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Hồ Dynasty (Vietnam)

Hồ Dynasty (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • Hồ Qúy Ly, founder of the Hồ Dynasty, moved the capital from Thăng Long (present day Hanoi) and renamed Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) to Đại Ngu, which means Land of Eternal Peace.(More...)
  • The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Li's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sn brothers took over.(More...)

  • The most recent is the Imperial City of Hue, which was built at the start of the 19 th century and was the centre of power for the last dynasty of Vietnam, the Nguyen Dynasty.(More...)
  • The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam).(More...)


Hồ Qúy Ly, founder of the Hồ Dynasty, moved the capital from Thăng Long (present day Hanoi) and renamed Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) to Đại Ngu, which means Land of Eternal Peace. [1] Ho Citadel dates from 1397, when Vietnam was in a state of transition from the Trần Dynasty to the Hồ Dynasty. [1] Because of the short span of the Hồ Dynasty and the tragic circumstances he brought upon the country, under the juggle of the Ming, the family name "Hồ" was disgraced thereafter. [2] After the defeat of the Hồ Dynasty by the Ming in 1407, Hồ Quý Ly, his sons Hồ Hán Thương and Hồ Nguyên Trưng, and other relatives were captured and sent to Guangxi. [2] Although the leader of the most unpopular and probably the most hated dynasty in the history of Vietnam, Hồ Quý Ly nevertheless initiated many economic, financial and educational reforms. [2]

Ho Dynasty: One ancestor is Hồ Hưng Dật from Zhejiang, he came to Vietnam in 10th century as a mandarin, so probably Hồ Hưng Dật can qualify as Han Chinese by modern standards. [3]

The same applies for a "Chinese" who arrived in Vietnam and pledged his loyalty to a Vietnamese dynasty. [3] Most recorded history point that even the parents of the first kings of these dynasty are Vietnamese, not Han Chinese. [3]

Historians have attributed to Hồ family quite a few notable scholars, dignitaries, and government officials under both the Lý Dynasty and Trần Dynasty. [2] The descendants of the deposed Trần Dynasty had begun agitating against the "usurper" Hồ Quý Ly. [2]

The Trần dynasty was in turn overthrown by one of its own court officials, Hồ Quý Ly. [4] In 1941 Hồ Ch' Minh, a trained Communist revolutionary, returned to Vietnam and joined the Việt Minh, which means "Vietnamese Allied." [4] South Vietnamese who opposed Diệm's rule and desired the reunification of Vietnam under the Hanoi government of Hồ Ch' Minh organized the National Liberation Front, better known as the Việt Cộng. [4] The United States became strongly opposed to Hồ Ch' Minh, who had now re-asserted the dominance of the Vietnamese Communist Party within the Việt Minh in 1950. [4]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [5] The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. [5] Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Later Lê dynasty early period (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Later Lê dynasty warlord period (1533 to 1788) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords. [5] Lê Li then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái T and establishing the Lê dynasty (1428-1788). [5]

Following the 1406-7 Ming-Hồ War which overthrew the Hồ dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê dynasty. [6] In 1400, Hồ Quý Ly overturned the Trần Dynasty, established himself as emperor and killed many of their descendants upon building the Hồ Dynasty. [7]

The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Li's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sn brothers took over. [5] The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. [8] In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. [9] Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly's reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, the investment in building large warships and cannons, and land reform. [9]

The Period of Division with many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ng m) by Đặng Trần Côn (Chinese script version) and Đoàn Thị Điểm (Nôm version), and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xu n Hương. [9]

Actually, the early Nguyễn Dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Vietnamese dynasties did (like building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos, etc), except those feats were not enough in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics. [9] Within French Indochina, Cochin China had the status of a French Colony, Annam was a Protectorate where the Nguyen Dynasty still ruled in name, and Tonkin had a French Governor yet local governments were run by Vietnamese officials. [9] The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). [9] The Secret of early Vietnamese Coin Styles: Chinese Kai Yuan style on early Tran dynasty coins. [10] Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [9]

Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam (1407-1427) a 20-year occupation by the Ming dynasty army, from Vietnamese defeat in the Ming-Hồ War (1406-1407) to Vietnamese rebellion and Lê Lợi's defeat of the Chinese at the Battle of Tốt Động - Chúc Động and Battle of Chi Lăng - Xương Giang (1427). [8]

One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the T y Sơn, and the Nguyễn. [11] Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. [11] The Hồng Bàng dynasty of the Hng kings is considered the first Vietnamese state, known in Vietnamese as Văn Lang. [6] After the King died in 2879 B.C., his eldest son, Hung Vuong established the Hung dynasty, and he is regarded as the real founder of the Vietnamese nation and of the first Vietnamese dynasty. [12]

The Vietnamese dynasties reached their zenith in the Lê dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460-1497). [6]

Compared to Beijing's Forbidden City, Hue Imperial Citadel was first constructed in 1804, home to the Nguyen Dynasty - Vietnam's last royal dynasty for 143 years. [13]

The most recent is the Imperial City of Hue, which was built at the start of the 19 th century and was the centre of power for the last dynasty of Vietnam, the Nguyen Dynasty. [14] The oldest is the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, which was established in the 11 th century by the Ly Dynasty. [14] The peace didn’t last long, as a Ming invasion from China in 1407 led to the occupation of Đại Ngu and the defeat of Ho Citadel, along with the dynasty that constructed it. [1]

Is it true that after the Han dynasty, the only 100% Han Chinese dynasties were Song and Ming? I heard that the Tang dynasty was Xianbei and T. [3]

There was no record that ancestors of Ly dynasty comes from current day China. [3]

If a "Vietnamese" (that is, born in a province that is modern-day Vietnamese) arrived in China and pledged loyalty to the Chinese emperor, he would most likely be recorded in history as a Chinese. [3] Simply speaking them for some time did not make Vietnamese rulers Han Chinese. [3] They were not Han Chinese at all and no Chinese nor Vietnamese historians would classify them as such. [3] Let me start answering this by emphasizing that, there was no definition of Chinese or Vietnamese at the time. [3]

This war began in 1406 when Emperor Yongle (Vietnamese: Minh Thành Tổ) sent Kwang Tung ("Hoang Trung" in Vietnamese) with an army of 500,000 to lead the invasion. [2]

Hồ Quý Ly, the founder of Hồ Dưng Dật, was the 16th generation that lived in Vietnam. [3] Hồ Quý Ly (though not an emperor at that time) realized that this stubborn attitude indicated that sooner or later the Ming would invade his country and obligate him to defend it. [2] Prince An "reigned" for one year until Hồ Quý Ly deposed him in 1400 and declared himself to be the new emperor. [2] Taking a page from the ruling book of his Trần predecessors, Hồ Quý Ly reigned less than a year before relinquishing the throne to his second son, Hồ Hán Thương. [2] Through his scheming and shrewd marriage alliances (to a sister of Emperor Trần Duệ Tông and Trần Thuận Tông), Hồ Quý Ly made himself a court fixture in the position of the emperors' indispensable advisor. [2] There Hồ Quý Ly was put to work as a Chinese soldier and security guard until the end of his life. [2] In less than 20 years, while many others involved in court intrigues were being assassinated all around him, Hồ Quý Ly attained the highest post of General/Protector/Regent of the country in 1399. [2] In his childhood, Hồ Quý Ly was adopted by Lê Huan after whom he took the family name. [2] Some historians bring attention to the fact that Hồ Quý Ly is also known as Lê Quý Ly. [2] Hồ Quý Ly immediately changed the country's name from Đại Việt to Đại Ngu. [2] To facilitate his takeover, Hồ Quý Ly first had a new capital built, called T y Đô (literally "Western Capital"). [2]

I do not think the Hồ family, after 16th generation of leaving China, can be called Han Chinese anymore. [3] At the Ham Tu battle, the Hồ family tried to escape the enemy but was caught by the Ming and sent to exile in China. [2]

The Trần Dynasty became known for emperors who reigned for only a few years before relinquishing the throne to a favorite son, and becoming Thái Thượng Hoàng Đế, the first dynasty to take the name of Father of "Hoàng Đế" emperor title. [2] One ancestor of Trần Dynasty, Trần Quốc Kinh was from Hokkien, but he has M n (闽) ethnicity, not Han Chinese. [3]

While the Ly Dynasty lasted for 216 years and the Nguyen Dynasty lasted for 143 years, the Ho Dynasty only survived for 6 years. [14] The Ho Dynasty lasted just seven years (1400-1407), a mere drop in the ocean of Viet Nam's turbulent history. [15] The Citadel of Ho Dynasty are the remains of a late 14th century castle constructed from stone blocks. [15] Recently, the CNN informed list of 21 Planet's Greatest World Heritage Sites, which Ho Dynasty Citadel was on the first position. [15]

Take Nguyễn An and Mạc Cửu for example, the former was a Vietnamese-born architect in the Ming dynasty while the latter Chinese-born official in the Nguyen period. [3]

Others claim that this is still an independent period of Vietnam because of during this period, the people of Triu Dynasty were assimilated into the culture of Âu Lc. [5] Some people believe that the control of Triu Dynasty was the beginning of China's domination in Vietnam, as Triu à used to be a commander under dynastic China. [5] While for much of its history, Vietnam remained a tributary state to the much larger neighbor China, it repelled repeated attempts by China to make it once again part of the Middle Kingdom empire, including the three invasions by the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, when China was under Mongolian rule. [4] The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Lý Nam who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [5]

The dynasty was capped when Lý Chiêu Hoàng took the throne at 6 years old, becoming the only reigning empress in the history of Vietnam. [16] It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bo i abdicated the throne and transferred power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [5]

The Lê dynasty was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six year interruption of the Mc dynasty usurpers (1527-1533). [5] The Nguyen Dynasty was still allowed to rule over Vietnam but had to follow French requests. [17] He founded the Hng Bàng Dynasty, whose members ruled Vietnam until 258 BC. So much of the vestiges from this time is now lost to the ages. [5] Resistance against Ming rule continued where Le Loi led a successful uprising and pushed foreign soldiers out of Vietnam, thus forming the Le Dynasty. [17] The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Li after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. [5]

Weakened by war, Vietnam was soon conquered by the Ming Dynasty from China and overthrew the Ho Dynasty. [17]

In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [5] My third consecutive years visiting Vietnam gave me an opportunity to tick off the last two, Ho Citadel and Trang An, to complete Vietnamese World Heritage Sites. [18] History Vietnam, according to Vietnamese legends, dates back more than 4,000 years. [4] During the broad sweep of Vietnamese history, Vietnam has had several capitals. [5] The modern name of Vietnam is known officially came under the Emperor Gia Long's reign, but recently historians have found that this name has been existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country name Vietnam. [4] After millions of Vietnamese deaths, and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the capture of Saigon by the North in April 1975. [4] Only France and the North Vietnamese government (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) had signed the document. [4] The Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam and a groups ethnic minority Protestant people in the northern and central highlands (T y Nguyên) who want to secede are also suppressed, the Vietnamese government claims this is a result of their political involvement rather than their religious beliefs. [4] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, populations of Cham nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now comprise one of the minority peoples of modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [4] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [4]

Throughout this time period, Europeans missionaries introduced Christianity to Vietnam and were successful in converting many Vietnamese. [17] Despite France modernizing Vietnam with railroads and other technology, many Vietnamese resisted French authority and rebelled. [17] The Vietnamese government announced in 2007 that there was a new public holiday in Vietnam called the Hùng Kings' Festival at the Hùng Temple. [5] In 1976, Vietnam was officially reunited under the current Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. [4] Almost all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the ruler's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are an attribute chosen by the first emperors. [4] Throughout this 1000 years of rule, the Vietnamese people managed to retain their identity yet at the same time integrated a lot of Chinese culture. [17] Although Âu Lc people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over the next 1000 years. [5] Chinese forced Vietnamese people to follow Chinese rites and customs. [5] This is an important historic period proving the patriotism of the Vietnamese people through revolts of the Trung Sisters, Ly Nam De, Khuc Thua Du, and Ngô Quyn to regain autonomy. [5] It began with Kinh Dng Vng as the first Hùng King ( Hùng Vng ), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. [5] Lac Long Quan and Au Co had 100 sons before they split (50 went with their father to the mountains and 50 with their mother down to the sea) and the eldest one became the first in the lines of early Vietnamese kings, collectively known as Hung kings (Hung Vuong: Hng Vương). [4] According to Vietnamese myths, the first Vietnamese descended from the dragon lord Lac Long Quan (L ạc Long Qu n) and the heavenly spirit Au Co ( u Cơ). [4]

At the direction of Moscow, he first convinced everybody of his patriotic intention and absorbed the various Vietnamese revolutionist groups into the Việt Minh. [4] The descendants took the title of Hùng Vng after the first king, and many Vietnamese folktales include mention of them. [5]

This region is likened by the Vietnamese to the bamboo pole connecting the baskets of north and south. [19] When Liu Hongcao arrived in Vietnamese waters with the Southern Han expedition, his plan was to ascend the Bch ng River and to place his army in the heart of Giacannoto Chau before disembarking; the Bch ng was the major river route into the Red River plain from the north. [5]

It also saw massive changes to Vietnamese society: the previously Buddhist state became Confucian after 20 years of Ming rule. [5] The only reliable sources, however, indicate the Vietnamese or their country's history roughly dates to 2700 years ago. [4] One of the defining factors of this period of Vietnamese history is the Dong Son culture where large bronze drums were made. [17] Some Vietnamese considered this period under Trieu's rule a Chinese domination, because Trieu Da was a former Qin general who defeated An Duong Vuong to established his rule over the territory that is now Northern Vietnam. [4]

The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. [5] This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [5]

In 1407, Hồ Quý Ly and his son were captured and killed by the Chinese Mings as China, again, took control of Vietnam. [16] In 1954, former Vietminh forces above the 17th parallel created the Democratic Republic of Vietnam which was a Communist State under Hồ Ch' Minh. [4] The United States and the Saigon government refused to abide by the agreement, fearing that Hồ Ch' Minh would readily win the election due to his popularity. [4] At the beginning of a new future, Emperor Bảo Ðại was happy to abdicate on August 25, 1945 and surrender his power to the Việt Minh, of which Hồ Ch' Minh was the leader. [4] Hồ Quý Ly also forced the last Trần emperor to resign to a pagoda and assumed the throne in 1400. [4] He ceded the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương, in 1401 and assumed the title Thái Thượng Hoàng (The Highest Father Emperor). [4] In order to gain popularity, Hồ made Bảo Ðại "supreme advisor" to the Việt Minh-led government in Hanoi, which asserted independence on September 2. [4] Hồ was a founding member of the French Communist Party in the 1920s in Paris. [4] After ruling for two years, Mạc Đăng Dung adopted Hồ Quý Ly's practice and ceded the throne to his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh, and himself become Thái Thượng Hoàng. [4]

After a war of ten years he expelled them, and reestablished the dynasty of Ly. [20] Ruled over by a direct heredity line, it saw the founding of the still-standing Temple of Literature (Vietnam’s first university), a reorganization of the government bureaucracy, defeat of an aggressive invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty, and moves south into what was then the territory of the Champa civilization. [16] By the time the Triệu Dynasty came around in 207 BCE, Vietnam - then known as Nam Việt and comprising basically what is now northern Vietnam - was thoroughly intertwined with the powerful Han Chinese. [16] Much of northern Vietnam (from the Red River delta down to about the region of modern Thanh Hóa province) was incorporated into the Chinese prefecture/commandery of Jiaozhi, or Giao Chỉ, through much of the Han dynasty and the period of the Three Kingdoms. [4] Others consider it an era of independence, because the Trieu family ruled Nam Viet were assimilated with the locals, and they ruled independently of what then constituted as China (Han dynasty) until 111 BC, when the Han troops invaded Nam Viet, and incorporated its territory into the Han empire, including what is now part of Northern Vietnam turned into Giao Chi (Giao Chỉ/Jiaozhi) commandary. [4] Champa was formed in ad 192, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China, when the Han official in charge of the region established his own kingdom around the area of the present city of Hu. [5]

After a while tempers flared, and in 111 BCE the Han Dynasty conquered the Triệu, leading to a period called the First Chinese Domination. [16]

Not long after, the young emperor was assassinated and leaders of the Nguyễn and Trịnh factions were executed, which is when Mạc Đăng Dung decided to make his play, declaring the Mạc Dynasty open for business in 1527. [16] He killed the Lê emperor and set himself as king, starting the Mạc dynasty. [4] When a young emperor died, Ly Cong Uan was elected to be the next ruler and founded the Ly Dynasty. [17] Emperors throughout the Ly dynasty focused on building a strong economy by building many infrastructure projects, promoting education, established humane treatment of prisoners and appointed women to noble roles. [17] Dinh Bo Linh would eventually be successful to unify the country once again, beacme Emperor Dinh Tien Hoang, and founded the Dinh Dynasty where he renamed the country from Tinh Hai Quan to Dai Co Viet. [17] Dinh founded the Dinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself Emperor of Dai Co Viet (Đại Cồ Việt), with his capital located in Hoa Lu (Hoa Lư, modern day Ninh B"nh). [4]

The independence of Vietnam was just secured for 60 years until in 602 AD when Sui Dynasty reestablished control over northern Vietnam, starting the third domination. [5] In 1407, Vietnam fell under Ming dynasty domination, which lasted until 1427, they renamed the area " Giao Ch ". [5]

After the Trịnh broke apart and fled into China, the Nguyễn Dynasty was established in 1802. [16] In 1838, during the Nguyễn Dynasty, the nation's name was changed temporarily to Đại Nam (大南). [4] In 1400, the founder of the H dynasty, H Quý Ly, changed the country's name to "i Ngu". [5] The Tran Dynasty was forced to resign where Ho Quy Ly became the next ruler and changed the name of the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. [17]

After 20 years of Chinese rule a noble by the name of Lê Lợi raised an army and booted them out, founding the Later Lê Dynasty in 1428. [16] The last Emperor of the Lê dynasty, Lê Chiêu Thống, then went to the Qing Manchu Chinese emperor and asked for troops to put down this pesant rebellion. [4]

Under a new dynasty in the 6th century, Champa threw off its allegiance to China and entered into an era of great independent prosperity and artistic achievements. [5] The second dynasty of Hùng kings was founded by Lc Long Quân. [5] A major rebellion called the T y Sơn Uprising (or even the T y Sơn Dynasty, depending on who you ask) shook things up enough that a peace treaty was signed between the Nguyễn and Trịnh families. [16] Some are not considered official, such as the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the T y Sơn dynasty. [4]

When the Lê emperor Lê Long Đĩnh died in his twenties, a court general named Lý Công Uẩn took the chance to take over the throne and founded the Lý dynasty. [4] The General of the Imperial Guards, Ly Cong Uan (Lý Công Uẩn) took advantage of the situation to seize the throne, and founded the Lý Dynasty. [4]

Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the the Ming dynasty (1368-1662) took advantage of the situation to usurp the throne, thereby giving of China the occasion to intervene on the pretext of restoring the Tran dynasty. [20] During these 20 years, the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty administrators. [5] This is a great way for travelers looking for a great vacation in your city or country to also experience Citadel of the Ho Dynasty (Thanh Nha Ho). [21]

Under the Ming the country was heavily exploited, and radical measures were instituted to Sinicize the Vietnamese. [20] World War I slowed things down though, as 140,000 Vietnamese were drafted into the French war effort. [16]

These are names of Vietnam's greatest national heroes who, over the last 2000 years, have led the country in its repeated expulsion of foreign invaders and whose exploits have inspired subsequent generations of patriots. [4] Lê Li, one of Vietnam's most celebrated heroes, is credited with rescuing the country from Ming domination in 1428. [5]

The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam). [9] Copy at, After millions of Vietnamese deaths and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. [9] Copy at, To this day, the Trung Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [9]

In the north, Chiang Kaishek's army entered Vietnam, also to disarm the Japanese, followed by the forces of the non-Communist Vietnamese parties, such as Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng and Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. [9] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh (Việt) settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [9] For those people who have visited Vietnam or those who are familiar with the Vietnamese culture and its people, it’s a safe guess that they have encountered several people who have the surname Nguyễn. [7] The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. [9] The citadel is an outstanding symbol of a combination between the Vietnamese architecture and the unique building techniques of Vietnam, Southeast Asia and Eastern Asia. [22] Written while living in Asia, the author presents the more accurate Asian view of Vietnamese numismatics based on earlier works from Vietnam, Japan, and China while correcting misconceptions that have propagated from early Western works. [10] In late 1978, following repeated raids by the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia into Vietnamese territory, Vietnam sent troops to overthrow Pol Pot. [9] Copy at, Although the American-led troops succeeded in containing the advance of Communist forces, the presence of foreign troops, the widespread bombing over all of Vietnam, and the social vices that mushroomed around U.S. bases upset the sense of national pride among many Vietnamese, North and South, causing many to become sympathetic to North Vietnam and the NLF. [9] Beside supplying materials, Chinese cadres also pressured the Vietnamese Communist Party, copy at, then under First Secretary Trường Chinh, to emulate their brand of revolution, unleashing a purge of "bourgeois and feudal" elements from the Viet Minh ranks, carrying out a ruthless and bloody land reform campaign (Cải Cách Ruộng Đất), and denouncing "bourgeois and feudal" tendencies in arts and literature. [9] The Vietnamese Communist Party dropped its front name "Labor Party" and changed the title of First Secretary (used by China) to Secretary General (used by the Soviet Union), with Lê Duẩn remained Secretary General. [9] In 1960, at the Third Party Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party (renamed Labor Party on the surface since 1951), Lê Duẩn arrived from the South and strongly proposed the use of revolutionary warfare to topple Diệm's regime, unifying the country, and build Marxist-Leninist socialism. [9] During the 1930s, the Vietnamese Communist Party was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Trần Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ. [9] The Comintern sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1930, in Hongkong, with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [9]

Emperor Lê Hoàn was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [9] The eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. [9] According to Vietnamese myths the first Vietnamese peoples descended from the Dragon Lord Lạc Long Qu n and the Immortal Fairy u Cơ. [9] It also gave rise to the first story of espionage in Vietnamese history, which resulted in the downfall of king An Dương Vương. [9] The way Lý Công Uẩn ascended to the throne was rather uncommon in Vietnamese history. [9] They had then effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years (1225-1400), of which the country prospered and flourished. [23] Despite some early successes, the Vietnamese Communists made many serious long-term mistakes and caused an overall decline of the country over many years. [9] In subsequent major offensives in later years, copy at, North Vietnamese regulars with artillery and tanks took over the fighting. [9] In 1968, the NLF launched a massive and surprise Tết Offensive (known in South Vietnam as "Biến Cố Tết Mậu Th n" or in the North as "Cuộc Tổng Tấn Công và Nổi Dậy Tết Mậu Th n"), attacking almost all major cities in South Vietnam over the Vietnamese New Year (Tết). [9] Two millions North Vietnamese civilians emigrated to South Vietnam to avoid the imminent Communist regime. [9] The young North Vietnamese were idealistically and innocently patriotic, ready to commit utmost sacrifice for the "liberation of the South" and the "unification of the motherland". [9]

The Ho Dynasty’s citadel is a cultural-historical relic which has been classified as a national relic by the Vietnamese State. [22]

An art program entitled Thanh Nha Ho - Niem Tu Hao Dat Viet (Ho Dynasty Citadel - the proud of Vietnam) will be held following the ceremony to honor the historical and cultural value of the citadel. [24] Emperor Bảo Đại of the Nguyễn Dynasty nominally declared Vietnam independent, but Japanese retained true control. [9]

During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam (Giao Ch u), until the early 10th century AD. Giao Chỉ (with its capital around modern Bac Ninh province) became a flourishing trading outpost receiving goods from the southern seas. [9] The Nguyễn Dynasty is usually blamed for failing to modernize the country in time to prevent French colonization in the late 19th century. [9] It was the sole citadel built from stone and was connected with a dynasty which existed for a short period of time (1400-1407) but had remarkable innovations, such as reforming examination, building more schools, heightening the Nom scripts and issuing banknotes. [22] It was the capital of Vietnam from 1397 to 1407.Historically, in 1397, Ho Quy Ly, the Prime-minister of Tran dynasty ordered to contruct the Ho Citadel. [25] Although the dynasty was short-lived, Ho Quy Ly nevertheless initiated many economic, financial and educational reforms. [24] It was also during this period where Buddhism, which had become predominant under the Ly Dynasty continued to play an important role, but it was subsequently weakened by co-existence with Confucianism, Taoism and various other popular beliefs and customs. [23] In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation to the end of the Tang Dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phng Hưng. [9] Taking advantage of the situation, the Chinese Song Dynasty invaded Đại Cồ Việt. [9] Dinh founded the Đinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself First Emperor (Tiên Hoàng) of Đại Cồ Việt (Hán tự: 大瞿越; literally "Great Viet Land"), with its capital in Hoa Lư (modern day Ninh B"nh). [9] Emperor Bảo Ðại abdicated on August 25, 1945, ending the Nguyễn Dynasty. [9] He killed the Lê emperor and proclaimed himself emperor, starting the Mạc Dynasty. [9]

Due to the maneuvering of Trần Thủ Độ, Queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng abdicated the throne in favor of her husband Trần Cảnh (Trần Thái Tông), beginning a dynasty that lasted 175 years. [26] They ruled independently of what then constituted China (Han Dynasty). [9] After Quang Trung's death, the T y Sơn Dynasty became unstable as the remaining brothers fought against each other and against the people who were loyal to Nguyễn Huệ's infant son. [9] During its reign, the Nguyễn Dynasty awarded many people the surname Nguyễn. [7]

The Lý Dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few conquests against neighboring Champa in the south. [9] During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). [9] All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xu n. [9]

Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming invaded Dai Ngu and defeated the Ho Dynasty, reasserting Chinese control in 1407. [23] A number of cultural activities will also take place to celebrate the event including a village market, a festival of Ly and Tran Dynasty folk games, and a display of objects, photos and articles about the citadel and Ho dynasty to promote tourism in this region. [24] Ho Dynasty was a seven-year reign of two emperors, Ho Quy Ly in 1400 and his second son, Ho Han Thuong, who reigned from 1400 to 1407. [24]

The Trần Dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new kings: as a king aged, he would relinquish the throne to his crown prince, yet holding a title of August Higher Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor. [9] When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009 AD, a Palace Guard Commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. [9] Champa troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 AD and again in 1383 AD. However, the Trần Dynasty was successful in gaining two Champa provinces, located around present-day Hue, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Tr n to a Cham king. [9]

Art and architecture during the Lê Dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần Dynasty. [9] The Lê Dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt's history up to the time of Lê Lợi. [9] This name only lasted for very short time, until April 1407, when threatened landowners appealed to China's Ming Dynasty to intervene. [23]

On September 2, 1945 Hồ Ch' Minh declared Vietnam independent under the new name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and held the position of Chairman (Chủ Tịch). [9] As only France and Viet Minh (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) had signed the document, the United States and Ngô Đ"nh Diệm's government refused to abide by the agreement, fearing that Hồ Ch' Minh would win the election due to his war popularity, and would establish Communism in the whole of Vietnam. [9] As Hồ Ch' Minh was aging, Lê Duẩn virtually took the helm of war from him. [9] In 1941 Hồ Ch' Minh, formerly known as Nguyễn Ái Quốc, arrived in northern Vietnam to form Việt Minh Front (short for Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội). [9]

He ceded the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương, in 1401 and assumed the title Thái Thượng Hoàng, in similar manner to the Trần kings. [9] Hồ Quý Ly forced the last Trần king to resign and assumed the throne in 1400. [9]

After defeating many revolutions for two years, Mạc Đăng Dung adopted the Trần Dynasty's practice and ceded the throne to his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh, and became Thái Thượng Hoàng. [9] Toward the end of the Lý Dynasty, a powerful court minister named Trần Thủ Độ forced king Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông's young daughter, to become queen. [9] The citadel of the Ho Dynasty (also called Tay Do Citadel or Tay Giai Citadel ), is situated in Vinh Tien and Vinh Long Communes, Vinh Loc District, west of Thanh Hoa City (Thanh Hoa Province). [22] In 1400 General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself founder of the Ho dynasty (1400-07) and changed the country’s name to Dai Ngu, meaning peace in the ancient language. [23]

Learning a lesson from the Trung revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. [9] Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat an invading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River (located in northern Vietnam in present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung, and Quang Ninh provinces), and then, with a small Vietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. [23]

From China, other non-Communist Vietnamese parties also joined Việt Minh and established armed forces with backing from the Guomingtang. [9] While others fled to China, most of the Vietnamese who feared being executed of the newly established regime chose to change their surnames to Nguyễn. [7] After Gia Định fell to French troops, many Vietnamese resistance movements broke out in occupied areas, some led by former court officers, such as Trương Định, some by peasants, such as Nguyễn Trung Trực, who sunk the French gunship L'Esperance using guerilla tactics. [9] He stressed the need to educate the masses, modernize the country, foster understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and a peaceful transition of power. [9]

This time, the commander of Vietnamese army was Emperor Tran Nhan Tong, also a devout Buddhist. [23] During the early 1980s, a number of overseas Vietnamese organizations were created with the aim of overthrowing the Vietnamese Communist government through armed struggle. [9] After April 30th, 1975, unlike the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, the Vietnamese Communists did not commit a "blood bath", but most government officials and military personnel were sent to reeducation camps. [9]

Copy at, Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge allied with non-Communist guerilla forces led by Norodom Sihanouk and Son Sann to fight against the Vietnamese forces and the new Phnom Penh regime. [9] Copy at, The figurehead leader of the NLF was Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a South Vietnamese lawyer, yet the true leadership was the Communist Party hierarchy in South Vietnam. [9] Copy at, South Vietnamese First Corp near the DMZ was cut off, received conflicting orders from Saigon on whether to fight or to retreat, and eventually collapsed. [9]

Some Vietnamese consider Triệu's rule a period of Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general. [9] Many North Vietnamese soldiers and cadres began to realize that they had been indoctrinated into thinking that the South Vietnamese people were utterly poor and exploited by the imperialists and foreign capitalists and treated like slaves. [9] NLF and North Vietnamese forces even captured the city of Huế, after which many mass graves were found with victims being executed for having relations with the South Vietnamese government or the U.S. (Thảm Sát Tết Mậu Th n). [9] North Vietnamese troops failed to penetrate the line and had to make a detour, which the South Vietnamese failed to stop due to lack of troops. [9] Nixon proposed "Vietnamization" of the war, with South Vietnamese troops taking charge of the fighting, yet still receiving American aid and, if necessary, air and naval support. [9] President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered the moving of all troops from the Central Highland to the coastal areas, as with shrinking American aid, South Vietnamese forces could not afford to spread too thin. [9] Due to lack of experience and logistics for such a large troop movement in such a short time, the whole South Vietnamese 2nd Corps got bogged down on narrow mountain roads, flooded with thousands of civilian refugees, and was decimated by ambushes along the way. [9] Hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese fled the country by all means: airplanes, helicopters, ships, fishing boats, barges, etc. Most were picked up by the U.S. Seventh Fleet in the South China Sea or landed in Thailand. [9] During the existence of South Vietnam, nevertheless, South Vietnamese learned many American practices that became useful for the country even many decades later, such as in the fields of economics, business and public management, and infrastructure management. [9]

Many of those who held high positions in the old South Vietnamese government and military, together with influential people in the literary and religious circles, were sent to reeducation camps, which were actually hard labor prison camps. [9]

Việt Minh Front was supposed to be an umbrella group for all parties fighting for Vietnam's independence, yet it was dominated by the Communist Party. [9]

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5. (13) Is it true that the Ly, Tran and Ho dynasties were started by Han Chinese? - Quora

6. (11) History - Vietnamese Student Association

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8. (7) The Age of the Tran Dynasty

9. (4) Stone Citadel of the Ho Dynasty - Vietnam Travel Guide

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11. (4) Why 40% of Vietnamese People Have Nguyen For a Last Name

12. (3) Ho Citadel (Thành Nhà Hồ) Vietnam Coracle

13. (3) The Citadel of the Ho Dynasty, Vinh Loc, Vietnam

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15. (3) Ho dynasty 1400-1407

16. (3) Vietnam | TheFutureOfEuropes Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

17. (2) The Historical Cash Coins of Vietnam - Dr. R Allan Barker

18. (2) A History of Court and Commoner Clothing in Vietnam | Cross-Currents

19. (2) WikiZero - Chinese domination of Vietnam

20. (1) Viet Nam - Early History & Legends : Asian-Nation :: Asian American History, Demographics, & Issues

21. (1) The 10 Best Historical Sites to Visit in Vietnam

22. (1) Citadel of the Ho Dynasty - Unesco World Heritage Site | For World Heritage Travellers

23. (1) Central Coast (Vietnam) - Travel guide at Wikivoyage

24. (1) Visit Citadel of the Ho Dynasty (Thanh Nha Ho) on your trip to Thanh Hoa

25. (1) Ho Citadel Beauty Travel To Ho Citadel With VietStyle |

26. (1) Trần Dynasty (Nhà Trần) - Vietnam Vacation

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