chinese warship and Indian naval vessel in the South China Sea, 45 nautical miles off the Vietnamese coast, following the latter's visits to the southern Vietnamese port of Nha Trang and the northern port of Hai Phong. [1] Without Chinese influences, the Vietnamese would have likely been either absorbed into China and disappear from history or reduced to a minority as many other scattered ethnic groups in Southern China nowadays. [1] In the past when the Chinese community was suppressed by the French and/or Vietnamese Governments through anti-Chinese legislation, the overseas Chinese leaders appealed to Nationalist China to intervene. [1] At any rate, there is no danger whatsoever of a Vietnamese "national church" comparable to the Chinese Church in Communist China, even with the Committee for the Unification of Vietnamese Catholics, both because the government itself has no wish to institute such a thing and because the Vietnamese Catholic Church is strongly united with Rome and the universal Church. [1] All of the above, linguistically and racially, appears to have played their historical role in Vietnamese with ancient Chinese residual vintages as expected for the reason that ancient Annam used to be a part of China. [1] Chinese products dominating Vietnamese traditional craft villages Part 2: Ha Dong silk is made in… China? In fact, not only the merchants in Bat Trang craft village prefer trading Chinese products to Vietnamese. [1]

China remained the stronger power historically, but Chinese concern for Vietnamese regional domination has periodically emerged since the 10 th century. [1] In July 1965, these "Sea Swallows," as they call themselves, numbered over 1,000 armed men. 5 Father Hoa's small army is composed mainly of Chinese recruited from Cholon, but one company of Vietnamese and a detachment of Nungs - a refugee tribal group from southern China who are excellent warriors - joined the group during the summer of 1965. [1] Adopting Chinese influence helped to strengthen Vietnamese identity against Chinas assimilation attempts. [1] Chinese forces retreated back across the Vietnamese border, into China. [1] The owner and the rest of employees of the eatery there, like many Vietnamese nationals, are half-and-half ethnically in the sense that they are Vietnamese of "Chinese" ancestry, except for the cooks being Vietnamese for not speaking any Chinese but only the Heaven knows if they might also be descended from China or not. [1] Unlike 'American Caucasians' in Europe among other white Europeans, it is next to impossible mission that out of a sudden one could tell Vietnamese lone travelers amidst those Chinese locals in markets or restaurants in any cities in China. [1]

Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government. [1] Although there had been river trade between China and Vietnam for some time, regular trade relations between the two countries were established in the second century B. C. Considerable cultural interchange took place; the Vietnamese adopted the Chinese language and script as the official language and script, greatly influencing the development of the Vietnamese language. [1]

Islam is believed to have first made contact with Vietnam after its arrival in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907), since Vietnam was under their third period of Chinese domination at this time. [1] This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [1] Vietnam's and China's shared modern experiences, namely their common exploitation by colonial powers and adaptations to communist ideology, did little to alter Vietnam's historical view of China, which was colored by lengthy periods of Chinese conquest and domination. [1]

During the first three Chinese periods of domination, Vietnamese society was primarily in the northern part of modern Vietnam. [2] According to Westad and Quinn-Judge (2006), "the Chinese, convinced that the Soviet Union was using Vietnam to increase its presence on China’s southern flank, refused to accept Vietnamese domination of Cambodia" (p. 173). [1]

Vietnam's desperate need for Chinese assistance forced it to maintain good relations with Beijing for the duration of the war, despite Vietnamese suspicions that China's ultimate purpose was to weaken Vietnam. [1]

While it is possible that when Vietnam and China went to war in 1978 there were some Vietnamese soldiers who had once studied on Chinese soil, there are nevertheless many who continue to cherish their study years in China. [1] With respect to the so-called nationalism in our contemporary era that followed a period after the bitter border war with China in 1979, the then Vietnam's authority tried to change the national Lunar New Year Festival by mapping it into the Vietnamese lunar calendar in such a way that it would occur one month ahead of that of China. [1] After 1000 years of under the Chinese rule, by then the influx of the migrants of the Tang's subjects from the China South had already arrived in large numbers into in the ancient Annam's Red River Basin, and altogether they made up the racial composition of the sinicized Yue people and their offsprings as the early ancient Vietnamese population. [1] Instead of elaborating on the racial mixture of people in the mainland of China, linguistically, to accomodate the cognateness of those Chinese and Vietnamese basic words, it appears that the Austroasiatic Mon-Khmer theorists came up with clever rationalization that Chinese and Vietnamese basic etyma have been a result of cultural causability, based on the fact that, culturally, for whatever China got Vietnam also has. [1] Vietnamese didnt lie, they didn’t deny that Vietnam used to belong to China, they didn’t lie to the West, they didn’t say they are superior than Chinese, they didn’t ask the French to station in Vietnam. [1] It was the last encounter between China and Vietnam until 1974 when Chinese and South Vietnamese Naval warships battled over the Spratlys dispute. [1] "China is highly concerned about the case, and has made representations to Vietnam and required the Vietnamese side to seriously investigate and handle the case, and at the same time, take effective measures to avoid further cases," said Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu. [1] I think the point he's trying to make is that because Vietnam was not continuously part of China it means that the notion of a Vietnamese identity separate from the larger Chinese sphere never really had a chance to be assimilated. [1] Vietnamese literature was "impregnated" with the classical heritage of China: Chinese used to be the language of scholarship in Vietnam, just as Latin used to be in Europe. [1] Vietnam closed their eyes when China continuously built military bases on the disputed islands; Chinese Navy patrols East Vietnam waters, sinking Vietnamese fishing boats and killing fishermen while Vietnam did nothing to protect its citizens. [1] China imposed the removal of Vietnamese troops from Cambodia as a precondition to improved Sino-Soviet relations, and diplomatic activity in late 1986 indicated that Vietnam might mend its differences with China in the event the Soviets moved closer to the Chinese. [1] Trade between the two countries is booming and Vietnamese leaders of China have visited China and Chinese leaders have visited Vietnam. [1]

To ensure domination, the Han feudalists advocated the creation of "military colonies"; military men, political or common-law prisoners and destitute people coming from China together with destitute Vietnamese and landless peasants were recruited to reclaim and exploit the land under the direction of officers or functionaries. [1] For over a century Vietnam remained a "leniently governed protectorate of China At this time, the early Vietnamese kingdoms of Văn Lang and u Lạc appeared, and the culture's influence spread to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Maritime Southeast Asia, throughout the first millennium BC. The communists attacked South Vietnamese targets during the 1968 Tet Offensive. [1] What fate would have become of that Maylay nation with those federated states had it fallen under the rule of Vietnam - she actually invaded Malacca in 1471 - what wouls it look like, alternatively, if it had been ruled by China's Ming Dynasty in the 15th century? (S) The Vietnamese are the only ones among the descendants of the ancient Yue from China South who are having an independent nation of their own in the southern land, that is, Vietnam in the Southeast Asia. [1] The Vietnamese Kinh are people of mixed race consisting of the descendants of Sinicized Yue immigrants from the China South having resettled in the ancient southern land called 'Vănlang' as mentioned in the Vietnam history and intermarried with the local indigenous Yue people. [1]

The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. Foreigners call us China, but there is no Chinese word corresponding to that. [1] History of Vietnam before the 10th century, in effect, has been compiled from that of China for the reason that there had existed no Vietnamese history written in "Annamese" by the "Annamese" themselves ealier than that period. [1] It was postulated that in very late period that the Mon-Khmer isoglosses spread out and got in touch with the Middle Vietnamese when the ancient Annam had been still located in the upper north of 16th laditude.In fact, the ancient Vietnam still remained as a vassal state of their China long after her independence and easily succumbed to its power until these days. [1]

Throughout the long Chinese colonial rule from 111 B.C.to 939 A.D. there emerged one short interval of an independent Vietnam ruled by the Early Lý Dynasty from 544 to 602 A.D. and ancient Vietnams was still considered as only a vassel state of China. [1] The Chinese conviction on defeating Vietnam in the next war was what emperors of China of the great empire of the Han, Tang, NanHan, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, PRC (1979) ever strongly believed. [1] Though the United States originally intervened in Vietnam to contain Chinese expansionism, the U.S. hostility towards Vietnam continued even after the end of the Vietnam War and the normalization of U.S. - China relations. [1] During the Second Indochina War, Chinese propaganda stressed that Vietnam and China were "as close as the lips and the teeth". [1] When Vietnam loses the war and its islands, others countries, intimidated by Chinese military power, yet still with greediness to keep their interests, will negotiate with China, returning the islands and declaring allegiance to China. [1] The Chinese dialects of the coastal provinces of southern China, those spoken in the Republic of Vietnam, differ considerably from northern or Mandarin Chinese. [1] The Baiyue was used by the Chinese to refer to people living in southern China and Vietnam. [1] The plight of the Chinese emigrant was ameliorated to some degree by the need of the European colonizers for immigrant labor to develop the natural resources in most of the Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. 33 The introduction of French techniques (such as dredging), extended rice cultivation into central and western Cochin China, thus offering the Chinese new commercial opportunities - in fact, within a very short time they monopolized the sale of rice. [1] The whole Taiwan's anthropological experience with all the events that have happened in the island nation for the last 350 years was in much lesser magnitude as compared to what Vietnam has gone through to accommodate hundreds of thousand Chinese immigrants since the time she was still a prefecture of China. [1] There was no mandatory required reparation of the voluntarily remaining Ming Chinese in Vietnam, the return of the Ming Chinese to China was commanded by the Ming and not Le Loi. [3] In November 2008, a Chinese naval ship made the first ever port of call between China and Vietnam when it visited Danang. [1] Many ethnic Chinese that fled Vietnam now reside in Kunming in southern China. [1] Although the Chinese leaders’ intention was to force Vietnam to agree with their solution to resolve the Cambodian conflict, another target was to tighten Vietnam into the grips of China in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies. [1] The average Chinese wouldn’t know that Vietnam was once a province of China because it happened so long ago. [1]

Vietnam prepared to enter the 1990s with foreign relations priorities that stressed extrication from the military stalemate in Cambodia in a manner consistent with security needs, repair of ties with China to alleviate Chinese military pressure on Vietnam's northern border, and reduction of military and economic dependence on the Soviet Union. [1] The northern part of Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, an independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. [1] As said, as Vietnam just stepped out of the shadow of war for the most part of the 20th century and into the threshold of the current one, the Vietnamese rulers do not want to risk a war with China. [1] During the first Indochina War (1946-1954) and the Vietnam War (1960-1975), the Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP) relied heavily on supports from Communist China. [1] Vietnam and China as we currently understand them are both creations of the modern period, and at various periods in time a portion of the cultural group that we currently would describe as Vietnamese would have lived as one of the many subject peoples of Imperial China. [1] In comparison of Vietnamese with other Chineese dialects, variations between Mand. and Yue (粵) and Minnan languages - that are spoken in 'Canton' and 'Fukien', again, with all the Sinitized elements on top of them after more than two long millenia under the rule of China - could be similar to what makes all differences between Vietnamese and Mand. languages to the full extent despite of the fact that Vietnam was no longer a part of China for a long time ago. [1] To put it another way, if Vietnam were still a prefecture of China all along its history (remember to add 1200 more years of Chineese rule to the Annamese land), Vietnamese would have been considered as a Sino-Tibetan language (ST), just like Cant. of Fukienese or any Chineese dialects nowadays, ditto, as discussed previously, with no question raised. [1] Linguistically speaking, what has emerged out of the history of Vietnam as a vassal state of China is popular usage of massive Chinese loanwords that have found their way into Vietnamese, which is an inevitable consequence after 1000 years of Chinese rule. [1]

In the 16th century massive 50,000 of Ming's subjects fleeing from the mainland of China after the Manchurian invaders took power over there and resettled in the annexed southern territory governed by Annam, where those early would-be Vietnamese looked more like Chinese but spoke Vietnamese like natives; they were usually identified with the "Minhhương" (subjects of the Ming) people which consist of many Tchiewchow dialect speakers. [1] At the Battle of Bach Dang River in 938 the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngo Quyen, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial. [1]

At low-tide, the entire Vietnamese fleet counter-attacked, forcing the enemy to flee and sink, the Bạch Đằng victory in 938 put an end to the period of Chinese imperial domination. [3] There is a dispute as to whether the period of the Triệu dynasty was part of the first Chinese domination of Vietnam, the Trưng Sisters incited a victorious armed revolt against Han authorities, took over 65 cities. [3] Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty. [3]

First Chinese domination of Vietnam (111 BC-39 AD) Chinese incursions, followed by Chinese victory in the Han-Nanyue War (111 BC), established Chinese rule in Vietnam. [2] From the reign of the first Hung king through the period of Chinese domination, there were two kinds of literature in Vietnam: an elaborate court poetry written [2] The Trung sisters independence rule was one of the few relatively brief interruptions during the Chinese domination of Vietnam which continued from 111 BC to 939. [3]

The previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty. [4]

The issue at stake is how Vietnamese historians view their respective records about the early Vietnam throughout periods of her having been totally ruled by the imperial China for a full millennium before the 10th century. [1] The peripheralization of Vietnam was concentrated in the French colony of Cochin China, in part because it was a colony directly administered by the French rather than a protectorate administered indirectly through a Vietnamese government under French direction. [1] It is ironic that the Vietnam War was fought in part to contain China because today the Vietnamese want the Americans to contain China. [1] The main point hereof to remember is that with the military aids from China as well as the former Soviet Union, the Vietnamese Communist Party became a part of their hegenomic expansionism in not only Vietnam but also Laos and Cambodia in Indo-China, and they were well aware of that. [1] In this conflict, the insurgents--with logistical support from China and the Soviet Union--ultimately defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. [1] A report of the China News Service disclosed that China sent 320,000 combat troops to Vietnam to fight against U.S. forces and their South Vietnamese allies during the 1960s. [1] Le Loi Le Loi, Vietnamese general and emperor who won back independence for Vietnam from China in 1428, founded the Later Le dynasty, and became the most honoured Vietnamese hero of. [1] In 979, taking advantage of the weakness of Vietnamese child king Dinh Toan, Sung Dynasty (China) sent troops to invade Vietnam but was defeated by General Le Hoan who self-proclaimed Dai Hanh Emperor. [1] Beginning with the Tran dynasty, Vietnamese emperors used false names in their diplomatic correspondence with China. 26 In Beijing and toward Beijing, Vietnam was a vassal, but away from Beijing and to itself, Vietnam was China's equal. [1]

Several later Vietnamese dynasties followed this nomenclature even after these more northern peoples were absorbed into China, in Sấm Trạng Tr"nh, poet Nguyen Binh Khiêm reversed the traditional order of the syllables and put the name in its modern form, Vietnam is being created. [1] The Vietnamese fear of China is profound precisely because Vietnam cannot escape from the embrace of its gargantuan northern neighbor, whose population is 15 times as large. [1] Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history. [1] Vietnam was conquered and ruled by the Ming Dynasty of China between 1407 and 1427 CE; during this period, many classical Vietnamese books were burned under an extreme process of sinicization. [1] Even though Vietnamese culture has been greatly influenced by China and China helped Vietnam in their fight against the United States in the 1960s, China and Vietnam have traditionally been enemies. [1] In March 2009, Vietnam and China have signed an agreement to establish a hotline between the countries' leaders for discussions of urgent disagreements, Vietnamese state media said. [1] If we compare the ethnic Zhuang in China bordering Vietnam to the Catalans of Spain, the Vietnamese would be like the Corsicans of the French Republic. [1] Emphasis of such an important detail is to ring up attention from Vietnamese historians so that when they discuss about history of Vietnam, they could objectively evaluate about the perception that what made up Vietnam today was not only a result of Sinicization that the imperial China had imposed on the ancient Vietnam but also the affiliation of both entities, i.e., the Yue and Sintic, were genetic. [1] Said, as history dictates, it is not expected Vietnam will become a province of China anytime soon despite of a widespreading of a conspiracy theory of the sellout of the nation by the top Vietnamese communists in the politburo holding the power. [1] By the 1930s the two main groups contending for the leadership of the Vietnamese nationalist movement were the Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD), which modelled itself on Chiang Kai-shek's Guomindang in China, and the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP), which was led by Ho Chi Minh and looked to the Soviet Union for its political model. [1] What spooks the Vietnamese Communist Party is less the specter of the Arab Spring than that of the student uprising in China in 1989, when inflation was almost as high in China as it has been in Vietnam until recently, and corruption and nepotism were perceived by the population to be beyond control--again, the case with Vietnam today. [1] Following the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia who was the allies of China in the Christmas day of 1978, war between Vietnam and China was discerned to be inevitable. [1] After the reunification in 1975 this Vietnam suffered more further than China, internal repression and isolation from the international community due to the Cold War, Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and an American economic embargo. [1] In the 1950s, during and after the war with France, Vietnamese schools had been set up in southern China, with Chinese permission and aid. [1] Any Vietnamese visitors to China might already exprience such perception, that is, they are unavoidably mistaken as of 'their own kind' who might be assumed to come from other parts of China, given the fact that the Northern and Southern Chinese distinctively stand apart, ones of Altaic descents as previously said while the others from Taic-Yue origin, respectively. [1] The first of these was the introduction into the Red River delta of the more advanced civilization of China, including technical and administrative innovations and the more sophisticated level of Chinese learning, which made the Vietnamese the most advanced people of mainland Southeast Asia. [1] Instead of elaborating on the racial mixture of people in the mainland of China, linguistically, to accomodate the cognateness of those Chineese and Vietnamese basic words, it appears that the Austroasiatic Mon-Khmer theorists came up with clever rationalization that Chineese and Vietnamese basic etyma have been a result of cultural causability, based on the fact that, culturally, for whatever China got Vietnam also has. [1] A number of famous Buddhist travelers passed through Vietnam en route to or from China, and by the early years of the Tang, Vietnamese monks were among those travelers. [1] "The overwhelming emphasis of official Vietnamese history is on resistance, almost always against China," Robert Templer writes in a pathbreaking 1998 book about contemporary Vietnam, Shadows and Wind. [1] As one Vietnamese diplomat puts it to me: "China invaded Vietnam 17 times. [1] Chien explains that Vietnam and China have largely settled the problems created by the Gulf of Tonkin--in which China’s Hainan Island largely blocks the northern Vietnamese coastline from the open sea--by dividing the energy-rich gulf in half. [1] In 1976, at their fourth party congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party leadership purged the pro- Beijing group in their midst, and relations between China and Vietnam became tense. [1] Obviously, the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia convinced China that the Soviet Union was using Vietnam to increase its dominance in the Indochina, which would potentially give a threat to the national security and national interest of China. [1] For instance, third or fourth generation children of Chineese immigrants in Vietnam would consider themselves Vietnamese and be ready to fight against any Chineese invaders from China, similar to the national spirit Taiwanese or Singaporeans of Chineese origin behold, that is, those who were born in locality consider themselves as citizens of the respective republic. [1] After the war, the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the" irresponsible behavior" of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries). [1] Simply put, the Vietnamese claimed that China lost the war, while the Chinese say different. [1] The reason is simple: China is Vietnamese eternal enemy (from Vietnamese history class), and being Chinese is a problem. [1] According to the first secretary at the Soviet embassy to China, the Vietnamese saw the Chinese actions as an attack on them. [1] Associated Press reported: " China has detained eight Vietnamese after a shooting incident between boats from the two countries left several Vietnamese dead and injured Chinese maritime police, the government said. [1] Many talented Vietnamese individuals with varying trades and backgrounds who could make significant contributions were allowed to become government officials in China where they served in the Chinese imperial government. [4] The largest foreign influence on nhã nhạc came from the Ming dynasty court of China (the name Nhã nhạc derived from the Chinese characters 雅樂, meaning "elegant music"), later on a few elements from the music of Champa, which the Vietnamese court found intriguing, were also adopted. [1] The tombs contain objects brought by Han from China, objects produced by the Vietnamese, and objects made by Vietnamese artisans according the specifications of their Chinese patrons. [1] A Vietnamese document claimed that China hindered the eventual reunification, while Chinese documents claimed that the source of the conflict was Vietnamese policy towards the Spratley and the Paracel Islands. [1] China claimed the sailors on three Vietnamese boats robbed Chinese fishermen and fired on public security boats and police returned fire killing several Vietnamese and seized one of the ships, along with eight sailors. [1] Whether ruled by China or independent, the Vietnamese elite consistently modeled Vietnamese cultural institutions on those of the Chinese. [1] "Oh, China," the driver declared in clear but halting English, "you know, we Vietnamese hate the Chinese. [1] Following the break with China in 1978, some Vietnamese leaders evidently feared the potential for espionage activities within the Chinese commercial community. [1] Aid from China, report- edly close to US$300 million in 1977 and 1978, dropped to zero in 1979, and Vietnamese recovery in coal production was pro- foundly affected by the accompanying loss of ethnic Chinese work- ers. [1] China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. [1] China believed that the Cambodian conflict would serve Chinese interests by draining the Vietnamese economically and weakening Hanoi. [1] China called the accusations "totally untrue," saying a Vietnamese fishing boat had entered Chinese waters illegally. [1] At this stage, the Song ruling house of China woke up to the Vietnamese situation and decided to re-establish Chinese authority over Annam. [1] In February 1973, when Kissinger visited Hanoi in connection with the implementation of the Paris Agreements, Le Duc Tho escorted him to Hanoi’s national museum primarily to "show me the section devoted to Vietnamese struggles against China - still formally an ally of Vietnam". [1] The etyomological postulation of the zodiac items and other cultural concepts as discussed above may also help explain why Sinitic etymonic items are customarily accepted by the Vietnamese naturally for their intrinsic Yue values and they both have been cited as of "Sinitic" to the effect that Vietnam was even referred to as "Little China" in the book by the same title by Brodrick (1942), all for a good reason. [1] Aside from risking the return of the Khmer Rouge, Vietnam, viewed a disengagement from Cambodia as paramount to inviting China to create a two-front threat by establishing a foothold on a second Vietnamese frontier. [1] "We must end the activities of those selling the Vietnamese fatherland, looking to make Vietnam the fifth star of China," lamented an anonymous comment on the dissident site "Dan Lam Bao" ("Citizen journalism"). [1]

To be exact, Mandarin is a northern Chinese dialect that evolved from the Middle Chinese and became of shape under heavy influence by languages spoken by the Tartarian people of Altaic origin who had conquered and established their rule throughout the period of 1000 years - the length of time equal to that of the historically colonialized Vietnam under the rule of China with her area being one third of the current size on the political map of North Vietnam. [1] Vietnam has been a vassal state and colony of China four times in the last two thousand years, starting in the 1st Century B.C. Yet Vietnam has been remarkably successful at preserving its national identity from political, economic, and cultural domination, in large part due to its willingness to take up arms against its bigger, stronger neighbor. [1] After ancient Vietnam had gone through a long colonial period ruled by iron-handed rulers of China that had lasted for 1000 years, no other ancient country in the world could be able to substain the same original state without changing during such long period under a more powerful foreign domination, including Vietnam, on the other hand. [1]

Then Vietnam was under Jin China and the first half of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the domination ended by 544, when Lý Nam Đế came to power. [3]

In the restrict sense of proper racial designation, the becoming of the Han Chinese (漢族) has been a long process of hybridization of different ethnic stocks from several native habitats from the west to the east and the north across the two large rivers down to the south, at present the counts total over identified 56 minority groups, who have been inhabiting the mainland of China since the ancient times. [1] From the first chapter the author has gone a great length to substantiate a hypothesis that today's Vietnamese Kinh racial stock come out of a mixed stock, so is their language as a result of the proto-Chinese moving in into China South from the southwest hundreds of years prior to the Western Han period (206 B.C.). [1] Speaking of the northern genetic affiliation, racial factions that made up China distributed equally to the early Annamese land until the collapse of the Tang's Dynasty in 907 AD. As the ancient Annam expanded to the south after independence, only then did she absorb more of other racial elements into the ancient Vietnamese melting pot, consisting of lighter-skinned settlers from the north and darker mixed ones in the south. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(31 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (168) Fourth Chinese Domination (Vietnam)

2. (56) Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam - WikiVisually

3. (50) Selected Groups/Republic Vietnam - The Chinese

4. (39) https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/3ji0ip/during_the_1000_years_of_chinese_occupation_in/

5. (27) Vietnamese art - New World Encyclopedia

6. (27) Vietnamese History - VIETNAMESE CULTURAL GARDEN

7. (25) Why did the Vietnamese adopt Chinese culture, learning and language, but never lose their national identity in spite of one millennium of Chinese occupation? - Quora

8. (17) The History of Vietnam: Origins to 1009 C.E. Thousand Years of Chinese Occupation | About History

9. (17) Chinese domination of Vietnam

10. (15) Chinese domination of Vietnam - Wikipedia

11. (15) History of Vietnam

12. (14) Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam - Unionpedia, the concept map

13. (12) Jiaozhi - WikiVividly

14. (9) Religious Beliefs In Vietnam - WorldAtlas.com

15. (9) Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam - Wikipedia

16. (8) Vietnamese Art by jepthe laderas on Prezi

17. (8) Vietnamese Arts throughout the Ages - Vietnam Vacation

18. (7) Vietnam Overview of economy, Information about Overview of economy in Vietnam

19. (7) Ming Dynasty Timeline

20. (6) Effective Protection? The 2014 Anti-China/Chinese Riots in Vietnam (Chapter 6) - The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas

21. (6) Don Cristian Ramsey: World Explorer: Vietnam, Cool Facts #197

22. (6) Chinese Trade in the Indian Ocean | Asia Society

23. (6) History of Vietnamese Art - Vietnam Travel Guide

24. (4) Vietnamese art

25. (3) South Vietnam | Constructed Worlds Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

26. (3) Fight to win: How the Vietnamese people defeated imperialism

27. (3) Vietnam War (wk 9) Flashcards | Quizlet

28. (2) Extend the Fourth Chinese Domination of Vietnam | Alternate History Discussion

29. (1) Vietnamese Art | Vietnam Travel Guide

30. (1) Vietnam's Economic History: The Feudalism System

31. (1) Beijing now calls the shots in the South China Sea, and the US and Asean must accept this for lasting peace | South China Morning Post


Privacy Policy  | Terms & Conditions  | Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources.

© Copyright 2017, Power Text Solutions, All Rights Reserved.