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Industrial Revolution (Europe, United States, Elsewhere 18th and 19th Centuries)

Industrial Revolution (Europe, United States, Elsewhere 18th and 19th Centuries)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, life in Great Britain rapidly changed as the Industrial Revolution got under way.(More...)
  • History at its most interesting is complex, a fascinating whirl of events, personalities, and forces, and few periods of history offer us such captivating complexity as Europe's 19th "century"--the often-broadly defined period from the French Revolution to World War I that formed the foundation of the modern world.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • As late as the year 1900, most industrial workers in the United States still worked a 10-hour day (12 hours in the steel industry), yet earned from 20% to 40% less than the minimum deemed necessary for a decent life; however, most workers in textiles, which was by far the leading industry in terms of employment, were women and children.(More...)
  • The Lunar Society flourished from 1765 to 1809, and it has been said of them, "They were, if you like, the revolutionary committee of that most far reaching of all the eighteenth century revolutions, the Industrial Revolution."(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, life in Great Britain rapidly changed as the Industrial Revolution got under way. [1] Improvements in weapons technology, fueled by the Industrial Revolution, helped make warfare in the late 18th and 19th centuries more deadly and sophisticated. [1] This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries. [1]

The causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. [1]

The early American republic wasn't an isolated arena for growth in arms trading; guns helped foster empire and spur the global political economy in the 18th and early 19th centuries. [1] It was all about competition in the American South in the 18th and 19th Centuries. [1] During the 18th and 19th centuries, much of the imported cotton came from slave plantations in the Southern United States. [1]

In·dus·tri·al Rev·o·lu·tion the rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. [1] Throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Britain was also the home of the most advanced natural science (except for mathematics, which after Isaac Newton, was mostly developed on the Continent, and with the rise of the natural and social sciences in Germany in the 19th century). [1] Engraved topographical illustrations from the 18th and 19th centuries and Shell advertising posters from the 20th century will be considered. [1] During the late 18th an early 19th centuries when the UK and parts of Western Europe began to industrialise, the U.S. was primarily an agricultural and natural resource producing and processing economy. [1]

The Industrial Revolution transformed America's economy and social fabric in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. [2] The student understands how China’s Qing dynasty responded to economic and political crises in the late 18th and the 19th centuries. [1] The super-exploitation of slave labour in the colonies provided much of the raw materials, the super-profits and the fresh capital vital for the industrialisation of Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. [1] As Spain increasingly lagged behind through the 18th and 19th centuries, it increasingly became a state living in the past. [1] In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was both a political and economic democratization. [1] As industrialists in the 18th and 19th centuries became wealthy, they were able to gain political power and influence national policy. [1] In this way, continental European ideas of a "public opinion" that could be cultivated and communicated from the wider society toward those ruling the country, including thoughts and concepts that emerged during the 18th and 19th centuries, travelled north. [1] Cotton played a critical role in the history of the 18th and 19th centuries. [1] It is convenient because history requires division into periods for purposes of understanding and instruction and because there were sufficient innovations at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries to justify the choice of this as one of the periods. [1] Although the rise of what might be called economic thought had long preceded the Enlightenment, the attempt to systematize observations of economic activity into a coherent discipline reflected the intellectual life of the 18th and 19th centuries at its best. [1] Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries the French, the English and the Germans joined ranks with the Ottoman Muslims against their European opponents. [1] The student understands Russian absolutism, reform, and imperial expansion in the late 18th and 19th centuries. [1] The central value of British middle class life in the 18th and 19th centuries was _______. [1] It is important to remember it had many negative effects too, and that those were not just back in the 18th and 19th centuries but also in more recent times. [1] Our modern world originates in the cotton factories, cotton ports, and cotton plantations of the 18th and 19th centuries. [1] Wars became bigger in the 18th and 19th centuries, partly because of new military and political systems for conscripting huge numbers of soldiers and supplying their battlefield needs. In the process, the use of cavalry--soldiers on horseback--began to wane, while the use of infantry--men on foot--expanded, as did women’s roles in supporting troops with laundry, food preparation, medical aid, and weapons repair and service. [1] France's economic growth and industrialisation process was slow and steady through the 18th and 19th centuries. [1] Theme: Relations between women in the 18th and 19th centuries. [1] John Bushnell's analysis of previously unstudied church records and provincial archives reveals surprising marriage patterns in Russian peasant villages in the 18th and 19th centuries. [1] During the 18th and 19th centuries, most of these sources were subject to important selection forces. [1] "India's Deindustrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries" (PDF). [1] Students will understand the "isms" that have absorbed contemporary societyindustrialism, capitalism, nationalism, liberalism, socialism, communism, imperialism, colonialism and so onby investigating them within the historical context of the 18th and 19th centuries. [1]

Why Industrial Revolution occurred in 18th-century Britain, not elsewhere in Europe or Asia - successful response to global economy of 17th, 18th centuries; ways in which Britain was different from other countries in Europe, Asia; importance of globalisation in explaining divergence of East and West. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. If trade alone had been responsible, the Netherlands (a trading powerhouse in the 17th and 18th centuries) would have been a leading contender for the location of the Industrial Revolution. [1] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, countries where the Industrial Revolution was operating (United Kingdom, United States, France, Germany, etc.) saw some improvements to living standards due to the efforts of trades unions and to the cheaper cost of machine-made goods. [1] The Industrial Revolution was a transformation of human life circumstances that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (roughly 1760 to 1840) in Britain, the United States, and Western Europe due in large measure to advances in the technologies of industry. [1] Stearns argues that the industrial revolution was the "most important single development in human history over the past three centuries" and it was a global phenomenon that happened in three waves: first in western Europe and the United States in the 1770s, then in Russia, Japan, Canada and Australia in the 1880s and then finally in the Pacific Rim, Turkey, India, Brazil and other parts of Latin America in the 1960s and onward. [1]

Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. [1] Historians of the Second Industrial Revolution in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are often asked to draw parallels between it and the current "Fourth" Industrial Revolution, characterized by the emergence of massive personal and private use of handheld electronic computers as well as the emerging use of "Big Data," in the early 21st century. [1] The Industrial Revolution in the U.S. transformed the nation during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [1]

The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th century only sealed its fate as a second-rate power, since without industrialization, Spain could not hope to keep up with the rest of Europe in population, technology, or arms production. [1] The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. [1] The real gap in living standards opened only after the Industrial Revolution that started in England in the late 18th century and spread to Europe and North America in the 19th century. [1]

Important American technological contributions during the period of the Industrial Revolution were the cotton gin and the development of a system for making interchangeable parts, the latter aided by the development of the milling machine in the U.S. The development of machine tools and the system of interchangeable parts were the basis for the rise of the U.S. as the world's leading industrial nation in the late 19th century. [1] The American and German Industrial Revolutions are often ascribed to the late 19th century. [1] Having hemorrhaged both blood and treasure during the American Civil War, the nation passed the remaining three decades of the 19th century settling and incorporating its western frontier. 13 Simultaneously, the Industrial Revolution boosted the nation’s economy. [1]

By the end of the 19th century, when the term "industrial revolution" had passed into general circulation, other countries besides Britain, including Germany, the United States, and post-Meiji Restoration Japan, were already undergoing what were also called industrial revolutions. [1] Over 150 entries on all aspects of historical transformation of industry and society; describes major people, events, inventions that defined Industrial Revolution in Britain, United States, elsewhere; 24 primary documents, Chronology, bibliography, extensive Introduction, illustrations, detailed subject index. [1] The Industrial Revolution in the United States, as elsewhere, led to massive economic expansion, the development of new technologies, and the enormous growth in productive capacity. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. Of course, one of the major effects of the Industrial Revolution in the United States (as elsewhere) was urbanization, or the rapid growth of cities. [1] What was happening in the United States was happening elsewhere as well, most obviously in England, the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution and the country with the most impressive urban statistics, but in varying degrees in other parts of the West and in other regions of the world. [1]

The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. We believe that in Europe after the fall of Rome that there was no extensive canal constuction until the 18th century with the advent of the industrial revolution. [1]

The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic, and technological change in 18th century and 19th century Great Britain. [1] To summarise, the Industrial Revolution was a major change of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that happened in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. [1]

Most of the innovations of the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century were of British origin, including the harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery, the development of new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries, and the emergence of new means of transportation (e.g. steamships, railways). [1] The British industrial revolution was not saltation as much as it was a steady process of innovation from the early 18th century up to the mid 19th century. [1]

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th and 20th centuries transformed urban life and gave people higher expectations for improving their standard of living. [1] With the great advances of the Industrial Revolution, inventors continued to work throughout the rest of the 19th and early 20th centuries on ways to make life easier while increasing productivity. [1] If trade alone had been responsible, the Netherlands (a trading powerhouse in the 17th and 18th centuries) would have been a leading contender for the location of the Industrial Revolution. [1]

Alongside the production of cotton and woolen cloth, which formed the backbone of the Industrial Revolution in the United States as in Britain, other crafts increasingly became mechanized and centralized in factories in the first half of the nineteenth century. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. This second Industrial Revolution gradually grew to include the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries, and, in the twentieth century, the automotive industries, and was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. Although in Great Britain the slow process of industrial transformation has led historians there to question the very notion of an "industrial revolution," the speed and radical character of the change that took place in the United States in the nineteenth century largely precludes any such discussion. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. As the American industrial revolution spread in the late 19 th century and the early decades of the 20 th century, the United States passed Great Britain to become the most productive industrial nation in the world ( Romer 1996 ). [1] In a classic survey of the literature on the American industrial revolution in the Cambridge Economic History of the United States, the role of immigration is summarized in a single paragraph, which simply notes the overrepresentation of immigrants in the manufacturing labor force ( Engerman and Sokoloff 2000 : 387). [1] The analytical strategy adopted here is of a detailed case study of one country, the United States, with a primary focus on measuring the increasing share of immigrants and their descendents in the mobilization of labor during the American industrial revolution from 1880 to 1920. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. Primary texts in American debate over industrialization between Revolution and Civil; intellectual and ideological forces behind promotion of manufactures, skepticism and resistance which industrial capitalist aroused in democratic and agrarian new nation; heated debate over industrialization of United States. [1] How Industrial Revolution played out in Europe, United States, rest of the world; role of government in promoting, regulating commerce; important distinctions between original Industrial Revolution (1760-1850), second Industrial Revolution (approximately 1850 to the early 20th century). [1] The advent of the Industrial Revolution towards the end of the nineteenth century raised numerous economic and political questions for the United States that neither the populace nor the government was prepared for. [1] Some of the books give a more global perspective while others focus exclusively on specific countries, such as Britain or the United States, or on specific issues in the industrial revolution like economic issues or social issues. [1] The Industrial Revolution began in Britain with advances in mechanical engineering and steam technology and then spread to Germany, France, and the northern United States. [1] The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid industrial development, primarily in Britain, Germany and the United States, but also in France, the Low Countries, Italy and Japan. [1] That was succeeded by a second industrial revolution in the United States in the 20th century built around centralized electricity; the telephone, radio, and television; and cheap oil and the automobile. [1] Even areas that did not industrialize were affected by the Industrial Revolution, such as Latin America, where the economy was defined by exports of raw materials to supply the factories and the workforces of industrial countries in Europe and the United States. [1] In 1820, the United States shifted from an agricultural society to one based on wage labour, which was called the American Industrial Revolution. [1] In the Second Industrial Revolution (when the United States was first experiencing a "machine age"), engineers laid the foundations not only for networks and technological systems that provided the foundation for sustained industrial economic growth, but also for sustained conversation about the place of technology and technological expertise in the social order of a rapidly industrializing nation state. [1] The two leading nations of the Second Industrial Revolution were Germany and the United States, and their technological and socioeconomic change happened against the background of distinct histories in the two countries of industrialization, nation-state building, and the experience of growing and shrinking economies. [1] The Industrial Revolution came to other countries (France, Germany, United States, Japan) a little later than to Britain. [1] Only Russia and the United States had similar Industrial Revolutions to Britain; every other country was totally different. [1] Children had long had a place in domestic farming, unlike mill and factory work that grew out of the Industrial Revolution. 94 During the Gilded Age (period between the Civil War and World War I when the United States population and economy grew quickly), two-thirds of child labor was done on the farm. [1] Silversmiths -- United States -- History; Metal-work -- United States -- History; Revere, Paul, 1735-1818; Industrial revolution -- United States; Industries -- United States -- History. [1] Historian Page Smith examines the industrial revolution in Volume 6 of his People's History of the United States and calls the events of that era "The War between Capital and Labor." [1] In United States, The Industrial Revolution was period of growth and transformation. [1] Europe, especially Britain, remained the financial center of the world until 1914, yet the United States' growth caused foreigners to ask, as British author W. T. Stead wrote in 1901, "What is the secret of American success?" The businessmen of the Second Industrial Revolution created industrial towns and cities in the Northeast with new factories, and hired an ethnically diverse industrial working class, many of them new immigrants from Europe. [1] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. The rise of industrial child labor, the demands of workers to unionize, the economic vulnerability of women, and the influx of non-Anglo immigrants left many Americans questioning the meaning of liberty after the market revolution. [1] Would it have been possible to have had the American industrial revolution without immigrants? Or alternatively, would the industrial revolution have been smaller, slower, or more costly? In the prior section, we focused on the magnitude and economic roles of the first and second generation immigrant population. [1] Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, Americans were forced to adjust to the implications of the First Industrial Revolution. 1750 to 1850 marked a century of heightened industrial activity centered around textiles. [1]

Industrial Revolution, a term first used in the early 19th century to describe major changes in modes of production in Britain since the mid-18th century and their social consequences. [1] If countries, such as India, with a hundred times the population of 19th century Britain, can get to the first industrial revolution, through Make in India or some other form of catch-up, double its GDP per capita in a tenth of the time that it took Britain and, simultaneously, manage the burgeoning disasters of urban pollution, water shortages and chronic diseases en route -- that alone would be revolutionary. [1]

It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. [1] The development is no surprise, given that the decline of coal is more advanced in Europe in general than in the U.S. Coal had powered the Industrial Revolution that took off in England in the 18th century before spreading to the rest of the world; Thomas Edison had built the first coal-fired power station in London in 1882. [1] During the late 18th century, innovations in Europe triggered the Industrial Revolution and the sustained economic progress that spread across the globe. [1] Published in 2009, this book by Robert C. Allen explores why the industrial revolution began in 18th century Britain instead of somewhere else like Asia or continental Europe. [1] The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the mid- to late-18th Century with the invention by James Watt of his steam engine, itself an evolutionary follow-on to an early 18th Century. [1] In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain; by the time of the Great Exhibition in 1851 the country was described as the "workshop of the world". [1] As the 19th century wore on, and as most European states underwent the Industrial Revolution, the side effects of the Industrial Revolution for the urban industrial workers, including unemployment, depressed wages, urban poverty, lack of a safety network for the workers who were uprooted from their rural communities, together with the demolition of the more traditional trades and the bankruptcy of the artisans and handicraftsmen, led to numerous political movements. [1] Following upon the political revolutions in France, Haiti, and North and South America and the Industrial Revolution, the 19th century should have produced a definitive transformation of political and economic life. [1] Industrial revolution -- Great Britain; Great Britain -- Social conditions -- 19th century; Great Britain -- Economic conditions -- 19th century. [1] An outright industrial revolution took shape, led by Britain, which retained leadership in industrialization well past the middle of the 19th century. [1] The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. [1] Hobsbawn wrote many books about the rise of the industrial revolution, socialism and nationalism in the 19th century, including The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848, The Age of Capital: 1848-1875 and The Age of Empire: 1875-1914, The Age of Extremes. [1] Some historians argue that the Industrial Revolution continued in the second half of the 19th century with Sir Henry Bessemer's invention of a way of manufacturing steel from molten pig iron (the Bessemer Process), with the discovery of new chemical processes, and the development of new ways of using petrol and coal. [1] The Industrial Revolution was introduced by Europeans into Asia, and the last years of the 19th and the early years of the 20th cent. saw the development of industries in India, China, and Japan. [1]

One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages. [1] Many historians wanted to explore the reason for eruption of the Industrial Revolution in the beginning of 18th century of Europe only and not rest of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the middle Ages. [1]

It is still not clear among economic historians why the Industrial Revolution actually took place in 18th century Britain. [1] Whereas the first industrial revolution in the early 18th century associated with textile production, iron, coal, and steam, the second industrial revolution is associated with the production of chemicals, steel, and new energy sources: electricity and oil. [1] International icon for industrial heritage and a major player in the tourism industry; 1986- UNESCO awarded World Heritage status to Ironbridge Gorge, one of the first group of 7 UK sites; recognised the area's unique contribution to the birth of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the impact of which was felt across the world. [1] Prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century, Mughal India was the most important manufacturing center in world trade, producing about 25% of the world's industrial output, with the Mughal Bengal province dominant in the textile manufacturing industry. [1] Machine tools and metalworking techniques developed during the Industrial Revolution eventually resulted in precision manufacturing techniques in the late 19th century for mass-producing agricultural equipment, such as reapers, binders and combine harvesters. [1] The second industrial revolution, which started in the late 19th century and into the early 20th century, made mass production possible, fostered by the advent of electricity and the assembly line. [1] As with modern capitalism, welfare capitalism began in the United Kingdom during the late 19th century at the height of the Industrial Revolution. [1] The productivity gains of capitalist production began a sustained and unprecedented increase at the turn of the 19th century, in a process commonly referred to as the Industrial Revolution. [1] One historain writing about the 19th century argues that technological change was the fundamental factor explaining the industrial revolution. [1] Economic historian Paul Bairoch has estimated the GDP per capita of several major countries in 1960 U.S. dollars after the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century, as shown below. [1] Such notions--more or less adequate in the 19th century, when the first industrial revolution made its impact on Europe--simply will not do in present-day circumstances. [1] To what extent did the European Industrial Revolution of the 19th century contribute to the "New. [1] Read on to learn more about the late 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and the Gilded Age. [1]

The more literate urban masses of 19th century Europe, politicized by the French Revolution in the late 18th/early 19th centuries, demanded their problems be addressed by a more democratic, representative government that heeded their voices, or by a nationalist government that expelled the foreigner rulers. [1] The Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries changed almost all aspects of life in Europe, Britain, and North America. [1] In terms of institutions, the centuries preceding the Industrial Revolution were deemed important for the development in Europe of the concept of corporations, which were a new distinct entity and neither individuals, nor the state, nor the individuals collectively forming the corporation. [1] In the longstanding historical debate over what exactly was revolutionary about the so-called Second Industrial Revolution in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, historians today are often asked to draw parallels between it and the current "Fourth" Industrial Revolution, characterized by the emergence of massive personal and private use of handheld electronic computers as well as the emerging use of "Big Data," in the early 21 st century. [1] …It is my contention that Rome in the late Republic and early Empire was one of those rare examples of real pre-industrial economic growth (others would be the Dutch Republic and England in the centuries just before the Industrial Revolution). [1] The industrial revolution was fundamentally a technological revolution, and progress in understanding it can be made by focussing on the sources of invention. he reason the industrial revolution happened in Britain, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, was not because of luck (Crafts 1977) or British genius or culture or the rise of science. [1]

Why did the Industrial Revolution take place in eighteenth century Britain and not elsewhere in Europe or Asia? Answers to this question have ranged from religion and culture to politics and constitutions. [1] As I write this, we have only addressed the Industrial Revolution in its early stages in Englandand most of what you have addressed in other classes deals with England or the U.S. I would like you to consider both the impact of the Industrial Revolution as it spreads elsewhere in Europe, and how it changes as it spreads. [1]

The Industrial Revolution came about in the 18th century in the United Kingdom before spreading throughout Europe. [1] The topic is expansive due to the fact that the industrial revolution first began in Great Britain in the 18th century and slowly spread to every corner of the world over the span of hundreds of years. [1] In the British industrial revolution, but not the first stages of the Japanese industrial revolution, machines were associated with the invention, a quality greatly praised in the last half of the 18th century. [1] A new activity in Britain in the 18th century, central to the new middle class housewife of the Industrial Revolution, was ____. [1] If we use growth in per capita income as the defining characteristic of the industrial revolution, then it is clear from Figure 3 that the revolution did not begin before the late 18th century. [1] The course follows the evolution of industrial capitalism since the beginning of the English industrial revolution in the late 18th century. [1] It was the mechanization of the textile industry beginning in the 18th century that launched the industrial revolution. [1] Originally published in 1969, this book by David S. Landes discusses the inventions and technological advances that fueled the industrial revolution in Western Europe beginning in the 18th century. [1] The agrarian revolution was followed by a series of industrial revolutions that began in the second half of the 18th century. [1]

Yankee ingenuity is: inventiveness, technical solutions to practical problems, "know-how," self-reliance and individual enterprise associated with the Yankees, who originated in New England and developed much of the industrial revolution in the United States after 1800. [1] In cities across the United States, all of these elements came together to form the ingredients and the momentum behind the Industrial Revolution. [1]

By the mid-nineteenth century, as an example, the American inventor Elias Howe had applied the principles of the Industrial Revolution to hand sewing. [1] Social and financial success long eluded the first major American technologist, Eli Whitney, whose cotton gin, in 1793, was as central to the triumph of the Industrial Revolution as was the steam engine. [1] Look at the table below of American cotton production during the first stage of the Industrial Revolution. [1] Henry Ford brought up on a farm, began work as a machinist’s apprentice, and his assembly-line approach to production influenced not only Americans but also Soviet Communists, pledged to carry through their own industrial revolution under state orders. [1] The textbook version of the American industrial revolution begins with the English immigrant Samuel Slater's ingenious (and from the British point of view, criminal) reconstitution of cotton spinning machinery of the sort he had worked with in the mills of Lancashire, for the firm of Almy and Brown in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1790. [1] At a time when serious questions have been raised about the Euro-centric nature of American humanities education, one might fairly ask why we should examine mostly English authors and study the British experience of the industrial revolution. [1] INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The industrial revolution can be defined as a drastic transformation both of the processes by which American (and European) society produced goods for human consumption, and of the social attitudes surrounding these processes. [1] With industrial revolution, English, European, and American society transformed to a deep level. [1] Perhaps the most consequential change of the American industrial revolution was the increasing urbanization of society and the shift of labor from farms to factories and offices ( Guest 2005 ). [1] Our claim is not that immigrant labor caused the American industrial revolution; there were a number of factors that played an important role in this epochal process. [1] This became an important part of American industry and the second Industrial Revolution. [1] More so than the improved power looms of the 1790s, steam turbines launched the American industrial revolution. [1] Although higher wages and better working conditions might have encouraged more long-resident native-born workers to the industrial economy, the scale and pace of the American industrial revolution might well have slowed. [1] Some historians have referred to this era as America's second Industrial Revolution, because it completely changed American society, politics, and the economy. [1] In the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction, the American economy grew considerably as it entered "The Second Industrial Revolution," generally recognized as the period between 1870 and 1914. [1] Americans integrated the technologies of the Industrial Revolution into a new commercial economy. [1] Theses changes were the direct result of the American industrial revolution that was founded on rising investment, employment, and productivity in the manufacturing sector. [1] The most commonly cited reasons for the rapid American industrial revolution are the abundance of mineral resources, technological innovation, the evolution of the American system of manufacturing, railroads and lowered costs of transportation, education and human resources, and the rise of the managerial firm ( Abramovitz and David 2000 ; Chandler 1977 ; Denison 1974 ; Hounshell 1984 ; Wright 1990 ). [3] The industrial revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. The proponents of the Industrial Revolution inherited from the philosophers of the Enlightenment the narrative of human (read: European) progress over time but placed technological advancement and economic liberalization at the center of their conception of progress. [1] The industrial revolution, which started in Britain before sweeping through Europe and the USA, is traditionally viewed as the deepest mutation ever known to have affected men since Neolithic times. [1]

Americans and Europeans revived the Renaissance-Classical patent model during the Industrial Revolution to spur ingenuity. [1] The Industrial Revolution was a turning point in American history. [1] There were perhaps more similarities than differences between the two; and the American Industrial Revolution was in many respects an accidental child of the British revolution. [1] Americans embarked upon their industrial revolution with the expectation that all men could start their careers as humble wage workers but later achieve positions of ownership and stability with hard work. [1]

In the early 19th century, England became the epicentre of a worldwide Industrial Revolution and soon the world’s most industrialized country. [1] The phrrase "The Industrial Revolution" was poularized in the 19th century bt British economist Arnold Toynbee. [1] All employee conditions during the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century were very harsh. [1] Revisionist scholarship, however, estimates that the Great Divergence did not begin until the 19th century, during the Industrial Revolution. [1] From then to the early 19th century, machine-made stockings were at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution. [1] In sum, while the historian Arnold Toynbee may have started popularising the idea of the industrial revolution back in the 19th century, these revolutions -- all three of them -- are not widely distributed even in the 21st century. [1]

The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. [1] Waterwheels and windmills powered the 18th century launch of the industrial revolution. [1]

The Industrial Revolution rapidly spread beyond Europe and was easily adopted Europe's initial industrialization was influenced by its new position as a hub of the most extensive network of exchange in the world, by its extraction of wealth from the Americas, and by its dominance of the growing market for goods in the Americas. [1] The Industrial Revolution was confined to Britain for many years, because the technological breakthroughs were tailored to British conditions and could not be profitably deployed elsewhere. [1] The famous inventions of the industrial revolution were made in Britain rather than elsewhere in the world because the necessary R&D was profitable in Britain (under British conditions) but unprofitable elsewhere. 4. [1] Interpretations of Britain's industrial revolution not only helped shape values and public policies in Britain, but also fostered attitudes toward capitalism and modern industry elsewhere. [1] At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution India, China and regions of Iraq and elsewhere in Asia and the Middle East produced most of the world's cotton cloth while Europeans produced wool and linen goods. [1] In the centuries before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans gradually incorporated science and reason into their worldview. [1] World Trade gradually increased in the centuries before the Industrial Revolution and provided European countries access to raw materials and a market for goods. [1] Since the guild system was still powerful and water and wind power is not as energy dense as steam power, this did not progress as far as the Industrial Revolution did in the 18th-19th Centuries. [1] Like the Industrial Revolution two centuries ago, the Information Revolution so far--that is, since the first computers, in the mid-1940s--has only transformed processes that were here all along. [1] In particular the assumption is that the Information Revolution will be like the Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. [1] Any schoolchild can list economically important advances in technology that occurred well before the industrial revolution, and our increasing mastery of our environment is reflected in accelerating population growth over the centuries. [1] In the centuries before the Industrial Revolution, the quality of iron and the process of refining it had changed little in Great Britain. [1] Originally published in 1993, this book by Peter N. Stearns discusses the impact the industrial revolution had on world history over the past three centuries and how it is still affecting us in the modern day. [1] Forms of this protection and hospitality to merchants and strangers would appear to be a common, and essential feature, of many social advancements including the industrial revolution but also, arguably just as important, the expansions of trade across centuries that expanded horizons for cultures around the world. [1]

Though Robert Burns (1759-1796) is most commonly known as Scotland's "National Poet", he also made a significant impact in the United States of America during the late-18th and 19th centuries. [1] Although in Great Britain the slow process of industrial transformation has led historians there to question the very notion of an "industrial revolution," the speed and radical character of the change that took place in the United States in the nineteenth century largely precludes any such discussion. [1] Primary texts in American debate over industrialization between Revolution and Civil; intellectual and ideological forces behind promotion of manufactures, skepticism and resistance which industrial capitalist aroused in democratic and agrarian new nation; heated debate over industrialization of United States. [1] The rise of industrial child labor, the demands of workers to unionize, the economic vulnerability of women, and the influx of non-Anglo immigrants left many Americans questioning the meaning of liberty after the market revolution. [1] By the end of this Revolution, the U.S. had become a mature industrial society in which two-thirds of Americans worked for wages in city jobs. [1]

English in Canada has also been influenced by successive waves of immigration, from the influx of Loyalists from the south fleeing the American Revolution, to the British and Irish who were encouraged to settle the land in the early 19th Century to the huge immigration from all over the world during the 20th Century. [1] Rated 4 out of 5 by MarleysGhost from Longer Than Might be Expected Professor Weiner expands (rightly in my opinion) the 19th century as beginning during the time of the French Revolution until the entry of the Americans in WWI (1789-1917). [1]

By the end of the 19th century, competition among Great Britain, Germany, and the United States for industrial chemicals had become rather fierce, and chemical engineering expertise was in high demand. [1]

Immigrants have also played an important role in the transition to an urban industrial economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [1] The major technological innovations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries improved the competitive potential of the newer industrial nations. [1]

The political novels of the Gilded Age represent the beginnings of a new strain in American literature, the novel as a vehicle of social protest, a trend that grew in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the works of the muckrakers and culminated in the proletarian novelists. [1] The hostility of old line Americans to "foreigners" accelerated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as racial ideology and anti-Semitism also became part of American consciousness. [1] From the late 19th to early 20th centuries, American urbanization led to job opportunity in new bustling cities, technological advancements in transportaion, sanitation, and engineering, which led to an improved standard of living. [1] HIS 447SEM Health and Illness in American History Seminar This course traces the experiences of health, illness, and medicine in American history in the 19th and 20th centuries. [1]


History at its most interesting is complex, a fascinating whirl of events, personalities, and forces, and few periods of history offer us such captivating complexity as Europe's 19th "century"--the often-broadly defined period from the French Revolution to World War I that formed the foundation of the modern world. [1] Democracy in Modern Europe surveys the conceptual history of democracy in modern Europe, from the Industrial Revolutions of the nineteenth century through both world wars and the rise of welfare states to the present era of the European Union. [1] The structural problem with the question is the pace of technological change; the first six decades (1801-1860) of the Nineteenth Century encompassed a significant percentage of the Industrial Revolution, and the capabilities of navies as instruments of state power changed vastly in the same period. [1] This enthusiasm for spreading innovations to new economic domains was a further characteristic of the later eighteenth century, and it meant that the industrial revolution transformed numerous areas of the British economy, not just cotton, iron-making, and steam power. [1] Two factors contributed to Britain becoming the most powerful nation in the world until the early twentieth century the early development of civil society, and the English Revolution which removed impediments to the expansion of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution which began in England, and the British Empire by means of which England sucked the wealth from the farthest corners of the globe. [1] Hobsbawm is also the author of a well known four volume study of modern world history which explores the implications of what he calls the dual revolutions of the late eighteenth century: the industrial revolution that began in England and the political revolution that shook France. [1] Ashton wrote numerous books about economic history such as Iron and Steel in the Industrial Revolution; An Economic History of England: the Eighteenth Century; and Economic Fluctuations in England 1700-1800. [1] We overlooked one of the prime lessons of our own history, that we had been able to spearhead the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century, not because of our size--we only had a third of the population of France--but because, at a time when the countries of the continent were fragmented by internal tolls and tariff barriers, we were the biggest single market in Europe. [1] The Second Industrial Revolution continued into the twentieth century with early factory electrification and the production line, and ended at the start of the World War I. Individually each state has its own history after the industrial revolution. [1] During the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America involved in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France, even trained civil servants or technicians to assume it as a matter of state policy. [1] The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians believing the Revolution was an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century. [1] If this conjecture is true, why did most of the trajectory changes discussed on this page not occur until several decades after the close of the industrial revolution? Part of the explanation may be that it took a while for industrialization to spread beyond Britain and Western Europe. (An especially useful source on the spread of modern industry around the world is O'Rourke & Williamson 2017, in particular chapter 2 by Bénétrix et al. ; data here.) [1] As you know, the cotton industry was crucial to the world-altering Industrial Revolution as it first unfolded in Great Britain and then spread from there to other parts of the world, including the northern states of the Union. [1] Britain was not the birthplace of capitalism Northern Italy and the Netherlands have at least an equal claim to that honour but the early emergence of civil rights, the separation of Church and State, the first bourgeois revolution in 1640, and the British Empire opened the way to the Industrial Revolution and the birth of a truly modern working class. [1] Belgium was the second country, after Britain, in which the Industrial Revolution took place and the first in continental Europe: Wallonia (French speaking southern Belgium) was the first region to follow the British model successfully. [4] The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688 following the Glorious Revolution, and British society's greater receptiveness to change (compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution. [4] Rather than just launching new forms of economic production, the Industrial Revolution became a watershed in the social and political history of Europe. [1] What were some economic, social, and political effects that the Industrial Revolution had on Great Britain? Describe at least one economic, social, and political effect. [5] How did this little island come to rule an empire? How did Great Britain acquire so much military and economic power in the world? The answer, of course, is that it had an enormous commercial and technological head start over the rest of the world because the Industrial Revolution started in England. [6]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(17 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (212) Industrial Revolution (Europe, United States, Elsewhere 18th and 19th Centuries)

2. (82) Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

3. (67) Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution From 1880 to 1920

4. (50) history of technology | Summary & Facts - The Industrial Revolution (1750-1900) | Britannica.com

5. (34) World History Era 7 - Public History Initiative | National Center for History in the Schools

6. (29) Industrial Revolution - New World Encyclopedia

7. (19) Industrial Revolution Questions and Answers - eNotes.com

8. (15) Best Books About the Industrial Revolution History of Massachusetts Blog

9. (13) Untitled Document

10. (13) Why did the Industrial Revolution start in Britain? - Quora

11. (11) Internationalizing Feminism in the 19th Century, Introduction

12. (8) whap ch 18 Flashcards | Quizlet

13. (5) History of Europe - Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789-1914 | Britannica.com

14. (5) Movement toward greater democracy in Europe

15. (2) WHII Industrial Revolution Flashcards | Quizlet

16. (1) The Industrial Revolution of the 18th & 19th Centuries Essay | Bartleby

17. (1) 14 Market Revolutions | History Hub


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