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Information Age (1970 - Circa 2015)

Information Age (1970 - Circa 2015)

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KEY TOPICS
  • POSSIBLY USEFUL The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age ) is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • Philip Evans of Boston Consulting Group has argued (in this TED talk ) that the digital age of connected systems and vast amounts of data has changed the world in such a way as to undermine the fundamental tenets of business strategy in place since the 1970s.(More...)
  • How did openness become a foundational value for the networks of the twenty-first century?(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
POSSIBLY USEFUL The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age ) is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology. [1] The Information Age, also called the Computer Age, the Digital Age and the New Media Age, is coupled tightly with the advent of personal computers, but many computer historians trace its beginnings to the work of the American mathematician Claude E. Shannon. [1] "Making the Computer Personal: Reconstructing Domesticity for the Information Age" guest lecture for American Studies, National Aeronautical University, Kiev, March, 2007. [1] "Working on ENIAC: The Lost Labors of the Information Age," University of Maryland, sponsored jointly by the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities and Computer Science. [1] Optical communication provided the hardware basis for internet technology, laying the foundations for the Digital Revolution and Information Age. [1] The Information Age was enabled by technology developed in the Digital Revolution, which was itself enabled by building on the developments in the Technological Revolution. [1] During the Information Age, the phenomenon is that the digital industry creates a knowledge-based society surrounded by a high-tech global economy that spans over its influence on how the manufacturing throughout and the service sector operate in an efficient and convenient way. [1] The onset of the Information Age is associated with the Digital Revolution, just as the Industrial Revolution marked the onset of the Industrial Age. [2] The Information Age formed by capitalizing on computer microminiaturization advances. [2] The Information Age has affected the workforce in several ways. [2] With increased technology, baseball has become a more sophisticated game in the Information Age. [1] With the advent of the Information Age and improvements in communication, this is no longer the case. [2] As information is increasingly described in digital form, businesses across many industries have sharpened their focus on how to capitalize on the Information Age. [3]

"Working on ENIAC: The Lost Labors of the Information Age," book signing and Geek Week talk, University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee. [4]

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Philip Evans of Boston Consulting Group has argued (in this TED talk ) that the digital age of connected systems and vast amounts of data has changed the world in such a way as to undermine the fundamental tenets of business strategy in place since the 1970s. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL Using data on British cohorts born in 1970, Conti, Heckman, and Urzua (2011) explicitly model selection into education by those with high cognitive and non-cognitive skills and health status at age 10. [1] Scores of similar articles, some with even more dire predictions of a "little ice age" to come, appeared during the 1970s in such mainstream publications as Time, Science Digest, The Los Angeles Times, Fortune, The Chicago Tribune, New York Magazine, The New York Times, The Christian Science Monitor, Popular Science, and National Geographic. [1] Now, there really were news articles in the 1970s about scientists predicting a coming ice age "Sorry folks but the "settled science" in the 1970s actually WAS that there was another ice age on the way." " One could effectively argue that in the early 1970s the prevailing view was that the earth was moving toward a new ice age. [1] People have collected lists and lists of "Coming Ice Age" stories from newspapers, magazines, books, tv shows, etc. throughout the 1970s. [1] There were in fact a number of articles back in the 1970s that discussed the whole Ice Age problem, and I'm not sure what my friend was referring to In the 1970s the scientists were all predicting global cooling and a future ice age Your article is the perfect rebuttal to climate alarmists who're in denial about the 1970s ice age scare, which was driven by climatologists' dire warnings about anthropogenic global cooling. [1] As early as Mar 4, 1970, we have a gov. agency predicting cooling doom: "Pollution Could Cause Ice Age, Agency Reports (St. Petersburg Times." [1] The faked image illustrates one of the fake-skeptics’ favorite myths: The 1970s Ice Age Scare Many other 1970s articles which mention a Coming Ice Age also mention the possibility of increased warming due to CO2. [1] His 1970 publication shows an increase in such depictions that corresponds to the Little Ice Age, peaking between 1600 and 1649. [1] I am still waiting for Desertphile to act like a human being instead of a Neanderthal man from the Global Ice Age predicted by Climate Government Controlled "so called" "scientists" from the 1970s. [1] During the 1970s the media promoted global cooling alarmism with dire threats of a new ice age. [1] They were wrong about ice ages in the 1970s, they are wrong now about global warming"- Spot ON. Here is a small list of articles on global cooling/coming ice age that were published in the 1970s. [1] Table 8 presents hazard ratios from Gompertz models examining 12-year mortality rates among Union Army veterans age 55–74 in 1900 and men of the same age first observed in the 1970s and the late 1980s and early 1990s. [1] Reyner Banham, "Bauhaus," in Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, 2 nd ed., New York: Praeger, 1970, pp. 276-304. [1] Did the decadent golden treasures present an antidote to the cash-strapped 1970s? Were we just fascinated by mummies and Egyptian burial practices? A survey conducted by the National Gallery reported that 82 percent of attendees were drawn by "the beauty of the works of art" and 72 percent by "the age of the works of art." [1] By 1940 U.S. cities had solved their sanitation problems and, beginning in the 1970s, the biggest increases in life expectancy began to come at older ages, with technological advances playing a more important role. [1] For instance, U.S. Senator James Inhofe, R-Oklahoma, quoted a 1974 Time Magazine article that asked "Is Another Ice Age Coming?’ on the floor of the Senate in 2015 while speaking against climate change -- just after holding up a snowball as evidence that it still gets cold outside. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Population of the U.S. by age and sex (demographic pyramid) as on July 1, 2015. [1] Preserving Our Heritage: Perspectives from Antiquity to the Digital Age (Chicago, IL: American Library Association, 2015) 693 pp. $95.00 ISBN 978-1-55570-937-2. [1] There are several reasons why the government may wish to increase the school leaving age, considering it has raised the age numerous times over the 19th and 20th centuries, the last time being in 2015. [1] His three most recent books are: The Golden Age of Folk and Fairy Tales: From the Brothers Grimm to Andrew Lang (2013), The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Gr imm (2014), and Grimm Legacies: The Magic Power of the Grimms’ Folk and Fairy Tales (2015), and this article is based on material from his books. [1] The British government hoped that by making education compulsory up to the age of 17 by 2013 and 18 by 2015, it could change this. [1] Preliminary 2014 data indicate that the share of non-marital births declined slightly for the first time in almost 20 years, due largely to changes in age composition among childbearing-aged women. [1] Diagnosis years 1974-2013 were selected to utilize the most recent available data while maintaining equivalent time period and age intervals, which are required for age-period-cohort modeling. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL Pinball machines really grew in popularity after World War II. The ten year period of 1948-58 is referred to by some as the "Golden Age" of pinball, due to the invention of flippers in 1947 by the D. Gottlieb Co. in a game called "Humpty Dumpty", and was one of the main reasons for the renewed interest in pinball machines at the time. [1]

While national surveys do not collect information on age at screening initiation, one population-based study of non-Hispanic whites with higher-than-average educational attainment, one-quarter of whom were employed in health care, found a mean age at CRC screening initiation of 55 years ( 46 ). [1] In 1936, at the age of just 23, Turing wrote a groundbreaking mathematical paper called "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem," in which he described a theoretical computer now known as a Turing machine (a simple information processor that works through a series of instructions, reading data, writing results, and then moving on to the next instruction). [1] Information about age structure by region were derived from household survey data by using raw data files. [1] Rich Haswell reviewed Robert L. Hampel, Paul Diederich and the Progressive American High School (Information Age Publishing, 2014) in the Journal of Writing Assessment 7(1)(October 2014). [1]

By the 1970s, with the development of the Internet by the United States Department of Defense and the subsequent adoption of personal computers a decade later, the Information or Digital Revolution was underway. [1] In the 1970s and 1980s the Chemical Abstracts Service adopted the tools of the new digital age--the computer, the internet, etc. --to assist CAS in fulfilling its core mission: Providing scientists with access to chemical literature and information. [1]

In the 1970s, electronic paper allowed digital information appear as paper documents. [1] In the 1970 Information exhibition catalog, a multi-page photomontage included a newspaper account of Kusama’s event, appropriating it into institutional history. [1] The "third-party doctrine," the result of two Supreme Court cases in the 1970s, establishes that while Americans do indeed enjoy a "reasonable expectation of privacy" within their own homes, that changes if they share information with anyone or anything that constitutes a "third party." [1] The 1970 exhibition Information brought Conceptual art to MoMA. Of the many daring works on view, Hans Haacke’s MoMA Poll was controversial by design, taking on MoMA trustee and New York governor Nelson Rockefeller. [1] The briefing asserted that in the 1970s such methods were employed "to gain detailed information about Soviet R&D facility at Semipalatinsk." [1]

"Tace Sowle-Raylton (1666-1749) and the Circulation of Books in the London Quaker Community," Library & Information History 31 (August 2015): 157-70. [1] Johnson, Sara E. "Moreau de Saint-Méry: Itinerant Bibliophile," Library & Information History 31 (August 2015): 171-97. [1] "Replacing the Ideology of Information by Exploring Domains of Knowledge: A Case Study of the Periodization of Philippine History and its Application to Information Studies," Journal of Documentation v.71, no. 6 (2015): 1289-99. [1]

"Singing the Strong Light Works of Engineers: Popular Histories of the Internet as Mythopoetic Literature," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 2 (2015): 160-80. [1] "Histories of the Internet: Introduction to a Special Issue of Information & Culture," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 2 (2015): 143-59. [1] "From Virtual to Social: Transforming Concepts and Images of the Internet," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 2 (2015): 181-96. [1] "Part of a Whole: RENATOR, a Twenty-Year-Old Network within the Internet," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 2 (2015): 217-35. [1] "Information in the Novel and the Novel as Information System: Charles Dickens's Little Dorrit and Margaret Drabble's Radiant Way Trilogy," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 3 (2015): 339-71. [1] "Professional Work for Nothing: Software Commercialization and An Open Letter to Hobbyists," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 2 (2015): 257-83. [1] Grade school me could not have conceived how 2015 me lives and works on a daily basis, he just did not have the information needed to make those predictions. [1] Taxonomies of Knowledge: Information and Order in Medieval Manuscripts (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015) 176 pp. $45.00 ISBN 978-0-8122-4759-6. [1] "Paper, Information, and Identity in 1920s America," Information & Culture v. 50, no. 3 (2015): 392-416. [1]

Information and Communication Technology --computers, computerized machinery, fiber optics, communication satellites, Internet, and other ICT tools--became a significant part of the economy. [2] This evolution of technology in daily life and social organization has led to the fact that the modernization of information and communication processes has become the driving force of social evolution. [2]

The need to embrace digital technology and innovation in financial services, to listen to markets and build partnerships that serve them, and to master the art of human communication in the age of social business - these imperatives will only increase with the passage of time. [1] Few historians have examined the parallels between the emergence of engineering as a profession at the dawn of the age of electricity and of massive chemical and mechanical manufacturing, a time when technology transfers and high-tech immigrants moving between the United States and Europe also reshaped U.S. manufacturing and the work of its labor force in myriad ways. [1] In our current age, a time that has been described as being yet again entangled in revolutionary technological change, we can take clues from the troubles experienced by engineers around 1900 to appreciate and gauge the importance of technological expert groups and the ways they assess the social orders in which they are trying to find a place for themselves. [1]

Almost single-handedly in the late 1960s and early 1970s, this Broadway musical brought the Aquarian Age concept into the popular culture. [1] Its 1970s futuristic exterior belied a large upstairs lobby with large space age chandeliers and an enormous orange-colored auditorium. [1] Tommy Overstreet, the 1970s country hitmaker, died Monday night at his home in Oregon at age 78. [1] How Julian Jaynes’ famous 1970s theory is faring in the neuroscience age. [1] Among Union Army veterans, occupational shifts were relatively unimportant predictors of older age mortality (Costa 2013) but explain 29% of the 66% decline in the combined category of chronic respiratory conditions, valvular heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and joint and back problems from the 1900s to the 1970s and 1980s. [1] Gerrard called the 1970s and 1980s the "golden age of environmental law making," and asked Professors Jorling and Billings to compare that era to today. [1]

People under 21 years of age made up over a quarter of the U.S. population (27.1%), and people age 65 and over made up one-seventh (14.5%). [1] Beginning screening at age 45 years is not supported by a recent review of the evidence for CRC screening ( 49, 50 ) and would add approximately 20 million people to the screening-eligible population. [1] The pandemic had raged over the entire state, killing disproportionate numbers in the crowded cities, and striking very hard at people in their years of greatest physical strength, between ages 18 to 45. [1] Lawyers' income, 1929-1948 Shows lawyers' incomes by regions and states, by size of community served, by the age of the lawyer and number of years in practice, by WWII veteran status, and more. [1] Lawyers' income, 1947-1954 With breakouts by state, by size of law firm, size of the community served, age of the lawyer, number of years in practice, type of clientele, and more. [1] During the decade's first few years, we find a number of titles published by E.E. "Doc" Smith, Olaf Stapledon, H.P. Lovecraft, Karel Capek, and other Radium Age authors. [1] The average age at first birth among blacks and Hispanics is quite a bit younger - 24 years - driven in part by the prevalence of teen pregnancy in these groups. [1] The Barker hypothesis (e.g., 1992, 1994) argues that the chronic diseases we associate with old age originate in utero or in the first year of life, either because of insults occuring during these critical periods or because of intergenerational effects that operate through the mother. [1] At one year of age the babies of white and black patients at Johns Hopkins University in the first third of the century had similar weights, but there may be bias in who was followed in the samples. [1] The persistence of these problems is additional support for the idea that the neural circuits underlying social behaviors are forged during the first two years of life, and are relatively inflexible after that age. [1] First general election in Maryland where lowering of voting age to 18 years of age or older applied. [1] Mortality data from genealogies shows that life expectancy at age 20 declined from approximately 47 years at the beginning of the century to slightly less than 41 years in the 1850s and recovery to levels of the early 1800s was not attained until the end of the nineteenth century ( Pope 1992 ). [1] For the remaining 9 countries where subnational data on population age and sex structures were not available (namely Libya, Eritrea, Western Sahara, Equatorial Guinea, Brunei, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Turkmenistan) 2010 UNPD country level estimates 35 were used. [1] Data on population age and sex structure, as close as possible to 2010, were collected at the finest spatial level available for all African and Asian countries listed in Tables 1 and ​ and2. 2. [1] Subnational tabular data on population age and sex structures were gathered on a country by country basis. [1] A series of gridded 5-year age/sex group count datasets for Africa and Asia, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds, were generated by gridding the subnational proportional age and sex structure datasets and overlying them with the corresponding WorldPop gridded continental population count dataset ( http://www.worldpop.org.uk/data/data_sources/ ); with the latter adjusted to match United NationsPopulation Division (UNPD) estimates for 2010 36. [1] At this stage, to produce high resolution gridded 5-year age/sex group count datasets for 2010, the WorldPop continental gridded population count datasets for Africa and Asia ( http://www.worldpop.org.uk/data/data_sources/ ), with the total population for each country adjusted to match United NationsPopulation Division (UNPD) estimates for 2010 (ref. 35 ), were multiplied by the comprehensive subnational proportional age and sex structures assembled. [1]

Population growth is fastest among minorities as a whole, and according to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2012, 50.4% of American children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups. [1] By 1920, when the female population over the age of ten years had reached 512,778, the number of employed women rose to 57,439 or 11.2 percent. [1] The lower growth rate was also reflected in the figure for those under 15 years of age, which was 35 percent of the overall population in 1996 as against 38.8 percent in 1986. [1] Eastern Germany experienced rapid improvements in older age survival rates as technology that was trailing Western standards by 15–20 years was quickly updated ( Gjonça, Brockmann, and Maier 2000 ). [1] Herein, we characterize trends in population-based CRC occurrence by tumor location, age at diagnosis, and year of birth using incidence data from 1974 to 2013 and age-period-cohort modeling ( 10 ). [1] Standard Batting Year Age Tm Lg Games Played This includes all times that the player appeared on the lineup card. [1] Casey Stoner wins his second MotoGP world title (2007 and 2011) before announcing his retirement from the sport at just 27 years of age, citing disagreement with the direction of the sport and a desire to spend more time with his family. [1] Millenarian: Concerned with the creation of a perfect society that will transform the world and establish a utopian reign on earth, generally for a set period of time prior to the end of the world or the end of a set age of linear history. [1] People didn't mind sitting through it--after all, a photograph was like a kind of immortality! And, for the first time, people could really record how they looked at a certain age, giving society a new appreciation for the unsettling differences between our visage at 20 and 60. [1] Nothing is known of the building ability of Paleolithic peoples beyond what can be inferred from a few fragments of stone shelters, but in the New Stone Age some impressive structures were erected, primarily tombs and burial mounds and other religious edifices, but also, toward the end of the period, domestic housing in which sun-dried brick was first used. [1] Reproductive and menstrual history : Women who had their first menstrual period before age 12 or who went through menopause after age 55 have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. [1] The "Gilded Age" refers to the period following Reconstruction, when the American economy grew at its fastest rate in history. [1] Upwards of 25,000 American women between the ages of 21 and 69 served overseas during World War I. They began going in August of 1914--at first singly or with a few companions, later with service organizations, and lastly at the request of the U.S. government. [1] Cairo American College has a 25-meter long pool and an active and varied swimming program for all ages, which runs throughout the year. [1] Floud et al. (2011, Figure 6.8, p. 341) found this same functional relationship among white American males age 40–59 in the 1986–1992 and among Union Army veterans measured at ages 40–59, both followed for 10 years. [1]

Reports published in November 2006 suggested that Education Secretary Alan Johnson was exploring ways to raise the school leaving age in England to 18, just over 40 years later than the last rise in 1972, pointing to the decline in unskilled jobs and the need for young people to be equipped for modern day employment. [1] The cohort effect was qualitatively similar for colon and rectal cancers, but quantitatively larger for rectal cancer, for which there was a net increase of 4% annually for people in their 20s coinciding with a net decrease of 2% annually for those age 75 years and older. [1] Half of the Egyptian people are under twenty years of age; two-thirds are under thirty. [1] Almost 50 percent of the population is below 20 years of age and 39 percent under 15, presenting a real challenge to government in creating job opportunities. [1] The Machine Age was now fully engaged: only a few years after the completion of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), the Museum of Modern Art took a brave step forward presenting in the spring of 1934 its "Machine Art" exhibit, featuring the art of machine parts like ball bearings, propellers, and springs. [1] In 2016, the median age of mainland Chinese immigrants was the same as that of the overall foreign born (44 years), higher than that of the U.S. born (36 years), and lower than that of immigrants born in Hong Kong (52 years). [1] None of these studies examined the temporal pattern simultaneously by age, calendar period, and year of birth for a comprehensive interpretation of the contemporary trend. [1] Women who reached the end of their childbearing years in the mid-1970s came of age during the height of the post-World War II baby boom, a period typified by unusually high fertility. [1] As well as raising the school leaving age in 1972, the year also saw the introduction of the Education (Work Experience) Act, allowing LEAs to organise work experience for the additional final year school students. [1] Changes in British compulsory schooling laws that increased the minimum school leaving age from 14 to 15 in 1947 and from 15 to 16 in 1972 (both years unlikely to be affected by public health initiatives) had no health effects and did not affect smoking habits ( Clark and Royer 2013 ). [1] The government believed that the changes were needed because of the collapse in unskilled jobs in the economy, which means that young school leavers at 16 years of age are finding it increasingly more difficult to find employment, consequentially in many cases making them unemployable. [1] It's an astrological age, which occurs because of a real motion of Earth known as the precession of the equinoxes, which, for example, causes the identity of the pole star to change over time. [1] Mehta and Chang (2011), comparing earlier and later cohorts at ages 50–74 in three data sets, find that over time class I obese individuals (those with a BMI between 30.0 and 34.9) no longer face an elevated mortality risk relative to normal weight individuals (those with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9) but BMI levels of 35 and over remain dangerous. [1] Household survey data are designed to be representative at both national and subnational levels (typically administrative level 1, generally equivalent to provinces) and thus can be used to derive the corresponding age and sex structures. [1] Once formatted to a standard table schema, subnational age and sex structure data were then joined on a country-by-country basis, using a GIS system, to their corresponding spatial boundaries; with the latter representing the administrative unit level at which the data were assembled. [1] Standardized country data tables were subsequently joined to their respective subnational spatial boundaries and the spatial datasets generated were then merged together to produce two continental vector datasets (i.e., Africa and Asia) depicting the proportional age and sex structure in each subnational administrative unit. [1] Over 100 million records were extracted from census data, census microdata and household survey data, assembled and used to derive the proportional age and sex structures for 6,389 subnational administrative units. [1]

For those countries where age and sex structure data were available from a recent national census, these were collected at the highest administrative level available, along with their corresponding spatial boundaries. [1] It was during the Age of Aries that the first fully blown national or imperial armies were created and for the first time cities surrounded themselves in fortified walls. [1] One of the offshoots of early 20th Century Interior design is the "Machine Age" style, a term first used Circa 1927 in the New York Times and later popularized in 1960 by Peter Reyner Banham (1922 - 1988) in his book, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. [1] Iron was for the first time smelted and smitten into swords in the early phase of this era, replacing the heavier, softer, and duller bronze swords of the Taurian Age. [1]

” In this developmental model people possess a vector of capabilities at each age, including pure cognitive abilities such as IQ, noncognitive abilities such as patience, self-control, temperament, risk aversion, a rate of time perference and health stocks, including mortality and morbidity propensities. [1] The health endowment of adults deteriorates with age, with the rate of deterioration depending on health investments produced from a combination of time and purchased medical care. [1] This replica of the 1200 year-old illuminated manuscript spurred a two-year long series of events to educate patrons about the early middle ages, the time period in which the Book was written. [1] Many women are more interested in the risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer at specific ages or over specific time periods than in the risk of being diagnosed at some point during their lifetime. [1] He was also diagnosed with tuberculosis at the age of 12 and was kept quarantined at home for an extensive period of time. [1] Some scholars, however, have argued that even controlling for age average health has worsened over time because we now keep the sick alive. 9 By examining military sickness trends and chronic conditions among the mothers of children born in the 1910s and 1930s, young men examined for WWII service, and older Union Army veterans, I will show that over the 20 th century as a whole, health improved and that the patterns hint at longitudinal and intergenerational effects. [1] The U.S. time series evidence does not reveal effects of the Great Depression on health, though its effects may have been mitigated by relief programs ( Fishback, Haines, and Kantor 2007 ) and by Old Age Assistance ( Balan-Cohen 2008 ). [1]

While age at first birth has increased across all major race and ethnic groups, substantial variation persists across these groups. [1] This is the first act which starting planning provisions for young people to remain in education until the age of 18. [1] From the Ptolemaic Age (323-200 B.C.) through the rule of Mohamed Ali in the first half of the nineteenth century, secondary education in Egypt was intended to prepare students for higher education or for work in governmental departments. [1]

Population data that were sex disaggregated by age group at subnational administrative unit level were only available for a minority of countries. [1] After selecting only de facto members and weighting the data appropriately, cross tabulations were applied to calculate counts and proportions of population within each 5-year age group and sex class, by administrative unit. [1] It consists of (1) an ArcToolbox Geoprocessing Tool to pre-process the raw IPUMSI data, (2) an SPSS (IBM version 22) script to pre-process the DHS raw data and (3) an ArcToolbox Geoprocessing Tool to generate gridded age group structure and sex class proportion datasets and combine them with gridded population count datasets to produce the gridded age/sex structure count datasets. [1] Input data were case and population counts for eight five-year time periods (1974-1978, 1979-1983…2009-2013) and 14 five-year age groups (20-24, 25-29…80-84, 85+) spanning 21 partially overlapping 10-year birth cohorts. [1] Age-period-cohort modeling provides estimates of parameters that describe relationships between observed incidence rates and age, calendar period, and birth cohort based on age groups and time periods of equal length ( 18 ). [1] The surveys showed 18-29-year-old Gen Xers did exhibit higher levels of cynicism and disaffection than previous cohorts of 18-29-year-olds surveyed; however, they also found that cynicism and disaffection had increased among all age groups surveyed over time, not just young adults, making this a period effect, not a cohort effect. [1] To test the assumption of no major changes in age structures between years, the absolute change (difference) in age group specific percentage points was tested, in countries where two or more comparable time points were available from household surveys,. [1] Absolute change (difference) in age group specific percentage points between survey round years in Nepal (DHS Surveys 2011-2006 & 2011-2001), Kazakhstan (MICS Surveys 2011-2006), Guinea (DHS Surveys 2011-2005 & 2011-1999), for each region. [1] A potential explanation for the differences is that in the broad 25 to 74 year old age group examined by Cutler et al. (2011) the number of years spent smoking within educational groups may vary widely. [1] Population growth from 2010 to 2050 is projected to be significantly slower and is expected to tilt strongly to the oldest age groups, both globally and in the U.S. Public opinion on whether the growing number of older people is a problem varies dramatically around the world. [1] For the high resolution gridded 5-year age/sex group count datasets, both for Africa and Asia, this was done by summing all of them into a single dataset (depicting the total numbers of people for all age groups and both sexes at the grid cell level) and then subtracting it from the corresponding WorldPop continental gridded population count dataset to make sure that country totals matched the UNPD estimates for 2010. [1] To disaggregate them by sex, two similar models, one for males and one for females, iterated through this stack to produce sex delineated population counts for each age group (circa 2010) at the grid cell level. [1] In most cases, the subnational level data were disaggregated only by age group with a single two-way sex split. [1] Therefore in order to maintain the comparability across countries, the subnational level sex split was simply applied across all age groups within the corresponding subnational administrative unit. [1] Each polygon feature (representing a subnational administrative unit) is attributed with proportionate values for each 5-year age group and sex class (i.e., the proportion of the total population in each administrative unit belonging to each 5-year age group and sex class). [1] Supplementary Fig. 1a,b (Africa and Asia, respectively) present the boundaries of the administrative units and each unit is coloured according to the proportion of the total population sampled and used to derive the 5-year age group and sex proportions. [1] The conversion process produced a stack of raster grids (one for each 5-year age group and sex class) and within each grid each pixel retained the proportionate value for that 5-year age group or sex class relating to the subnational administrative unit in which the pixel is located. [1] These challenges required a process of standardisation aimed at harmonizing these disparate data sources into a set of consistent tables in which each row represents a subnational administrative unit and the fields contain the corresponding proportion of males, females and people in each 5-year age group (from aged 0 to 4 up to a final group aged 65 and over). [1] Table 3 presents an example of a standardised table, for Bhutan, in which each record represents a subnational administrative unit and the fields contain the corresponding proportionate values of people (both sexes) in each 5-year age group, males and females. [1]

Our finding of rising CRC incidence rates for people in their early 50s, as well as younger age groups, highlights the need for increased adherence to recommended screening. [1] Within the same age group prevalence rates for the combined category of arteriosclerosis, valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure fell by 0.4% points from 1910 to 1976 –1980 for black men and by 0.2% points per year for white men. 10 Prevalence rates for blacks were higher for almost all conditions, symptoms, and signs between 1971 and 2004. [1]

The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. [1] The age group composition of populations varies substantially across continents and within countries, and is linked to levels of development, health status and poverty. [1] This model produced a series of grids for Africa and Asia, each one providing estimates of population count for a specific age group (circa 2010) at the grid cell level. [1]

Connectivity between computers within companies led to the ability of workers at different levels to access greater amounts of information. [2] The proliferation of the smaller and less expensive personal computers and improvements in computing power by the early 1980s resulted in a sudden access to and ability to share and store information for increasing numbers of workers. [2]

Jim Shaw returns to New York for the first time following his 2015 New Museum survey, "The End Is Here," with a number of sculptures as well as a series of paintings rife with allusions to comics, the Bible, and the mythological tale of the rape of Europa, a popular subject among the Old Masters. (The artist also is currently the subject of his first major Los Angeles exhibition, on view at the Marciano Art Foundation through January 13.) [1] When NOAA depicted the radiosonde record to prove it, it left the first 20 years off the graph (google "Real Science" + "noaa-radiosonde-data-shows-no-warming-for-58-years/"). 1959 was warmer than 2015. 1943 was not doubt hotter still. [1] Racial and ethnic minorities surpassed non-Hispanic whites as the largest group of American children under 5 years old in 2015. [1] With a projected annual growth rate of 1.5 percent between 2000 and 2015, the population is expected to reach 92 million by the year 2030. [1] The average rate of advancement between 1985 and 2015 was higher than the rate between 1955 and 1985--because the former was a more advanced world--so much more change happened in the most recent 30 years than in the prior 30. [1]

Just two years later, on Dec. 3, 2015, Secretary of Defense Ash Carter directed the full integration of women in the Armed Forces following a thirty-day review period required by Congress, which was completed April 7. [1] Chinese nationals are also overrepresented in applications for the EB-5 investor visa program, accounting for 90 percent of applicants in fiscal year (FY) 2015. [1] March 1, 2011. pp.1A. ^ "2012 National Population Projections: Summary Tables - People and Households - U.S. Census Bureau - Table 6: Percent Distribution of the Projected Population by Race and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2015 to 2060 (middle series)". [1] The Chinese diaspora in the United States is comprised of approximately 5 million individuals who were either born in China or reported Chinese ancestry or race, according to tabulations from the U.S. Census Bureau 2015 ACS. U.S. unemployment by state in December 2015 (official, or U3 rate). [1]

Jeffrey T. Richelson, The United States Intelligence Community (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2015), p. 63. [1] Washington, D.C., November 20, 2015 - The Defense Intelligence Agency, established in 1961, is one of the United States government's largest intelligence organizations - employing 17,000 individuals, including thousands stationed overseas. [1] A 2015 study by Sage Group reports Gen Xers "dominate the playing field" with respect to founding startups in the United States and Canada, with Gen Xers launching the majority (55%) of all new businesses in 2015. [1]

Walker, Martyn A. ""Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice: Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-makers," Journal of Educational Administration and History 47(4)(November 2015): 367-387. [1] Brian S. Collier reviewed Lester F. Goodchild, Richard W. Jonsen, Patty Limerick, and David A. Longanecker, eds., Higher Education in the American West: Regional History and State Contexts (Palgrave Macmillan 2014) in Western Historical Quarterly 46(3)(Autumn 2015): 383. [1] "A brief history of Facebook as a Media Text: The Development of an Empty Structure," First Monday v. 20, no. 5 (May 4, 2015): 1+. [1] Computer History Museum : Member of the CHM Fellows Selection Committee, 2012, 2013 & 2015. [1]

Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas. [1]

Sam Gilliam's late 1960s and early 1970s "Beveled-edge" and "Drape" paintings will be the subject of his first New York gallery show in nearly 25 years. [1] Time magazine looked nothing like this in the 1970s and anyone with a few years behind them should know it. [1] In later years, though, climate change deniers latched upon the 1970s speculations of a cooling planet as a way to discredit scientists who raise the alarm over increasing global temperatures. [1] Since they took over at the start of last year, they’ve come up with a number of new ideas and, like Super Elastic Bubble Plastic (introduced, toxically, in 1970), set out to put some air in them. [1] Since the 1970s, the Egyptian labor force has been growing at the rapid rate of 500,000 (2.7 percent) per year. [1] This includes graduates from the 1970s and 1980’s; the rate for couples who graduated in the last 5 - 10 years is certainly far higher. [1]

Check out how fashion has changed in the past 100 years from flapper styles in the 1920s, Hollywood glamour of the 1930s, work clothes for the 1940s, excessive dresses from the 1950s, mini skirts of the 1960s, 1970s disco glitz, colorful and bold styles of the 1980s, and 1990s sporty fashion. [1]

Sources for tables: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census of the U.S., Population, Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population,, Pt. 5 ; U.S. Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns, 1962, 1970, 1981,1990, 1996 (The 1996 data derived from the online version. [1] Per U.S. federal government data released in March 2011, births fell 4% from 2007 to 2009, the largest drop in the U.S. for any two-year period since the 1970s. [1]

The financial gaps between middle- and upper-income Americans have widened, with upper-income households holding 49% of U.S. aggregate household income (up from 29% in 1970) and seven times as much wealth as middle-income households (up from three times as much in 1983). [1] Prince Charles has visited American dozens of times and has met seven presidents, starting with President Nixon in 1970. [1] In the early 1970s, interest in the occult in American culture was so high that TIME devoted a cover story to the topic, and a large portion of it was focused on Satanism. [1]

In the 1970s, the Yale Law professor Boris Bittker argued in The Case for Black Reparations that a rough price tag for reparations could be determined by multiplying the number of African Americans in the population by the difference in white and black per capita income. [1] While African immigrants make up a small share of the U.S. immigrant population, their numbers are also growing steadily - roughly doubling every decade since 1970. [1]

During the 1970s, and sometimes beyond, DIA and a number of other intelligence agencies (including the CIA, the Army Intelligence and Security Command, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center) attempted to employ individuals purported to possess psychoenergetic abilities - alleged to include psychokinesis, telepathy, remote viewing, and extrasensory perception - as a means for gathering intelligence. [1] In the 1970s and, in some cases beyond, the DIA, as well as several other intelligence agencies (including the CIA, the Army's Intelligence and Security Command, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center), employed individuals alleged to have paranormal capabilities as means of acquiring intelligence about distant events. [1]

Document 12 : Defense Intelligence Agency, "Minutes of DIA Scientific Advisory Committee Meeting," 21-22 May 1970, n.d. [1] Another DIA historical study ( Document 46 ) examined the DIA's performance with respect to the air and ground war in Vietnam as well as a number of other Asian crises during the 1960s and 1970s - including the seizure of the USS Pueblo, the Son Tay prison rescue mission, and the seizure of the USS Mayaguez. [1]

It concluded with the observation (p.40) that despite "incremental improvements" in DIA performance in the early 1970s "neither military leadership nor policymakers were yet convinced of the Defense Intelligence Agency's necessity." [1]

Stevenson and Wolfers (2008) find that self-reported happiness by educational level has widened since the 1970s but that the differences by race and by sex have narrowed, the latter because women no longer report higher happiness rates than men and now report lower rates. [1] About a decade after independence from France in 1962 the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria's population growth rate by the late 1980s. [1]

In the 1970s, only 9 U.S states allowed for joint custody of children, which has since been adopted by all 50 states following a push for joint custody during the mid-1980s. [1] During the period of acceptance of economic Keynesianism, circa 1920s to 1970s, there was widespread acceptance in many nations of a large role for state intervention in the economy. [1] With key loans from major institutions such as the Philadelphia Museum of Art and New York's Whitney Museum of American Art, Pace--which presented her 1970s paintings in 2011--looks back at this key period in her career. [1]

Chinese immigration to the United States has consisted of two waves, the first arriving in the mid-1800s and the second from the late 1970s to the present. [1] In the 1970s and 1980s however, engineers in the United States and Europe experimented with design strategies to create new digital networks. [1]

Satellites of the early 1970s spotted more snow and ice across the Northern Hemisphere, and people were well aware of unusually harsh winters in North America during 1972-73. [1] There's no way to trace the evolution of rock in the 1970s (and beyond) without understanding the Sex Pistols; The Filth and the Fury is a fine way to get that education. [1] Smith (2007) finds that the education gradient in diabetes prevalence has increased since the 1970s, perhaps because of better self-management at higher educational levels ( Goldman and Smith 2002 ). 18 Technological change also will disproportionately benefit the advantaged because they are the heaviest health care users and new medical technologies raise the productivity of health care ( Goldman and Lakdawalla 2005 ). [1]

Asia is projected to be the second largest contributor to future global population growth, adding 0.9 billion people between 2015 and 2050 1. [1]


How did openness become a foundational value for the networks of the twenty-first century? Open Standards and the Digital Age answers this question through an interdisciplinary history of information networks that pays close attention to the politics of standardization. [5] In the digital age, scientists are only seconds from the information sought. [6]

In this article and presentation, I will try to explain WHY digital technology undermines the prevailing business strategy of the past 30-40 years and HOW financial services firms as well as individual advisors and agents can adapt their businesses to the realities of the new digital age of financial services. [7]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(11 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (199) Information Age (1970 - Circa 2015)

2. (10) How to Survive and Thrive in the Digital Age of Financial Services

3. (8) Information Age - Wikipedia

4. (6) Open Standards and the Digital Age by Andrew L. Russell

5. (4) Chemical Abstracts Service - National Historic Chemical Landmark - American Chemical Society

6. (4) #DTR8: The New Innovation Paradigm for the Digital Age: Faster, Cheap…

7. (3) Vita | Thomas Haigh. UW-Milwaukee & Universität Siegen

8. (2) Text: Lauren Elliott: "I do not wish to speak about/only to speak nearby" - Deconstructing the Anthropological Gaze on Film | CIRCA Projects

9. (2) What is Information Age? - Definition from WhatIs.com

10. (1) Archives West: Albert Borgmann papers, 1957-2015

11. (1) When does the Age of Aquarius begin? | Human World | EarthSky


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