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Interwar Period (Earth, 1918 - 1939 or 1937)

Interwar Period (Earth, 1918 - 1939 or 1937)

C O N T E N T S:

  • In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.(More...)



In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939. [1] The interwar period ended in September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland and the start of World War II. [1] Officially known as the Republic of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. An interwar night bomber design for Britain, the Fairey Hendon saw a short service life span from 1936 until 1939 -. [2] On October 31, 1918, the Hungarian Democratic Republic was created by revolution that started in Budapest after the dissolution and break-up of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. An interwar night bomber design for Britain, the Fairey Hendon saw a short service life span from 1936 until 1939 -. [2]

That "peace’ is merely the absence of war, meaning that the period between 1918 and 1939 was one of relative, if not absolute stability - the "inter’ in "interwar.’ [2] From the multi-cultural Second Republic of the interwar period (with around 30% of its population consisting of ethnic minorities) to the homogeneous nation it is today (around 97% ethnically Polish in 2011) - border changes, wars and genocide have all left their mark. [2] With the outbreak of World War I and the subsequent German occupation of much of former Polish territory, the Polish section of the Bund (now cut off from the mother party in Russia) began its independent existence, and in the interwar period it became one of the major political and social forces on the "Jewish street." [2] On the eve of World War I, after the contentious election campaign for the Fourth Russian Duma in 1912 (in which the Warsaw district returned a socialist candidate instead of the favored candidate of the right), the Polish right embarked on an economic boycott of Jewish businesses, a tactic that would continue in the interwar period. [2]

By the end of the war, almost the entire political spectrum of Jewish political parties that would function in the interwar period had come into existence. [2] The interwar period was marked by a radical change in the international order, away from the balance of power that had dominated pre-World War I Europe. [2] The history of ethnic relations during the interwar period is crucial for understanding how ethnic Germans were treated after the war. [2] In the Interwar period, the Historical Section of the General Staff of the Canadian army had begun work on a planned eight-volume history of the war. [2] They would be temporarily reunited with the mainstream of Polish history and politics only in the independent Poland of the interwar period. [2] There was proportional representation with many political parties as in Poland, but the five major Czechoslovak parties, called "Petka" (the five) managed to share power for most of the interwar period, and when they disagreed, Masaryk appointed governments of experts. [2] We enlist data from the early part of the 20th century and find that the political budget cycle is by no means a recent phenomenon: it was alive and kicking in London both in the years leading up to the First World War and during the interwar period. [2] The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Serbian Cyrillic: Краљевина Југославија, "Kingdom of South Slavia) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed during the interwar period (1918-1939) and first half of World War II (1939-1943). [2] This Timeline of events preceding World War II covers the events of the interwar period (1918-1939) after World War I that affected or led to World War II. The end of the Great War saw many countries taking stock of what had been introduced and experienced, and the interwar period proved to be a time of rapid development, testing, and theorizing, of which armored vehicles were no exception. [2] This Timeline of events preceding World War II covers the events of the interwar period (1918-1939) after World War I that affected or led to World War II. Series of 60 figures of soldiers on emblematic military motorcycles representing famous military corps of the two great world wars and the interwar periods. [2] The Paris Gun was a morale-breaking precursor to the terrifying V-weapons of World War II. It also inspired a new generation of German heavy artillery -- including the Gustav -- during the interwar period. [2] The interwar period played an enormous role in the manner in which ethnic Germans were treated after World War Two. [2] The differences between the two countries during the interwar period shaped how they dealt with ethnic Germans after World War Two. [2] Throughout the Interwar period into the post-Second World War period, the governments of most of the belligerents produced multi-volume series of histories covering operations during the First World War. [2] The Interwar Period (1918-1939) is understood, within recent Western culture, to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War. [2] It is intriguing that New Zealand and Australia took such different routes during the Interwar period in commemorating and marking the First World War. [2] Civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army; both left-wing and right-wing militias of World War I veterans were common during the Interwar Period. [2] He was active in many initiatives and was one of the central organisers of the art scene until the outbreak of World War II. In my contribution I will illuminate the impact of the Fourth Generation group in the context of artistic organising in the interwar period. [2] The Polish government never recognized Jewish communal autonomy de jure, but autonomy existed de facto in hundreds of local communities, school systems, and youth movements during the interwar period. [2] The influx of Jews to Polish belles lettres rose exponentially; in fact, the Jewish creative presence in Polish literature was one of the most significant novelties of the interwar period. [2] Throughout the interwar period, a large proportion of Polish Jewry faced increasing pauperization, wherein the general difficulties of living in a poor country undergoing major economic transformation were compounded by antisemitism and ongoing discrimination. [2] Included here are Brüning's recollections of his conversations with key historical figures, typewritten timelines focusing on economic and political news during the interwar period, transcribed articles from international publications including the Economist, and timelines that reconstructed news events by including information from daily newspapers published during the Weimar Republic. [2] Social dislocations, economic hard times and a lack of commitment to parliamentary rule all promoted the drift to the Right among the Balkan states during the interwar period. [2] In the interwar period it became the most prosperous and politically stable state in eastern Europe. [2]

It should be noted that while fascist parties or groups existed in each country, no interwar East European state had a fascist party in power as was the case in Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, while a totalitarian communist system existed in the USSR. The Breda Ba.64 saw only a few short years of service beginning in 1937 before being replaced in 1939 by the much-i. [2] Several avant-garde painters worked abroad, foremost among them were Laszlo Moholy Nagy, who worked first in Germany and then in the U.S., and also Bela Utz, who worked first in the U.S. and then the USSR. The greatest painter of the interwar period was Gyula Derkovits. [2] What was the alternative? British capitalism was in decline, its sluggish performance in the interwar period comparing badly with that of the U.S. in the 1920s and that of Germany and Russia in the 1930s. [2] Interwar period in Europe is the worst time of that era, and this is the best website to find sexy and hot call girls of your dream. [2] Jute is one of several women from Rohatyn (thirteen at Jagiellonian alone) and many in former Galicia who took first or advanced degrees from universities in Central Europe during the interwar period. [2] It achieved success as both a military and civil aircraft, setting several notable records in long-distance flights in the interwar period, the most celebrated of which was the first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by Alcock and Brown in June 1919. [2] This text offers a helpful perspective on states’ economic and financial policies viewed through the lens of the world’s first multipurpose intergovernmental organization and on the role played by networks of economists and bureaucrats who sought to combat the economic nationalism that gripped the world economy in the interwar period. [2] The occupiers treated Poles poorly, creating animosity toward Germans - who were the dominant ethnic group in two of the three occupying powers - that carried over into the interwar period and beyond. [2] Actually, were Tokyo’s policies any more disjointed than those of the other great powers? The pre-war order had collapsed, ushering in a tumultuous interwar period characterized by dramatic and continual global shifts in national security policies, international relations, military affairs, ideologies, and weapons development. [2] The paper explores the ways in which military strategists, scientists, and government officials attempted to justify the development, possession, and use of chemical weapons, and contextualizes Britain’s delicate balancing act between deterrence and disarmament in the interwar period. [2] Soviet nationality policy was one of several political responses to cultural diversity in the interwar period. [2] Described by many as the "golden age of sports," it was during this interwar period that professional and organized amateur sports became a prominent part of U.S. society. [2]

His 1934 essay "Smok w słowiczym gnieździe: Żydzi w poezji odrodzonej Polski" (Dragon in a Nightingale’s Nest: Jews in Polish Poetry from 1918) presented a new generation of Polish Jews who achieved unprecedented prominence in Polish poetry of the interwar period. [3] The interwar period (1918-1939) is understood within Western culture to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War. [4] The Polish-Lithuanian borders in the interwar period, while recognized by the Conference of Ambassadors of the Entente and the League of Nations, were not recognized by the Republic of Lithuania. [4]

POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL WW2: Stages & events 1939 - 41: Victories of the Axis powers DURING THIS PERIOD THE AXIS POWERS DOMINATED THE WAR. • 1st September 1939: Germany occupied Western Poland. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2 Despite their collaboration during WW2, once the war ended the U.S. & the USSR entered into a period of competition and confrontation known as the Cold War (1945 - 1991). [2] There are a total of 203 Aircraft from 1930 to 1939 (Pre-World War 2 Period) in the Military Factory. [2]

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. [2] The period from 1918 to 1948 was one of lost peace, of unrest, instability, economical crisis, crimes, suffering, war and eventually the cold war and peace. [2] The second half of this period began on 8 September 1939 when President Roosevelt declared a "limited" national emergency in response to the outbreak of war in Europe. [2] Although often labeled "interwar", the period was not without its own wars and other armed conflicts, in Central Europe and even in Rohatyn. [2] The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was created in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or " interwar Poland " refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918-1939). [2] Officially known as the Republic of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. The interwar Poland had a considerably large army of 950,000 soldiers on active duty: in 37 infantry divisions, 11 cavalry brigades, and two armored brigades, plus artillery units. [2] Officially known as the Republic of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917(though individual Provinces held out longer), Britain in 1918 and the United States in 1920. [2]

Officially known as the Republic of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. After Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union concluded their Nonaggression Pact of 1939 and Germany invaded Poland from the west, Soviet forces occupied the eastern half of Poland. [2] Officially known as the Republic of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia began in 1918 between the Second Polish Republic and First Czechoslovak Republic, both freshly created states. [2] Officially known as the Republic of Poland ( Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska ), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. A month before Germany surrendered on 11 November 1918 and the war ended, the Regency Council had dissolved the Council of State, and announced its intention to restore Polish independence (7 October 1918). [2]

As the Treaty stated, the region was to remain separated from post-World War I Germany (the Weimar Republic ) and from the newly independent nation of the Second Polish Republic ("interwar Poland"), but it was not an independent state. [2] It should be noted that while fascist parties or groups existed in each country, no interwar East European state had a fascist party in power as was the case in Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, while a totalitarian communist system existed in the USSR. It is estimated that about 9% of Polish Jews had become culturally assimilated by 1939. [2] It should be noted that while fascist parties or groups existed in each country, no interwar East European state had a fascist party in power as was the case in Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, while a totalitarian communist system existed in the USSR. First flying in 1937, the Boeing XB-15 became the largest American-constructed bomber to that point. [2] It should be noted that while fascist parties or groups existed in each country, no interwar East European state had a fascist party in power as was the case in Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, while a totalitarian communist system existed in the USSR. It should be noted that this project, which was largely financed internally, was the only example of state economic planning in interwar East Central Europe. [2]

How did the location of industry across interwar Poland react to the Polish reunification? After more than 120 years of political and economic separation, Poland was reunified at the end of 1918. [2] The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918-1939). [2] Summary Interwar Europe was era in European history that was strongly affected by results and aftermath of First World War. [2]

The period of the interwar years was marked by profound social and political transformations, affecting both Europe and the countries of the eastern Mediterranean. [2] One similar historical period and technological parallels facing the Army today are the interwar years between WWI and WWII. This article is envisioned to be followed with additional articles on the key technologies (nanotechnology, genetics & robotics) facing the Army today which may dramatically change land warfare in the future. [2] Interwar Britain (1919-1939) was a period of peace and relative economic stagnation. [2]

Inter war period Inter war period A reorganized Europe struggles with world economic depression and attempts to maintain stability and peace fail. [2] With this, Western Germany is reassured of it's future and it's place with the Western democracies, the period of Soviet expansionism shifts from Europe to other places, setting the stage for the Cold War. [2] WW2: Stages & events 1942 - 45: Victories of the Allies DURING THIS PERIOD THE BALANCE OF POWER SHIFTED & THE ALLIES DOMINATED THE WAR. • 1942-43: the war evened out as the Axis powers were weakened.  Germany suffered defeats in North Africa & in Russia.  Italy was invaded by the Allies.  Japan was halted by the U.S. in the Pacific. [2] The first pair occurred in a three-day period in mid-September 1894, when Japan defeated the Chinese at Pyongyang, expelling them from the Korean Peninsula, the original war aim. [2] The only successful Soviet campaign of this period was in the undeclared war against Japan. [2] The most critical military conflict of that period, however, the Polish-Soviet War (1919-1921), ended in a decisive Polish victory. [2] Apart from the period encompassing the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars - when French ports were blockaded and the distribution of French perfumes was restricted - France dominated world perfume markets through to 1914 with the only exception being lavender which was, along with rose and violet, one of the most popular scents in Victorian times. [2] The French mandate of Syria lasted until 1943, when two independent countries emerged from the mandate period, Syria and Lebanon, in addition to Hatay which had joined Turkey in 1939. [2] In the period March 1939 - August 1939, Poland bordered then-Hungarian Carpathian Ruthenia. [2] That this role of emphasised dialect appears distinctly as early as 1939 as the Whitfield transcription suggests implies that the mumming was already functioning as a display of localism, that local culture was being intentionally crafted and presented at this period through the medium of the mumming. [2]

Despite the growing expenditure of the RAF it did not overtake the overall budget of the Army until 1937 and the Navy in 1938, a period when the British government became more reliant on the promise of air power. [2] In this period comedy, a British spinster (Vanessa Redgrave) eyes a factory owner (Edward Fox) who is infatuated with a young American nanny (Uma Thurman) at a resort in 1937 Italy. [2] In 1937, Russia was going through the Great Purge, a period of political oppression under the Soviet Union. [2] The early and mid-1930s was a transition period from the openness of the 1920s to the extreme secrecy that characterised the period from 1937 onward. [2] Commanding the New York Navy Yard for most of this period was Rear Admiral Clark Woodward, who assumed command on 1 October 1937. [2]

Undoubtedly, the influenza pandemic played a contributing role to the increase in tuberculosis deaths in our study period, but it cannot be the primary factor simply because the rise began a year before the start of the pandemic in September, 1918. [2] As shown in Fig 2, life expectancy from 20-44 years of age for both males and females remained relatively stable over the study period, with the exception of 1918. [2] Noymer A. The 1918 influenza pandemic hastened the decline of tuberculosis in the United States: an age, period, cohort analysis " For distinguished and gallant services and devotion to duty during the period 16th September 1918 to 15th March 1919." [2] Some characters and places, however, will keep reappearing, among them the premier architect of big houses in this period, Philip Tilden, and his client Sir Philip Sassoon, the fabulously wealthy Conservative MP for whom, in 1918, he designed the outrageous Port Lympne on a site overlooking Romney Marsh. [2] It helps readers understand why the ideology of the classical gold standard continued to be popular in the period after 1918, with catastrophic results. [2] The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the formal establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919. [2] Between 1945 and 1989, Poland became known as the People’s Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa), a country under the control of the Polish United Worker’s Party, and politically aligned with the USSR. During this period, the country adopted many measures such as land reform and the nationalization of industries, as well as the imposition of economic re-structuring. [2] Incl.: preface; foreword; humpbacked bridges in medieval Piast Poland; humpbacked bridges in medieval Jagiellonian Poland 1399-1569; humpbacked bridges in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569-1795; humpbacked bridges built during the period of partitions 1795-1918; humpbacked bridges built in inter-war Poland 1918-1939; humpbacked bridges built in the Polish People's Republic 1944-1989; humpbacked bridges built in Poland after 1989; the future. [2]

The tensions between Poland and Germany only grew worse during this period, leading to the Polish government’s plan to expel ethnic Germans in the early 1920’s. [2] This same period witnessed the rise in former Congress Poland of Jewish mass political parties (the Zionists and the Bund ) that included in their platforms, along with demands for equal individual rights and nondiscrimination, demands for recognition of Jews as a national group deserving of national autonomy and recognition of their national language and culture in any future Polish democratic state. [2] In the political realm, some of these territories would enjoy shorter or longer periods of significant legal and political autonomy within the framework of the empires: the French-sponsored Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815), the Russian-ruled Polish Congress Kingdom (1815-1830), or the tiny Kraków Republic under the protection of the three partitioning powers (1815-1846). [2] A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower-class citizens and the political left. [2] The participation by Soviet 'volunteer' tank units in the Spanish Civil War was decisive in forming Soviet tank designs for World War II. Soviet tanks dominated their foreign rivals in Spain due to their firepower, but their thin armor, in common with most tanks of the period, made them vulnerable to the new towed antitank guns being supplied to Infantry units. [2] The European Civil War is a term that is to characterize both World War I and World War II and the inter-war period as a protracted civil war taking place in Europe. [2] Between World War I and World War II the term was also used for the paramilitary organizations that arose during the period of the Weimar Germany. [2] He had taken up his duties in Pennsylvania after directing relief work in France and Belgium during the First World War, as well as in Germany, Austria, and Russia in the immediate postwar period. [2] They placed extreme amounts of deflation on other countries and contributed a large part of why the world witnessed a period of economic downfall before World War II. This caused France to go down in history as one of the largest global contributors to the Great Depression (Lars). [2] The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. The Iron Guard was ultra-nationalist, anti-communist who promoted the Orthodox Christian faith. [2] The Blackshirts were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Blackshirts were officially known as the Voluntary Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN). [2] The period of World War II saw the peak of movements such as the Quit India movement (led by Gandhi) and the Indian National Army (INA) movement (led by Bose). [2]

It is argued also that this pattern of foundation and partial refoundation was crucial for the post-World War II consolidation and development of both the Social Democratic and the Communist identities, influencing the ideology and programmes of the European Left for an extended period. [2] In the period between the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Japanese nationalism emerged strongly. [2] Obviously, the war was a driving force in lower economic levels, and economics explains the general downward trend in tuberculosis rates over the study period. [2] Alongside its budgetary figures it is useful to examine the expenditure of the various services in this period, table 1.1 shows that RAF expenditure on armaments and various war stores compared favourably with the army but not so well in comparison to the RN and its capital ship building program. [2] Coming after the deprivations suffered by African workers during the war, the hardships of the postwar period provided fertile ground for trade union organization. [2] The period between the wars does not just teach us a lesson in the danger of violence ignored, however; it also exemplifies an ideal of peace attained with international cooperation. [2] Its inherent complexity doomed the Spanish Star Si35 submachine gun series - rejected by both the United States and Britain in the pre-World War 2 period. [2] Hungary's outcast status had prevented it from obtaining any foreign aid in the immediate postwar period, but by the middle of the 1920s, the British decided to extend the hand of friendship to the losers of World War I. Hungary also obtained sympathy from the United States and Mussolini's Italy. [2] This period of history was marked by turmoil, as Europe struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War. [2] The nations of Eastern Europe, which were dominated to a large extent by the major powers before World War I, found themselves in a period of unprecedented self-determination between the wars. [2] This is not to rule out the possibility that diehard ranks might have contained a few Nazi sympathizers and crypto-fascists, but their overriding ideological concern, which animated diehard Conservatism from the Edwardian period through to the Second World War, was with internal and external threats to Britain's position as a global power. [2] The Henschel Hs 121 - the first aircraft offering by the company - failed to impress German authorities heading into the World War 2 period. [2] The German MG34 became the classic machine gun of the 1930s and saw service throughout World War 2 and for a long period thereafter. [2] During World War 2, the German Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine heavy fighter found periods of success - and failure. [2] Autopsy of a Japanese victim killed in the Jinan Incident (Japanese source) August 31 The Young Plan, which sets the total World War I reparations owed by Germany at US$26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years, is finalized. [2] Over 1,700 Caudron C.440 Goelands were produced during a service life that covered the inter-war period, World War 2 and the early Cold War years. [2] The most apt historical parallel to the current period in the development of robotics may well turn out to be World War I. Back then, strange, exciting new technologies that had been science fiction just years earlier were introduced and used in increasing numbers on the battlefield. [2] In its heyday after the First World War, Hakoah had several thousand members and the original range of sports--the founding statutes initially mentioned the "physical elevation of the Jewish people through the pursuit of football, track and field as well as heavy athletics, and winter and water sports"--was broadened significantly during that period; tourism, skiing, handball, chess, a Hakoah orchestra, and a dancing section were added. [2] The two main pacifist organizations of the Second World War period - the Christian Pacifist Society (CPS), started in 1936, and the Peace Pledge Union (PPU), launched in 1938 - had a few hundred members, with a significant number belonging to both; in the censuses of 1936 and 1945, 494 and 546 people, respectively, professed to be Quakers. [2] As these titles clearly indicate, my area of interest primarily concerns the pre-Second World War period (military and civil) and the people and ideas, rather than the technology, of aviation. [2] The Chinese Warlord Era was the period in the history of the Republic of China, from 1916 to 1928, when the country was divided among military cliques, a division that continued until the fall of the Nationalist government in the mainland China regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang. [2] The Second Republic marks the second period in modern Greek history where Greece was not headed by a king, with the assemblies and provisional governments of the Greek Revolution being regarded as the First Republic. [2] From 1919, when new constitution was declared, until the Nazis took the supreme power in 1933, the period of German history is called Weimar Republic due to fact that legislative body and constitutional assembly that prepared constitution moved from German Capital, Berlin, to Weimar. [2] …made there to advance against Germany on two western fronts, instead of pursuing a concerted drive on Berlin, was criticized in the postwar period because it allowed the Soviet army to take possession of the German capital. [2] The animosity between the Germans and Polish in that period was terrible, but the Polish were expelling other minorities within the state as well so it was not limited to only Germans. [2] In the period 1926-1937, a total of 28,811 Polish Jews immigrated to the United States (56% of the amount from Poland in that period). [2] The explanation for this late start might include the extensive cultural autonomy Polish Jews enjoyed in the early modern period; their distinctive religious traditions and late secularization; the particular legal and socioeconomic conditions prevailing in Poland ; and demographic factors (the sheer size of the community and its compact settlement patterns)--all of which impeded earlier linguistic and cultural integration. [2] Although there had been small groups of Zionist sympathizers in some Polish towns from the period of the Lovers of Zion (the early 1880s), both contemporary observers and historians noted the relative weakness of the movement in the region of former Congress Poland. [2]

The inter-war period is crucial for explaining why Poland and Czechoslovakia handled the expulsion of Germans differently. [2] It should be noted that in the period 1920-38 most British statesmen and politicians viewed East Central and South Eastern Europe as the natural sphere of German influence. [2] The Golden Twenties in Berlin was a vibrant period in the history of Berlin, Germany, Europe and the history of the world in general. [2] Petroleum and associated mechanisation expanded dramatically leading to the Roaring Twenties (and the Golden Twenties ), a period of economic prosperity and growth for the middle class in North America, Europe and many other parts of the world. [2] Because of the long period of separation, different institutions had sprung up in the three parts that bore upon all aspects of social, political, and economic life. [2] In 1936 he offered observations on the increasing promise of science and technology in America despite the political uncertainty and economic hard times of the period. [2] Although dated in its treatment of the monetary aspects of the Depression, this remains an accessible and well-written introduction to the global economic and financial impacts of World War One for students who are new to the period and to economic concepts. [2] One hundred and fifty future generals in World War II attended the school during this period, while an astonishing fifty future generals worked for Marshall on the faculty. [2] In the decades immediately following the Second World War, most historical opinion was critical of the governments of the period. [2] The Westland Lysander arrived just in time to do battle in World War 2 and saw considerable service in the period following the Grand Conflict. [2] The Saar Basin coalmines were transferred to France for a period of fifteen years, during which time the region was to be administered by the League of Nations (Martin Gilbert, The European Powers 1900-1945 ). [2] Seizing power in a coup in 1876, D'az and his allies ruled Mexico for the next thirty-five years, a period known as the Porfiriato. [2] Both Hindus led by Gandhi and Nehru and Muslims led by Jinnah negotiated power sharing over 15 to 20 year period but couldn't reach a compromise. [2] Comparative studies of decolonization, which compare the French experience with that of other colonial powers, include notably Alexander Keese’s Living with Ambiguity 47 and Martin Shipway’s Decolonization and its Impact. 48 Several studies have sought to question the notion of political independence as a watershed in Franco-African relations and explore the continuities in Franco-African relations between the colonial and postcolonial periods. [2] …only strengthened resolve, particularly in Germany and Italy, where the repeated invasions by the French during the revolutionary period had led to reforms and stimulated alike royal and popular ambitions. [2] In the 1960s the French embassies in the newly independent states of former FWA found themselves in possession of documents from the late colonial era, which were subsequently repatriated to Nantes, along with documents from the early post-colonial period that are also of interest to colonial historians. [2] The events leading up to this period in French history are crucial for understanding and interpreting the mentality of the French government and people. [2] The fall of the Popular Front government, followed by the 1938 recall of Marcel de Coppet, who had been appointed governor-general under the Popular Front, marked an end to what many in the French community in FWA perceived as the "period of troubles." [2]

In the mid-twenties, in a period of deteriorating relation with France, the RAF had to deal with the potential threat of what has been described as the French air menace. [2]

The troubled and tangled history of the British Mandate in Palestine has been told many times before, recently by Joshua Sherman and Naomi Shepherd, among others. 29 Most historians of this period attribute to British policy a pro-Arab bias. [2] During the period 1940-1942, Lt. Gen. Bernard L. Montgomery of the British Army developed the concept of integrating different arms and centralized control. [2] During the period 1943-'45, the German Army declined not only in numbers, but in overall training and tactical ability. [2]

The KB wz 35 anti-tank rifle was a pre-World War 2 Polish re-imagining of the classic German Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr ATR. By 1939 Germany had occupied all of Bohemia and Moravia and turned the two regions into a German protectorate. [2] Sadly war plans ( Plan West and Plan East ) failed as soon as Germany invaded in 1939, Polish losses in combat against Germans (killed and missing in action) amounted to ca. 70 000. 420 000 were taken prisoners. [2]

He directed large-scale rearmament and on September 1, 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany. [2] WW2 (1939 - 1945): Causes The failure of the appeasement policy was obvious and it came to its end after Germany’s invasion of Poland (September 1st 1939), when finally UK & France declared the war to Germany. [2] Hitler unexpectedly cut a deal with Joseph Stalin to divide Eastern Europe; when Germany did invade Poland in September 1939, Britain and France declared war; the British Commonwealth followed London's lead. [2] The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany, and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth. [2]

Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. [2] Germany WW2 Propaganda Collection: Germany, Nazi Germany started the Second World War by attacking Poland in 1939 causing both United Kingdom and France declare war against Germany. [2] When Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 touched off World War II, Roosevelt called Congress into special session to revise the Neutrality Act to allow belligerents (in reality only Great Britain and France, both on the Allied side) to purchase munitions on a cash-and-carry basis. [2] The development and organization of combined arms is evident throughout World War II. The evolution of the German panzer division came about during the German invasion of Poland in 1939. [2] World War II, or the Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, which involved most of the world's nations, including all of the great powers: eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Axis. [2]

It is also most unlikely the western powers would have helped Czechoslovakia if it fought the Germans, for they were not prepared for the war in 1939, lt alone in 1938. [2] Fletcher Pratt, Sea Power and Today’s War (New York: Harrison-Hilton Books, 1939), pp. 177-78. [2]

Administrative Kingdom of Hungary in green, autonomous Croatia-Slavonia grey October 1918 till 1939 March The Polish-Soviet War ends with the Peace of Riga. [2] Poland solidified its independence in a series of border wars fought by the newly formed Polish Army from 1918 to 1921. [2] Vol. 85 in the series of books devoted to Polish Army weapons and equipment of the Polish-German war 1939. [2] From the outbreak of the war in July 1936 through to the defeat of the Spanish Government in 1939, the United States Army attachés in Europe gathered tactical and technical information about the combatants, weapons and equipment used in Spain. [2] Army leaders still remained committed to a war against the Soviets, despite their sobering defeat by the Red Army at Nomonhan/Khalkhin Gol in the summer of 1939, accompanied by erstwhile ally Germany’s duplicitous signing of a non-aggression pact with the USSR in the midst of the Nomonhan battles. [2] The Japanese military, while taking the lesson seriously, was willing to engage with the Soviets once more, in the more extensive Battle of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan) in the Soviet-Japanese Border War of 1939. [2] The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border Wars fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939. [2] Just as its cool relations with China following the invasion of Manchuria turned into actual war in July 1937 after the notorious Marco Polo Bridge incident (a conflict, scholars now recognize, provoked by China rather than Japan), Stalin’s Soviet Union began to take a new interest in exerting its influence in its Far Eastern empire, especially where it bordered on Japan’s empire in Manchuria (now renamed Manchukuo under complete Japanese rule). [2] The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 - September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. [2] When the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937, Japan immediately dispatched the brigade to Chahar Province in northern China as part of Lieutenant General Hideki Tojo’s Expeditionary Force. [2] In December 1941, Japan, which had been at war with China since 1937, and aimed to dominate Asia, attacked the United States and European possessions in the Pacific Ocean, quickly conquering much of the region. [2] On July 7, 1937, the so-called Marco Polo Bridge incident took place, but neither China nor Japan recognized that this was the start of war. [2]

Although these scholars have very different backgrounds and very different approaches to historical scholarship, it became obvious as the conference went on that the best starting point for understanding Japan’s role in Asia in the first half of the twentieth century is not the planning of the attack on Pearl Harbor, or the invasion of China in 1937, or even the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. [2] Leslie Hore-Belisha was appointed Secretary of State for War when Chamberlain became Prime Minister in May 1937, and he set about modernising Britain’s armed forces. [2] The navy's Special Services squad continued to pay good will visits to Caribbean and various Latin American countries in 1938, while the Asiatic Fleet continued to ply Chinese waters and rivers, where in so doing it became slowly dragged into the Sino-Japanese war, most noticeably in the Panay incident of 12 December 1937, when Japanese warplanes sank an American patrol boat on the Yangtze river. [2]

Neville Chamberlain, elected British prime minister in 1937, advocated a policy of appeasement, in which concessions would be made to Germany to avoid war. [2] During the two years that followed the end of the war in 1918, and in accordance with the Sykes-Picot Agreement that was signed between Britain and France during the war, the British held control of most Ottoman Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and the southern part of the Ottoman Syria (Palestine and Jordan), while the French controlled the rest of Ottoman Syria (modern Syria, Lebanon, Alexandretta and other portions of southeastern Turkey). [2] The French and global economies were still recovering from the devastation of the first World War, ending in 1918, with a victory by the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States) and the creation of the League of Nations, aimed at preventing another worldwide military conflict. [2]

The Latvian War of Independence, sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation, was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the Republic of Latvia proclaimed its independence, and the signing of the Treaty of Riga between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR on August 11, 1920. [2] The two opposing sides continued fighting until Germany signed an armistice in November of 1918 ( Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History : War). [2] To end the war, the Bolshevik leadership signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. [2]

In November 1918. the last month of the war, a revolution in Germany resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic - named after the city in which the new national government was formed. [2] When parliament was recalled after the summer recess in 1939, to hear the prime minister's announcement that war had been declared on Germany, Croft was the only diehard to address the House of Commons. [2] His hopes for avoidance of war dashed, he presided over Britain's declaration of war on Germany on September 3, 1939. [2]

In 1939, before the outbreak of the war, LOT Polish Airlines, which was established in 1929, had its hub at Warsaw Okęcie Airport. [2] After the outbreak of the war in 1939, I was in the school yard after school when a Polish boy threw a log at me which split my forehead over my eye and called me a parszywa Zydowka. [2]

Grossman, Mark ed. Encyclopedia of the Interwar Years: From 1919 to 1939 (2000). [1] Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917 (though individual Provinces held out longer), Britain in 1918, and the United States in 1920. [1] ♥ A time period that you are interested in: Set between 1912 and 1925, Downton Abbey spans the Edwardian Era, World War I, and the Interwar era. [2]

Despite the relatively short period of time, this period represented an era of significant changes worldwide. [1] China was in the midst of long period of instability and civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China. [1]

To capture the nature of the change in tuberculosis mortality by age and sex, we constructed four discrete time periods: (a) 1911 to 1916; (b) 1917; (c) 1918; and (d) 1919 to 1924. [2]

World War I (WWI), which was called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. [2] Following the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that ended World War I, the years 1919-24 were marked by turmoil as affected regions struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War and the destabilising effects of the loss of four large historic empires: the German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. [1]

This final part examines issues between 1937 and the outbreak of war between America and Japan in 1941. [2] Although the two countries had fought intermittently since 1931, total war started in earnest in 1937 and ended only with the surrender of Japan in 1945. [2]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(10 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (195) Interwar Period (Earth, 1918 - 1939 or 1937)

2. (40) The Interwar Period: Terms

3. (20) WikiZero - Second Polish Republic

4. (12) Interwar period - Wikipedia

5. (11) History of Finland, Independence and the Inter-War Era, 1917-39

6. (4) YIVO | Polish Literature

7. (4) Interwar period, 1919 - 1939 Research Papers -

8. (1) Once Upon A Time

9. (1) Topic: World Wars: Interwar (1918-1939) | CosmoLearning History

10. (1) A List of Historical Time Periods to Take You Through the Past

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