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Jin Dynasty (China)

Jin Dynasty (China)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • Prior to the Western Jin dynasty and the reunification of China by the Western Jin emperors, there was 25 years of fighting among the Chinese people.(More...)
  • The Jurchen Jin dynasty (meaning "Golden") ruled parts of China, Mongolia, and northern Korea from 1115 to 1234 CE. The Jurchen originated from Manchuria, but in conquering the neighbouring Liao empire of the Khitan and parts of Song China, they came to rule the Great Plain of Asia from 1127 CE until their fall at the hands of the Mongols.(More...)
  • The Jurchen Jin state invades Song China necessitating the latter to move south and form the Southern Song dynasty.(More...)
  • The Khitan people formed the Liao dynasty and ruled parts of Mongolia, Manchuria, and northern China from 907 to 1125.(More...)
  • The Eastern Jin dynasty was eventually overthrown by the Liu Song.(More...)
  • In the year 265 AD, a powerful Wei general named Ssu Ma Yen usurped the Wei throne in Luoyang and with his troops established the Western Jin (or Chin) Dynasty in North China.(More...)
  • To this end, they continued to use their own alphabet and speech and banned Chinese clothing and customs from their armies--although they had chosen the Chinese name of Jin for their dynasty.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan with Luoyang as its capital city while the Eastern Jin was founded by Sima Rui with Jiankang (currently Nanjing) as its capital.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
Prior to the Western Jin dynasty and the reunification of China by the Western Jin emperors, there was 25 years of fighting among the Chinese people. [1] …were continued with the successor Jin dynasty (265-316/317); however, following the dispatch of a mission in 266, all records of exchanges cease, and it is not until 147 years later, in 413 during the Dong (Eastern) Jin dynasty (317-420), that the name of Wo again appears in Chinese documents. [2] The second son of Xiaowudi; the last emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty In 420, he yielded his throne to the regent Liu Yu who founded the Liu Song Dynasty in 421. [3] The Jin Dynasty consists of two dynasties, the Western Jin (265 -316) and the Eastern Jin (317 - 420). [3]

In ad 265 a Sima prince, Sima Yan, deposed the last of the Cao emperors and established the Xi Jin dynasty. [2] Soon after Sima Yan acceded to the throne, proclaimed himself Emperor Wu in Luoyang and established the Jin Dynasty. [3]


The Jurchen Jin dynasty (meaning "Golden") ruled parts of China, Mongolia, and northern Korea from 1115 to 1234 CE. The Jurchen originated from Manchuria, but in conquering the neighbouring Liao empire of the Khitan and parts of Song China, they came to rule the Great Plain of Asia from 1127 CE until their fall at the hands of the Mongols. [4] Relations between the Jin dynasty and Song China thereafter remained mostly friendly, with a formal peace treaty signed between the two states in 1142 CE. The weakened Song, once again happy to pay off a dangerous neighbour in tribute rather than engage in more costly wars, sent the Jin silk and silver in huge quantities. [4]

The Later Jin dynasty was part of the Five dynasties, which ruled in northern China from 907 - 960 CE. The Five dynasties included the Later Liang, Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou. [5] The Jin dynasty was in place in northern China from 1115 - 1234 CE. There were two emperors of the Jin dynasty: Aguda (1115 - 1123) and Taizong (1123 - 1234). [5]

Restricted to southern China, the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 - 420) was established by Sima Rui, a descendant of the royal family in the Western Jin Dynasty (265 AD - 316 AD). [6] By the end of the Western Jin dynasty, many people had fled northern China and were living in southern China near the lower Yangzi River. [7] Wealthy families who had fled northern China during the fighting of the Western Jin dynasty settled in the south. [7]

Many relics of iron tools and iron making sites of the Jin Dynasty were discovered in the northeastern China, which proves that iron making industry was very developed in the Jin Dynasty. [8] It is not to be confused with the Chinese Jin dynasty which ruled China from 266 to 316 CE. [4] The religions of Buddhism and Daoism grew in popularity while many Chinese of the Eastern Jin dynasty continued to worship nature and the gods, goddesses, and spirits they found there. [7] Chinese ancient literature made great progress in Eastern Jin Dynasty and a group of poets appeared, such as Xie Lingyun who was good at landscape poems and Tao Yuanming who was famous for writing pastoral poems. [9]

Chinggis Khan’s Mongols began invading northern China and Jin dynasty territory in 1210. [5] The Jin dynasty was severely weakened by interceine fighting among imperial princes and lost control of northern China after non-Han Chinese settlers rebelled and captured Luoyang and Chang’an. [10]

Even when in 383 CE, ethnic tribes from the north attempted to take control of southern China by invading into the territory of the Eastern Jin, they were stopped before they could take over the territory and the dynasty. [7] The Jurchen were thus able to form their own state, the Jin, with Wanyan Aguda, their ruler, even declaring himself an emperor in 1115 CE. The Song dynasty of China (960-1279 CE) took advantage of the Jin territorial ambitions, and the two states joined forces to defeat the Liao state, who had since then dominated the region of northern China and Mongolia. [4]

As with many states which bordered with China, the Jin adopted many Chinese political and cultural practices. [4]

Established by the last of the Western Jin and governing a limited area lying to the South of Yangtze River, this dynasty was recorded as a single dynasty in Chinese history. [9]

A prince of the Sima family established a court at Jiankang (now Nanjing ) in 317, and this dynasty became known as the Dong Jin, one of the so-called Six Dynasties. [2] Six Dynasties, ( ad 220-589), in China, the period between the end of the Han dynasty in ad 220 and the final conquest of South China (589) by the Sui (established in 581 in North China). [2]

The capture and destruction of the Jin capitals sent shock waves throughout the Chinese world. [2] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Prior to the Western Jin dynasty and the reunification of China by the Western Jin emperors, there was 25 years of fighting among the Chinese people. [11] After Jin dynasty, China went to Uprising of the Five Barbarians period, which could be considered as Chinese dark age. [11]


The Jurchen Jin state invades Song China necessitating the latter to move south and form the Southern Song dynasty. [4] The Jurchen Jin dynasty and Southern Song dynasty sign a formal peace treaty. [4]

In 420, Liu Yu dethroned Emperor Gong and established Kingdom of Song, ending the Eastern Jin Dynasty. [9] Shortly after the fall of the Western Jin dynasty, a member of that imperial family, Yuan, became the first emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty in 317 CE. He began his rule in what is modern day Nanjing (Jiankang, Nanking). [7] The Eastern Jin dynasty was in place from 317 420 CE. There were eleven emperors during this dynasty: Yuan (317 322), Min (323 325), Chan (326 342), Kan (343 344), Mu (345 361), Ai (361 365), Hai Xi Gong (366 370), Jian Wen (371 372), Xio Wu (373 396), Yao-Xiang (396 418), and Gongdi (419). [5] The Western Jin dynasty (265 - 317 CE) began under the government of Emperor Wu (Wudi) (265 - 290 CE). [1] The Western Jin dynasty was in place from 265 317 CE. There were four emperors during this dynasty: Wu (265 - 290), Hui (290 - 306), Huai (307 - 312), and Min (313 - 316). [5] The last two emperors of the Western Jin dynasty, Huai (307 - 312 CE) and Min (313 - 316 CE), were either captured or surrendered and subsequently, executed by the groups fighting against the Western Jin dynasty. [1] The second emperor of the Western Jin dynasty, Emperor Hui (290 - 306 CE), was mentally disabled and was unable to act as emperor. [1] In 311 AD, Liu Cong led Hun, occupied Luoyang, the capital of Western Jin Dynasty, and captured Emperor Huai Di. [12] Although Emperor Wu was successful in defeating the Wei and Shu dynasty armies to begin the Western Jin dynasty in 265, his armies were unable to win against the Wu dynasty until the year 280. [1] These people, from areas such as Turkey and Tibet, did not want to live under Emperor Hui’s government of the Western Jin dynasty. [1] Interestingly, they held more power in the Eastern Jin dynasty government then the emperors and the court officials. [7] During the 102 years the Eastern Jin dynasty existed, eleven emperors ruled from Nanjing. [7] Set up in 317 and ended in 420, the Eastern Jin Dynasty was successively reined by 11 emperors. [9] During the reign of Emperor Shizong and Emperor Zhangzong, the national strength of the Jin Dynasty was at its zenith, with the Xixia (a regime founded by another ethnic minority called the Dangxiang) made into a subordinate country and the weak Southern Song forced to make peace by paying tribute. [13] The Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) was established by the outstanding leader Wanyan Aguda of the Nvzhen tribe, living in the lower reaches of the Songhuajiang and Heilongjiang Rivers in the latter period of the Northern Song, with their capital located first at Huining (the present Acheng in Heilongjiang Province), and then at Zhongdu (the present Beijing ). [8] Before and after the founding of the Jin dynasty, there were constant battles between Liao (916 - 1125), Jin and Northern Song (960 - 1127). [13]

In 316 when the last monarch of Western Jin, Emperor Min, was captured by the Huns, some former chancellors of the Western Jin were busy planning the resumption of the Jin Dynasty. [9] Scholarship continued to flourish during the Eastern Jin dynasty just as it had during the Western Jin dynasty. [7] Although the might of the nomads could not topple the Eastern Jin dynasty, it was Liu Yu, a minor Eastern Jin dynasty government official and scholar with a military background, who took over the throne for the Song dynasty in 420. [7] Scholar-officials held many government positions, which worked in establishing the government of the Eastern Jin dynasty, but as the dynasty progressed, inner fighting and corruption took hold. [7] Famine and civil war had also taken a toll on the ethnic people living under the Western Jin dynasty government. [1] Despite all the fighting during the Western Jin dynasty, the people had certain advantages and there were several achievements. [1] After the Jin Dynasty was established, the culture of Han people was gradually accepted by the Nüzhen people, especially those nobles. [8] At the early period when the Jin Dynasty was established, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting took major portion in economy. [8] There were two emperors of the Later Jin dynasty: Shi Jingtang (936 - 944) and Chudi (944 - 947). [5] In 265 AD, Sima Yan overthrew Cao Empire and funded Jin Dynasty. [12] In this way, the Jin Dynasty controlled the region of the former Han Empire. [14] The Goryeo kingdom of Korea submits to vassal status towards the Jurchen Jin dynasty. [4] After that, the Jin Dynasty gradually unified the vast areas in the north along the Yellow River. [13] It is said that the battles depopulated the north and greatly weakened the Jin Dynasty and the Jin Empire. [14] In 269, the Jin Dynasty started construction of a navy to control the Yangtze River and ferry troops across to attack Dong Wu. [14]

There were four Jin (Chin) dynasties in China - Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Later Jin, and Jin. [5] The Western and Eastern Jin dynasties are sometimes called the Northern dynasty. [5] In 1234, the Jin army was finally defeated by the allied forces of the Northern Song and the Yuan Dynasty was founded by Mongolia. [13]

The Song (aka Sung) dynasty ruled China from 960 to 1279 CE with the reign split into two periods: the Northern Song (960-1125. [4] In 1125 CE, realising their former ally the Song were militarily weak, the Jin attacked parts of northern China over the coming year. [4] During the reign of Eastern Jin, most of its emperors tried to reoccupy northern China. [6] After the perdition of Western Jin, Sixteen Kingdoms of the Five Barbarian Peoples (Wuhu Shiliuguo) contiguously appeared along the Yellow River and collectively these came to the rule over northern China. [6] The nomads who invaded northern China and fought the Western Jin armies were excellent horsemen but could not fight as easily on the wetter lands in southern China. [7] From that time, the Jin took total control of Northern China. [8]

In the second year Sima Rui ascended the throne in Jiankan City and reestablished the Dynasty of Jin known as East Jin. [12]

One is the Erlang Temple Stage (Jin Dynasty, 1183 CE), the oldest stage discovered to date in China. [15] In 317, a Jin prince in modern-day Nanjing became emperor and continued the dynasty, now known as the Eastern Jin, which held southern China for another century. [10]


The Khitan people formed the Liao dynasty and ruled parts of Mongolia, Manchuria, and northern China from 907 to 1125. [4] Taizong committed suicide in 1234 and the Mongols continued their conquest of China overrunning the southern Song dynasty. [5] Since the northern area of China was dominated by the so-called 'Five Hus and Sixteen States' of Chinese history. [9]

In 383, with a six to one disparity in military strength, Xie An, general of Eastern Jin defeated the Former Qin's troop led by Fu Jian along Feishui River in a famous battle of Chinese history - Battle of Feishui. [9] Jin rulers were not averse to publicly flogging corrupt or inept senior officials, a treatment unheard of in Chinese government. [4] In Eastern Jin's time, northern Chinese continuously moved to the south to escape the wars happening among the Sixteen Kingdoms of the Five Barbarian Peoples. [6]

The governing body of Eastern Jin comprised aristocratic family members from China's Central Plains together with the local gens of Southern China. [6] Because of the decadence of Eastern Jin's feudal ruling class and because northern China was at war and in chaos for about 50 years, China did not enjoy unification. [6] The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin State in northern China. [4] The Jurchen Jin state rules in Mongolia and northern China. [4] The Jin state attacks the Khitan-Liao capital of Jehol in northern China. [4]

China was reunified for a brief period of time beginning in 265 AD by Sima Yan (), also known as Emperor Wu (), who established the Western Jin Dynasty ( xi jin chao 265-316) with its capital at Luoyang (). [11] Then we will look at the Western Jin dynasty that briefly united China, followed by the Eastern Jin and then the period of the 16 Northern Kingdoms. [11] Historians believed that while Western Jin Dynasty was successful in unifying China after the Three Kingdoms Period, the Eastern Jin failed to do this because it only controlled a portion of China, which was still undeveloped because of its location. [11]

Jin Dynasty was founded after the Three Kingdoms Period (220-260) and was preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. [11] KEY TOPICS The Jurchen Jin dynasty (meaning "Golden") ruled parts of China, Mongolia, and northern Korea from 1115 to 1234 CE. The Jurchen originated from Manchuria, but in conquering the neighbouring Liao empire of the Khitan and parts of Song China, they came to rule the Great Plain of Asia from 1127 CE until their fall at the hands of the Mongols. [11] In addition to that, the Song controlled almost of China proper more than a hundred of years, but Jin dynasty controlled entire of China proper, as in the map, only for decades, before they lost all of northern territories to the five tribes. [11] It took them a dozen years to destroy Wu kingdom, thus finally unified China as Jin dynasty. [11] Honglvcai (also named red and green porcelain) was prosperous in Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD) and had played a pivotal role in ancient ceramic development history in China, connecting with former glazed pottery Tang Sancai and later polychrome porcelain like Wucai and Doucai, but little scientific analysis has been reported up until the present day. [11] It is not to be confused with the Chinese Jin dynasty which ruled China from 266 to 316 CE. …were continued with the successor Jin dynasty (265-316/317); however, following the dispatch of a mission in 266, all records of exchanges cease, and it is not until 147 years later, in 413 during the Dong (Eastern) Jin dynasty (317-420), that the name of Wo again appears in Chinese documents. [11] It is not to be confused with the Chinese Jin dynasty which ruled China from 266 to 316 CE. The religions of Buddhism and Daoism grew in popularity while many Chinese of the Eastern Jin dynasty continued to worship nature and the gods, goddesses, and spirits they found there. [11] It is not to be confused with the Chinese Jin dynasty which ruled China from 266 to 316 CE. Many relics of iron tools and iron making sites of the Jin Dynasty were discovered in the northeastern China, which proves that iron making industry was very developed in the Jin Dynasty. [11] Source: The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography Author(s): Kerry BrownKerry Brown The Jin dynasty was founded in the north of China by Jurchen chieftain Wányán Āgǔdǎ 完颜阿骨打, known posthumously as. [11] The Southern Song (Chinese: 南宋, 1127-1279) refers to the time after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty. [11] The Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1234, which subsequently took control of northern China and maintained uneasy relations with the Southern Song court. [11] The "inner China" notion and the legitimate Cathay perception were bred in the Jin Dynasty along with the historical trend of merging the Han nationality with all the other nationalities in China. [11] The notion and the concept could also help prove the legality of the rule of China by the Jin Dynasty. [11] The Liao demanded sixteen prefectures in northern China from the Later Jin and gained nineteen prefectures by invading the capital at Kaifeng in March 947, ending the Later Jin dynasty. [11] The Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) was established by the Jurched (Nuzhen) () nationality in northern China during the late Northern Song Dynasty. [11] During the Song dynasty, many groups threatened China's northern borders, namely by the Khitans of the Liao dynasty, the Tanguts of the Western Xia dynasty, and the Jurchens of the Jin dynasty. [11] The Book of the Jin Dynasty tells of many tribal leaders who were expert in the Chinese ways of horseback riding, bow and arrow shooting, broadsword, Shou Bu, Xiang Pu, etc. In turn, the weapons of these northern peoples were introduced to the Chinese peoples, such as the whip, mace, various cudgel, iron hammer, and others. [11] Unity for the Chinese Empire was restored briefly in the early years of the Jin dynasty (A.D. 265-420), but the Jin could not long contain the constant invasions of the various nomadic peoples. [11] KEY TOPICS …were continued with the successor Jin dynasty (265-316/317); however, following the dispatch of a mission in 266, all records of exchanges cease, and it is not until 147 years later, in 413 during the Dong (Eastern) Jin dynasty (317-420), that the name of Wo again appears in Chinese documents. [11] In the year of 265, Sima Yan replaced the Wei, one of the Three Kingdoms and established the Jing Dynasty, which is called the Western Jin Dynasty in Chinese history. [11] If you are interested in Chinese culture when learning Chinese, you might have learned that the economy in the Western Jin Dynasty was developed rapidly and the cultural degree was also really high. [11] Sometime during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 AD) the ancient Chinese observed that some of the freshwater carp they were breeding as food fish tended to occasionally display mutated colors ranging from red to orange and yellow. [11] Others reflect the political, cultural, military, and scientific development of the Wei and Jin Dynasty age. an insight into this ancient Chinese feudal society. [11]


The Eastern Jin dynasty was eventually overthrown by the Liu Song. [10] The best hotel deals are here: We have Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotel deals, Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty last minute deals and offers to get you the cheapest Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotel with our lowest price guarantee. [16] Are you looking for a cheap Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotel, a 5 star Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotel or a family friendly Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotel? You just landed in the best site to find the best deals and offers on the most amazing accommodations for your stay. [16] One of the new features on Hotels.com guest reviews is that also show reviews from Expedia for Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotels and the TripAdvisor Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty hotels reviews so you can make sure that you checking with a reliable source. [16] Make the most out of your family vacation when you book your accommodation with Hotels.com - book your hotel near Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty, Chaoyang after reviewing the facilities and amenities listed for each hotel. [16] After booking your hotel near Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty, expect to receive your reservation confirmation in the mail in less than 10 minutes. [16]

Pound for pound, song would maul sima Jin dynasty even at its weakest. [17] Why did Jin dynasty (265) get the least recognition in history than Sui dynasty and Song dynasty given that Jin dynasty holds much bigger terr. [17] If you mean domestic control power, Song dynasty, if you mean military power, Jin dynasty. [17] Due to its great defects on legitimacy, the emperor’s power was highly constrained, local offices could even offend laws publicly without convicting any punishment, while princes and nobles were allowed to own private army.Because of the poor control level of domestic affairs, civil wars and inner conflicts rose every several decades during Jin dynasty. [17] Jin dynasty on the other hand, was a major and threatening power as long as it was not at civil war or inner conflict. [17]

Theatrical entertainments, once confined to the court, then to cities, spread out and meshed with local celebrations and festivals, forming new kinds of theater by the time the invading Jurchens formed the Jin Dynasty. [15]


In the year 265 AD, a powerful Wei general named Ssu Ma Yen usurped the Wei throne in Luoyang and with his troops established the Western Jin (or Chin) Dynasty in North China. [11] The Jurchens (Jin dynasty, 1115-1234), after defeating the Khitans in the early 12th century, went on to push Song out of North China. [11] This "Jin" Dynasty Vase Water Pipe is a clean glass pipe designed in China. [11] The Jin became the strongest dynasty in China ruling much of southern China from 265 AD to 420 AD. At one point they managed to unite all of China in 280, but this didn't last long. [11]

If you really insist on finding something good about the Jin, let’s try this: through their bad government, they opened China to savage tribes, 五胡亂華, who wreaked havoc throughout China, thereby bringing new bloodlines into the Chinese gene pool. [11]

The Western Jin (265-316) was established as a successor state to Cao Wei after Sima Yan usurped the throne, and had its capital at Luoyang or Chang'an (modern Xi'an; Western Jin reunited China in 280, but fairly shortly thereafter fell into a succession crisis, civil war, and invasion by the "Five Barbarians." [10] The Great Wall of China as it exists today was built mainly in the Ming Dynasty. [18] By contrast, the Jin faced no such overwhelming odds, but managed to destroy themselves in record time (for a dynasty) through unnecessary and ill-considered militarism which left them weak and turned their people against them. [17] The Song Dynasty had treat from its neighbors, the Liao (907-1125), Western Xia (1032-1227) and Jin (1115-1234), but it did not build any fortification walls. [18] Song dynasty is the only long-lasted dynasty that do not have major revolts, while revolts take most responsibility for the fall of both Western Jin and Easter Jin. [17]

These states immediately began fighting each other and the Jin Empire, leading to the second division of the dynasty, the Eastern Jin (317-420) when Sima Rui moved the capital to Jiankang (modern Nanjing). [10]

His ambitions for the throne remain proverbial in Chinese but he died before he could rise higher than prince of Jin, a title named for the Zhou-era marchland and duchy around Shaanxi's Jin River. (He was granted the title as his ancestral home was located in Wen County within Jin's former lands.) [10] The University of Pennsylvania Center for the Study of Contemporary China presents a talk on the institutions used by the Chinese government to pressure citizens. [19] The new exhibition at the China Institute Gallery on East 65th Street in Manhattan reveals another source of fame for Shanxi -- its importance as a crucible for the development of Chinese theater and opera. [15]


To this end, they continued to use their own alphabet and speech and banned Chinese clothing and customs from their armies--although they had chosen the Chinese name of Jin for their dynasty. [11] After the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907, northern China was ruled by a sequence of five dynasties until 960-Later Liang 907-23, Later Tang 923-36, Later Jin 936-46, Later Han 946-50, and Later Zhou 951-60. [11] The Five Dynasties ( wu dai ) refers to a series of short-lived dynasties in the north, with capitals in either Kaifeng () or Luoyang (), which included the Later Liang Dynasty ( 907-923), the Later Tang Dynasty ( 923-936), the Later Jin Dynasty ( 936-947), the Later Han Dynasty ( 948-951) and the Later Zhou Dynasty ( 951-960). [11] The "War of the Eight Princes" ( ba wang zhi luan 291-306), followed by the revolt in the north by the Wu Hu tribes ("Wu Hu Uprising" 304-316), forced a large number of refugees to flee south where in 317 the Eastern Jin Dynasty ( dong jin chao 317-420) was established with its capital at Jiankang () near present-day Nanjing (). [11] When Western Jin Dynasty was established, Sima Yan became known as Emperor Wu. [11] In 256 AD, Sima Yan established Jin Dynasty in Luoyang after leaving the emperor of Wei. [11] In 265 AD, a general named Sima Yan took control of the kingdom of Wu and established the Jin Dynasty. [11]

The Han Empire was followed by four centuries of political disunity -- often termed the Six Dynasties period (220 - 589), which include the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty, the Southern and Northern Dynasties. [11] The history of the Period of Disunion is often divided up into three different time periods: the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty, and the Southern and Northern Kingdoms. [11]

In 1120, the Jin Dynasty made an alliance with the Northern Song (960-1127) to defeat the Liao, and in 1125 the Liao Emperor Tianzuo was captured and his dynasty collapsed. [11] The reason was that Qinzong, the last emperor of the Northern Song, was living in Jin-imposed exile in Manchuria and had a good chance of being recalled to the throne should the Jin dynasty be destroyed. [11]

After five years, which was 316, Liu Yao commanded Xiongnu army attacked and occupied Chang’an again and the emperor surrendered, symbolizing the end of the Western Jin Dynasty. [11] After four emperors and 51 years, Western Jin Dynasty came to an end. [11] The Eastern Jin Dynasty came to an end when General Liu Yu () seized the throne from Emperor Gong () in the year 420. [11] Sima Rui was known as Emperor Yuan and became the first emperor of Eastern Jin Dynasty. [11] Short reigns by weak emperors failed to invigorate the Eastern Jin Dynasty and eventually the attacks of the Toba Wei in the north led to a military coup. [11] After the Western Jin Dynasty was established, the system of selecting the imperial officials in Wei period was inherited, which is called Nine-grade Controller System. [11] The Western Jin Dynasty has its roots with Sima Yi, who served Wei during Cao Cao's time. [11] At the beginning of Jin dynasty, Sima family had already controlled Wei kingdom, conquered Shu kingdom. [11] The Jin Dynasty (晋朝 or 晉朝), also known as Western Jin (西晋) formed at the end of the Three Kingdoms period. [11] Even though it was only the period with 52 years, the Upheaval of the Eight Prince during the Western Jin Dynasty lasted for as many as 16 years, showing the intense contradiction in the inner of the dominance hierarchy. [11] When it came to 311, Liu Cong led the Xiongnu army attacked and occupied Luoyang, the capital city of the Western Jin Dynasty. [11] The following year the Mongolian army, assisted by the Song army, captured Caizhou and put an end to the Jin Dynasty. [11] The royal government of the Jin Dynasty (Jin Chao 金朝 CE 1115-1234) had regarded itself as a legitimate Cathay dynasty while the Song (Song Chao 宋朝 CE 960-1279) and Jin were confronting each other in military and political affairs. [11] The Jin Dynasty also made important contributions to the arts by inheriting characteristics from Liao architecture and absorbing elements from the Song. [11] In 1115 he founded the Jin dynasty, and with an army of 10,000 defeated the Liao army that was at least ten times as large but retreated. [11] During his time, he was able to accumulate power and fame that could have inspired his grandson to found Jin Dynasty, which brought an end to the Three Kingdoms Period. [11] After the founding of Jin Dynasty, the last kingdom of the Three Kingdoms Period - Kingdom of Wu still existed. [11] Yue Fei in particular had been preparing to recapture Kaifeng (or Bianjing, as the city was known during the Song period), the former capital of the Song Dynasty and the then southern capital of the Jin dynasty, after a streak of uninterrupted military victories. [11] Initially, the Jin Dynasty established its capital city in Huining Prefecture (Baicheng, south of Acheng, Heilongjiang Province), later moving to Yanjing (Beijing City). [11] Emerging victorious in Ningjiang and Chuhedian, Wanyan established a new dynasty -- the Great Jin Dynasty -- in 1115, proclaiming himself emperor. [11] There were other works such as Fu Ren Fang (Prescriptions for Women) written by Chen Yanzhi of the Eastern Jin dynasty (265~420), specialized in gynecology and obstetrics, and Xiao Er Fang (Prescriptions for Children), written by Xu Zhicai of the Northern Qi dynasty (479~502). [11] Make the most out of your family vacation when you book your accommodation with Hotels.com - book your hotel near Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty, Chaoyang after reviewing the facilities and amenities listed for each hotel. After booking your hotel near Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty, expect to receive your reservation confirmation in the mail in less than 10 minutes. [11] Western Jin Dynasty started from 265 AD and ended in 316 AD, including five monarchs. [11] The extension of Metaphysics from the Three Kingdoms in the Western Jin Dynasty also achieved much progress. [11] The Mongols looted the capital in 1233, and the next year Aizong committed suicide to avoid being captured, ending the Jin dynasty. [11] Following the death of Gaozong and the emergence of the Mongols, the Song dynasty formed a military alliance with the Mongols in the hope of finally defeating the Jin dynasty. [11] Prior to the formal establishment of the Yuan Dynasty in 1280, it is quite probable that the Mongols, in order to help restore the economy, allowed coins to be locally produced on a very small scale in those areas formerly ruled by the Jin Dynasty. [11] The political mechanism of Jin Dynasty was abandoned by later dynasties. [11] Jin dynasty as a unified country was too short(280CE-316CE), not mentioning War of the Eight Princes (AD 291 to 306) and Disaster of Yongjia (311CE). [11] I mean, when I read Jin dynastys history, I cant hardly find any highlight of the empire. [11] Jin dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Chin, also called Juchen dynasty, Juchen also spelled Jurchen, Pinyin Nüzchen, or Ruzhen, Wade-Giles romanization Nü-chen, or Ju-chen, Mongolian Jürched, or Jürchid, (1115-1234), dynasty that ruled an empire formed by the Tungus Juchen (or Jurchen) tribes of Manchuria. [11]

The Jin (or Kin) Dynasty (265-420) was established by Wanyan Aguda of the Jurchen (Nuzhen) tribe and was headed by nine successive emperors. [11] In 1125, Emperor Tianzha was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty to an end. [11]

After the Western Jin was toppled by Liuyuan?s army, survivors move from north to south of China. [11] By the year 420 AD, the Toba tribe was able to unite all of North China under the Northern Wei Dynasty, but factionalism caused it to last only fifty years. [11] Using the strategic capital at Chang'an, this dynasty also destroyed the Northern Qi in 577, reunifying north China. [11]

The Mongols (Yuan dynasty, 1279-1368), after defeating the Jurchen in the early 13th century, went on and fully defeated the Song to control all of China. [11] Now as we have finished with different dynasties that governed during more or less same time period it is time to analyze whole China under Yuan dynasty. [11] Like the Liao Dynasty, the Xi Xia (Western Xia) Dynasty was established by a minority nationality that existed in northwest China. [11] His successor U ki nai followed up his victories, subdued the empire of Hia, and captured the Khitan Emperor Yeliu Yen hi, who had fled in that direction, the ninth and last of his dynasty who ruled in China. [11] It came to an end when the Sui Dynasty came into power and unified China in 589 AD. The Mongol Empire, also known as the "great dynasty" ( da chao ), cast bronze and silver coins of its own in China with the appropriate inscription da chao tong bao (). [11] As early as the 3rd or 4th century AD, Qiuci began to cast coins based on the small, devalued and degenerate wu zhu coins of post-Han Dynasty China. [11] Emperor Puyi (1909-1912) was the last emperor of the Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty, as well as last emperor of imperial China. [11] The Juchi or Niuchi, the ancestors of the Manchu dynasty in China, lived in that part of Manchuria bounded on the north by the Amur, on the east by the ocean, on the south by Corea, and on the west by the river Sungari, which separated their country from that of the Khitans. [11] The Sui dynasty of China is one of the most influential dynasties in spite of their (very short) rein. [11] With that moment he had control over all China and China got new Yuan dynasty. [11] As one of the countries which are the earliest to develop the post, there was post in China in Shang Dynasty (16 th -11 th century BC) according to the records from the oracle script carved on tortoise shells or animal bones. [11] Cowrie shells were the earliest form of money to appear during the Shang Dynasty (16th Century BC - 11th Century BC) in China. [11] China achieved the ability to cast very refined works of bronze early on as evidenced by its extraordinary Shang and Zhou Dynasty ritual bronzes. [11] Legitimation in Imperial China: Discussions under the Jurchen-Chin dynasty (1115-1234). [11] After the Later Han emperor was assassinated at the end of 950, the popular military leader Guo Wei proclaimed the Great Zhou dynasty (951-60) that unified most of northern China and in 955 melted down precious metals taken from Buddhist shrines to make coins. [11] Emperor Xiaowen () of the Northern Wei Dynasty (Later Wei, Yuan Wei ) was determined to reform the backwardness of his nomadic Xianbei () people by adopting the administrative style and many of the customs of the Han Chinese. [11] In 534 General Gao Huan set up an Eastern Wei emperor hostile to Chinese culture that in 550 became the Northern Qi dynasty, while general Yuwen Tai created a Western Wei puppet depending on the Chinese aristocracy at Chang'an. [11]

The Northern Song (Chinese: 北宋, 960-1127) signifies the time when the Song capital was in the northern city of Kaifeng and the dynasty controlled most of inner China. [11] Other Chinese words relating to "money" still retain the "shell" character ( bei ) component, such as "wealth" ( cai ), "trade" ( mao ), "money" or "goods" ( huo ), etc. By the time of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 BC - 256 BC), however, cowrie shells were being replaced by imitation shells made of bone or metal. [11] In order to get support of majority population they gave Chinese name to dynasty and its emperors and were quite tolerant towards Han population. [11] "Dynasty of Nomads: Rediscovering the Forgotten Liao Empire A short article about recent archaeological work that reveals the cultural tensions, past and present, between the Han Chinese and Khitan Liao. [11]

Gilded Splendor: Treasures of China's Liao Empire This excellent interactive website explores the complex cultural and religious legacy of the Khitan and their reign over China during the Liao Dynasty (907-1125). [11] The Period of Disunion began with the fall of the Han Dynasty in 220 AD. It continued for over 350 years until China was once again united under the Sui Dynasty in 589 AD. The next year the army hailed him as the emperor of China, and as Song Taizu he founded the Song dynasty (960-1279). [11] It came to an end when the Sui Dynasty came into power and unified China in 589 AD. The Period of Disunion began with the fall of the Han Dynasty in 220 AD. It continued for over 350 years until China was once again united under the Sui Dynasty in 589 AD. [11]

In order to obtain funds for his military and also to try to purge China of foreign influences, Emperor Wuzong (840-846 AD), a devoted Daoist (Taoist), in the fifth year (845) of his Hui Chang () reign began to cast coins with the inscription " kai yuan tong bao ", the same inscription as used on the coins of Emperor Gaozu at the beginning of the Tang Dynasty. [11] Following the collapse of the great Tang Dynasty in 907 AD, China entered into a prolonged period of disunity known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ( wu dai shi guo ). [11] They migrated into the areas in China when Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms were in trouble. [11] Ringing thunder, tomb treasures from ancient China: Selections of Eastern Zhou Dynasty material from the Hubei Provincial Museum, People's Republic of China. [11] The Northern Wei Dynasty came into the scene and again unified northern China in 439. [11]

Although the Western Jin unified the whole nation, it was still an unstable and decayed dynasty with little social development. [11] During the creation process of the character designs for the seventh Dynasty Warriors title, the developers thought about symbolizing Jin with the color magenta to help distinguish it from the other kingdoms. [11]

Two simultaneous rebellions of Jurchen nobles, led by soon-to-be crowned Jin emperor Wányán Yōng (完顏雍) and Khitan tribesman erupted in Manchuria, forcing the Jin to withdraw its troops from southern China to quell the uprisings. [11] Most murals on bricks drew on resources of daily life in West Regions of the Wei and Jin Dynasties, such as farming, breeding, dancing, traveling, hunting, posting, camping, picking mulberries, holding banquets, training armies and so on, giving an insight into the feudal society of ancient China. [11] The Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties may have been tumultuous but it also left significant changes to the Chinese people. [11] Emperor Xizong of Jin continued sinicization by accepting Chinese traditions and Confucian ethics. [11] Near the end of his reign the Song Chinese tried to invade, but the Jin forces effectively repulsed them. [11] Han Chinese living on Liao territory without problem accepted new also Sinicized Jin rule. [11] Under Jin control lived 3 million Jurchens and 30 million Han Chinese. [11]

The Cambridge history of China: The People's Republic, Pt. 2: revolutions within the Chinese revolution, 1966-1982. (eds. MacFarquhar, Roderick; Fairbank, John K.). [11] This again shows its large pretension on China and adapting government and culture to Chinese one. [11] Porcelain is called china because it was invented and propagated by the Chinese at this time; it was more sanitary and useful than wood. [11] China hands: the adventures and ordeals of the American journalists who joined forces with the great Chinese revolution. [11] Bodhidharma is the famous monk recognized as the founder of the Ch'an sect ( chan zong ) in China and the first Chinese patriarch. [11] China, 1895-1912 state sponsored reforms and China's late-Qing revolution: selected essays from Zhongguo Jindai Shi (Modern Chinese History, 1840-1919). (ed. trans. Reynolds, Douglas R.). [11] One variety of jian guo tong bao ( ) cast in white bronze is so rare that the only known specimen is at the National Museum of China (formerly the Museum of Chinese History) in Beijing. [11]

The next year the army hailed him as the emperor of China, and as Song Taizu he founded the Song dynasty (960-1279). [11] Threatened by Mongols who honored Confucius and in 1237 reinstituted civil service exams in north China, the southern Song dynasty made Zhu Xi's writings the orthodox doctrine of the state. [11] The Song dynasty is far more recent, had novel items such as paper money and gunpowder, and generally established a relative golden age for China. [11] Later in Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), there was mail communication with the western world in China. [11] Due to the unification of China, and short duration of this dynasty, fashion styles of the Qin didn't change much through the Han dynasty (206-220AD). [11] China unified and became prosperous during the Tang Dynasty, consequently culture and arts flourished. [11] Most references will be found under Tang Dynasty Benn, Charles D. Daily life in traditional China: the Tang dynasty. [11]

Prior to the Manchus establishing the Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty, Nurhachi (1616-1626), known in Chinese as Emperor Shi Zu, cast coins with the inscription tian ming tong bao () written in the Manchu script. [11] Under General Ma Yuan they reconquered the south and northern Vietnam in 43 CE. Whereas the Former Han dynasty had only three uprisings in the southwest during two centuries, in the next two centuries Yue people in the south revolted 53 times, as the Chinese migrated there. [11]

The concept owned by the governors of the Jin had met its distillation in Zhongzhou ji 中州集 ( Collections of Central Region Literati ) written and compiled by Yuan, while the concept was finally acknowledged and accepted by the adherents of the Southern Song Dynasty (Nan Song 南宋 CE 960-1279). [11] The Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) was the amalgamation age of ethnic groups in China's history, and the dresses and personal adornments of the time also fully represented this feature. [11]

About three million people, half of them Jurchens, migrated south into northern China over two decades, and this minority governed about thirty million Chinese. [11] Kane, Thomas M. Ancient China on postmodern war: enduring ideas from the Chinese strategic tradition. [11] The culture of sex in ancient China. (English and Chinese). [11]

This tradition of Chinese coins being round with square holes, known as "Chinese cash", continued for about 2,100 years until China's imperial history finally ended at the beginning of the 20 th Century. [11]

It happened as a result of fall of Tang dynasty and when Abaoji Khanate moved southwards and conquered poorly controlled northern Chinese territories. [11] Han Chinese government was conceptualized on Tang dynasty government and governed by Legal Code that was based on Tang Code. [11] Not only Khitans living there were busy with this but also Han Chinese since they didn’t live under more prosperous Song dynasty. [11] Originally subjects of the Liao, an Inner Asian dynasty created in the 10th century by the Khitan tribes, the Juchen, with the aid of the Chinese Song dynasty, threw off the rule of their overlords and established their own dynasty between 1115 and 1122. [11] While the bronze coins of the Liao Dynasty were patterned after those of the Song, the Chinese character inscriptions and the overall quality do not meet the same high standards exhibited by Song Dynasty coinage. [11]

The coin, made of lead, was a copy of the bronze kai yuan tong bao ( ) of the Tang Dynasty but had the Chinese character min () or fu (), indicating the area of Fujian, on its reverse side. [11] Is it true that after the Han dynasty, the only 100% Han Chinese dynasties were Song and Ming? I heard that the Tang dynasty was Xianbei and T. Not to mention Song Dynasty, its splendid commercial culture, diverse civil life and the completions of the four inventions are integral parts of Chinese history. [11] The Song dynasty was the most brilliant cultural era in the later part of Chinese history. [11]

He thus ended the Tang dynasty and founded the Later Liang dynasty (907-23) during which wars continued to ravage northern China. [11]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (153) Jin Dynasty (China)

2. (27) The Dynasties of China -- Bibliography

3. (26) Jurchen Jin Dynasty - Ancient History Encyclopedia

4. (14) Jin Dynasty

5. (13) Which Chinese dynasty are more powerful? Jin dynasty (Sima Yan) vs Song dynasty - Quora

6. (13) Eastern Jin Dynasty: Facts & History | Learn Chinese History

7. (13) China Jin Dynasty (1115-1234): Economy, Culture

8. (12) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) in China History

9. (12) Jin Dynasty: History, Timeline and Facts | Learn Chinese History

10. (11) Jin dynasty | China [AD 265-316/317, 317-420] | Britannica.com

11. (11) Eastern Jin Dynasty (317- 420) in China History

12. (11) Eastern Jin Dynasty of China: 11 Emperors, Political System, Culture

13. (10) Western Jin Dynasty: Facts, Achievements and More | Learn Chinese History

14. (10) Jin Dynasty, History of Jin Kindom

15. (9) Jin Dynasty | Koei Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

16. (8) Jin dynasty - China History

17. (6) Western Jin Dynasty - Chinese Dynasties

18. (5) Top 10 Chaoyang Hotels Near Murals Tomb of Eastern Jin Dynasty | China | Hotels.com

19. (4) The Great Wall of the Jin Dynasty, Jin Dynasty Great Wall of China

20. (4) China Jin Dynasty (265-420)

21. (3) Theater, Life and the Afterlife of the Jin Dynasty at China Institute - artnet Magazine

22. (2) Events | US-China Institute

23. (2) Three Kingdoms, Jin Dynasty


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