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Kediri History (1045–1221)

Kediri History (1045–1221)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • Kutai - Kutai, is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on Borneo and also name of the native people on the region with a language of the correlating name and their history.(More...)
  • In this division Colin Brown writes in the book, A Short History of Indonesia, "The western portion of Mataram became Kadiri, the eastern part Janggala."(More...)
  • It was the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai and Tarumanagara are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • In 1045 Airlangga (991 - 1049) who had built his kingdom, Kahuripan, out of the ruins of Medan after it was crushed by Sriwijaya, divided it into two kingdoms, Janggala (based on contemporary Malang) and Kediri, and abdicated in favor of his sons to live the life of an ascetic.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
Kutai - Kutai, is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on Borneo and also name of the native people on the region with a language of the correlating name and their history. [1] The countrys strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history, the area of Indonesia is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures, ethnicities, and languages. [1] History of Indonesia - The history of Indonesia has been shaped by its geographic position, its natural resources, a series of human migrations and contacts, wars and conquests, as well as by trade, economics and politics. [1]

There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya even in Indonesia, Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to Sanfoqi, previously read as Sribhoja, and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire. [1] The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur, by 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and later of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. [1] The Prelambang Joyoboyo, a prophetic book ascribed to Jayabhaya, is well known among Javanese for its prediction of a particular event that took place later in the history of Java. [2] Most of the history of Cirebon Sultanate was found in a local Javanese chronicle known as Babad, some notable chronicles that focused on the history of Cirebon are Carita Purwaka Caruban Nagari and Babad Cerbon. [1] The key sources to uncover the history of Mataram Sultanate are local Javanese historical accounts called Babad, the problem with traditional Javanese Babad, are often undated, obscure and incorporates non-historic, mythological and fantastic elements. [1] This has spurred the archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation, the history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is also part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava, and the classical Javanese civilisation. [1]

It is one of the earliest ancient kingdom in Indonesian history, seven stone pillars, or yūpa, have been found in Kutai, Kaman Estuary, near the Mahakam River. [1] The history is divided into two periods, that of the early Kutai Martadipura phase some time around 350-400 and the later Kutai Kartanegara phase beginning around 1300. [1] These major categories of history by period is divided into geological, historical, and cosmological. [3] Each historical time period is categorized by specific date, events, and place in history. [3] Hope the above information on historical time period has helped you get a fair idea of the important events that took place throughout history. [3] The ancient history by period is based on the ancient written records, archaeological findings, and stories of bygone eras being told over the ages. [3] History of Java local wisdom description since ancient Mataram to contemporary era. [2] King Jayabaya was an oracle-king who lived in the early history of Java. [4]

Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains, and some details of the history are rather abstract, nevertheless, local Javanese people did not forget Majapahit completely, as Mojopait is mentioned vaguely in Babad Tanah Jawi, a Javanese chronicle composed in the 18th century. [1] Understanding the history of the Bruneian Empire is quite difficult since it is mentioned in contemporary sources of its time. [1] No local or indigenous sources exist to provide evidence for any of this, as a result, Chinese texts have been relied on to construct the history of early Brunei. [1]

Most of Ken Aroks life story and also the history of Singhasari was taken from the Pararaton account. [1]


In this division Colin Brown writes in the book, A Short History of Indonesia, "The western portion of Mataram became Kadiri, the eastern part Janggala." [5] Now part of Indonesia, the remains as a symbol of the history of Medan. [5]


It was the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai and Tarumanagara are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history. [6] The extinction of the paleozotic was the biggest extinction of all of earth's history Based on current and contested evidence, the human species has found its origins starting from about 265,000 years ago - when homo began to develop. It is broadly divided into prehistorical (before history began to be recorded) and historical periods (when written records began to be kept). [7] The Middle Ages (adjectival form: medieval or mediæval) was a period of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. [8]

The Majapahit empire was the last of the major Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history. [9]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
In 1045 Airlangga (991 - 1049) who had built his kingdom, Kahuripan, out of the ruins of Medan after it was crushed by Sriwijaya, divided it into two kingdoms, Janggala (based on contemporary Malang) and Kediri, and abdicated in favor of his sons to live the life of an ascetic. [2] The Kingdom of Kediri is the successor of Airlangga's Kahuripan kingdom, and thought as the continuation of Isyana Dynasty in Java; in 1045, Airlangga divided his kingdom of Kahuripan into two, Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri), and abdicated in favour of his sons to live as an ascetic. [1] Daha, the capital city of Kediri, (suggested to be at the same site as modern Kediri ) is located inland, near the fertile Brantas river valley, from the predecessor kingdom of Airlangga's Kahuripan, Kediri inherited irrigation systems, including the Wringin Sapta dam. [1] The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java, the kingdoms name cognate to Singosari district of Malang Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang city. [1] The kingdom of Kediri, established in eastern Java in 1049, collected spices from tributaries located in southern Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands, famed in the West as the Spice Islands or Moluccas. [4]

In the Chinese book Chu-fan-chi, written around 1200, Chou-Ju-Kua relates that in the Southeast Asia archipelago there were two powerful and rich kingdoms: Srivijaya and Java (Kediri). [2] According to a Chinese source in the book of Chu-fan-chi written around 1225, Chou Ju-kua described that in the Southeast Asian archipelago there were two powerful and rich kingdoms: Srivijaya and Java (Kediri). [10]

Two Chinese books Ling-wai-tai-ta, (1178) written by Chou K'u-fei, and Chu-fan-chi, written around 1200 by Chou-Ju-Kua, give invaluable accounts of the daily life, government, economy and people of the Kediri kingdom. [2] The book of Ling-wai-tai-ta composed by Chinese author Chou K'u-fei in 1178, gave a glimpse of everyday life in Kediri that cannot be found in any other source material, about the government and people of Kediri. [10] According to Chou K'u-fei, the people of Kediri wore clothes which covered them down to their legs, and their hairstyles were loosely draped. [2]

Early sovereignties that thrived include Srivijaya Empire (3rd-14th centuries), Tarumanagara (358-732), Sailendra (800-900), Sunda Kingdom (669-1579), the Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045), Kediri (1045-1221), Singhasari (1222), and Majapahit (1293-1500). [11] He was killed by a prince of the previous Kediri dynasty, who then established the last great Hindu-Javanese kingdom, Majapahit. [4] In the 13th century, the Kediri dynasty was overthrown by a revolution, and another kingdom arose in east Java. [4] This Chinese source from early thirteenth century suggests that the Indonesian archipelago was then ruled by two great kingdoms; the western part was under Srivijaya's rule, while the eastern part was under Kediri domination. [2] Several notable literary classics such as Mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh's Gatotkacasraya, and Mpu Dharmaja's Smaradahana were produced during this era, making the era of the Kediri kingdom a period of literary renaissance and high cultural refinement. [2] Although the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri, based on agriculture rather than trade. [2] Kediri fell in 1221 when Ken Arok, the lord of Tumapel, defeated the forces of Kediri at the Battle of Genter and founded the new kingdom of Singhasari. [12] Airlangga's realm was, as a result, eventually divided between two of his sons, giving rise to the separate kingdoms of Janggala and Kediri. [4] From the predecessor kingdom, Airlangga's Kahuripan, Kediri inherited irrigation systems, including Wringin Sapta Dam. [2] In the region of Modjokuto, the regional capital of Kediri, in the fertile Brantas River basin, was the center of one of the early kingdoms. [4] Kediri, East Java Kediri is an Indonesian city, located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java on the island of Java. [1] The new state of Kediri, in eastern Java, became the center of Javanese culture for the next two centuries, spreading its influence to the eastern part of island South East Asia. [4] One of the main sources was the Molucca Islands (or "Spice Islands") in Indonesia, and Kediri became a strong trading nation. [4] Later, Kediri managed to gain control of spice trade routes to eastern Spice Islands (Maluku). [2] Kediri had a naval fleet, which allowed them to control spice trade routes to the eastern islands. [2] This resulted from Kediri development of a navy, giving them the opportunity to control the spice trade routes to eastern islands. [10]

According to Chinese sources, the main occupations of the Kediri people revolved around agriculture (rice cultivation), animal farming ( cattle, boar, poultry ), and the spice trade. [10] If the king traveled outside the palace, he rode an elephant, accompanied by 500 to 700 soldiers and officials, while his subjects, the people of Kediri, prostrated themselves along the sides of the road until the king passed. [2] Based on inscription on a stone to the south of the main building, Palah Temple was probably built early in the 12th century AD by King Srengga of Kediri. [4] According to Jiyu and Petak inscriptions, during the end of Majapahit era in the 15th century, there was a brief resurrection of Daha (Kediri) as the centre of political power, which was led by Girindrawardhana in 1478 after he managed to defeat Kertabhumi. [10] The Islamisation process gained momentum from decline of Majapahit authority, following fall of Majapahit capital to usurper from Kediri, Raden Patah declared Demak independence from Majapahit overlordship so did nearly all northern Javanese ports. [1] During the rule of Kediri, celebrated as an era of the blossoming of literature and culture, significant contributions were made in the field of Javanese classic literature. [2] This event marked the end of the Kediri era, and the beginning of the Singhasari era. [2]

According to Chinese reports, the king of Kediri in the 12th century was only second in wealth to the Caliph of Bagdad. [4] From 1190 to 1200, King "rngga ruled Kediri, with the official name "ri maharaja çri Sarwweçwara Triwikramawataranindita "rngga lancana Digwijayottunggadewa. [10] The first king of Kediri to leave historical records was "ri Jayawarşa Digjaya "āstaprabhu (reigned 1104-1115). [10] The name "Kediri" or "Kadiri" derived from Sanskrit word Khadri which means Indian Mulberry ( Morinda citrifolia ), locally known as pacé or mengkudu tree. [10] Ken Arok was an orphan born of a mother named Ken Endok, Ken Arok rose from being a servant of Tungul Ametung, a regional ruler in Tumapel to becoming ruler of Java from Kediri. [1] Kediri collected spices from tributaries in southern Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands. [10] Later Kediri managed to control the spice trade routes to Maluku. [10] Many of these are found along the Brantas River, which begins near Malang, then ?ows west past Blitar, then north through Kediri, then northeast to the sea at Surabaya. [4] Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. [12] Kediri was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1042 to around 1222. [2]

In later periods, Kediri economy grew to rely more heavily on trade, especially the spice trade, this resulted from Kediri development of a navy, giving them the opportunity to control the spice trade routes to eastern islands. [1] The kingdom's capital is believed to had been established in the western part of the Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency. [10]

Hujung Galuh located on the estuarine of Brantas river and today is the part of modern Surabaya city, this city served as an important port since the era of Kahuripan, Janggala, until the era of Kediri, Singhasari, and Majapahit. [5] The other Kingdom was Kediri, : 147 the Kingdom of Janggala comprised the northeastern part of the Kingdom of Kahuripan. [5] In 1045 Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two Kingdoms, Janggala (based on contemporary Malang) and Kediri, abdicates in favor of his sons to live the life of an ascetic. [13] The Kingdom of Kediri is the successor of Airlanggas Kahuripan kingdom, in 1045, Airlangga divided his kingdom of Kahuripan into two, Janggala and Panjalu, and abdicated in favour of his sons to live as an ascetic. [5]

Janggala and Kediri were again united when the raja of Kadiri, Kameswara (1116-1136) married a princess of the Kingdom of Janggala, at which point the Kingdom of Janggala ceased to exist. [5] Not much is known about the Kingdom of Janggala because the Kingdom of Kediri was the more dominant of the two. [5] Kerajaan Kediri (Kediri Kingdom) is one of old the oldest kingdom in Java Island. [13] Kediri City-location of the Kediri Kingdom; a Hindu Kingdom in the 11th century. [13] According Jiyu and Petak inscriptions, during the end of Majapahit era in 15th century, there was a brief resurrection of Daha (Kediri) as the center of political power, which was led by Girindrawardhana in 1478 after he managed to defeat Kertabhumi. [14] The first king of Kediri to leave historical records was "ri Jayawarşa Digjaya "āstaprabhu, in his inscription dated 1104, like Airlangga, he claimed himself to be the incarnation or Avatar of Vishnu. [5] Kediri Kingdom - Kediri or Kadiri was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. [5] This event marked the end of Kediri era, and the beginning of the Singhasari era. [14] Mpu Sedahs Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluhs Gatotkacasraya, and Mpu Dharmajas Smaradhana blossomed in this era, the kingdoms capital is believed to had been established in the western part of the Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency. [5] Kediri City is located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java. [13]

Today Kediri City is well known to both domestics and foreign tourists for its beautiful tourism objects and historical value. [13]

In 1292, Duke Jayakatwang, a vassal king from the Kingdom of Daha (also known as Kediri or Gelang-gelang), prepared his army to conquer Singhasari and kill its king if possible, assisted by Arya Wiraraja, a regent from Sumenep on the island of Madura. [15] In sum, this Chinese source from early 13th century suggested that the Indonesian archipelago was ruled by two great kingdoms, with the western part under Srivijaya's rule, while eastern part was under Kediri domination. [16] According to a Chinese source in the book of Chu-fan-chi written around 1225, Chou Ju-kua describe that in Southeast Asia archipelago there were two most powerful and richest kingdoms; Srivijaya and Java ( Kediri ). [16] As the oldest kingdom in Java, Kediri left behind a legacy of tenun ikat(handwoven fabric), which, today, has spawned home industries, most notably in Bandar Kidul subdistrict. [17]

Although Srivijaya mandala still survive and the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri, based on intensive agriculture rather than coastal and long-distance trade. [16] This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article Kediri Kingdom ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). [18] The historical map of Kediri (Kadiri) kingdom 11th to 13th century Eastern Java. ( CC BY SA 3.0 ). [17] The kingdom succeeded Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. [15]

According Jiyu and Petak inscriptions, during the end of Majapahit era in the 15th century, there was a brief resurrection of Daha (Kediri) as the center of political power, which was led by Girindrawardhana in 1478 after he managed to defeat Kertabhumi. [18] After a series of battles with the Sultanate of Demak, the last remaining courtsmen of Majapahit were forced to withdraw eastward to Kediri ; it is unclear whether they were still under the rule of the Majapahit dynasty. [9]

In 1288, Singhasari, the successor of Kediri in Java, conquered Melayu state includes Palembang, Jambi as well as much of Srivijaya during the Pamalayu expedition. [16] Ken Arok rose from being a servant of Tunggul Ametung, a regional ruler in Tumapel (present day Malang ) to becoming ruler of Java from Kediri. [15]

Kediri or Kadiri was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. [17] Kedasih birds were chirping at a night when Mongolian war commander Ike Mese was drunk after celebrating victory against King Jayakatwang in Kediri, East Java. [17] If the king traveled outside the palace, he rode an elephant and was accompanied by 500-700 soldiers and officials while his subjects, the people of Kediri, prostrated themselves as the king passed. [18] King Kertanegara, whose troops were now spread then and located elsewhere, did not realize that a coup was being prepared by the former Kediri royal lineage. [15]

Result of Kediri's development of navy, which allowed the Kediri to control the spice trade routes to eastern islands. [19]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(19 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (21) Kediri Kingdom - WikiVividly

2. (16) Kediri (historical kingdom) - New World Encyclopedia

3. (11) Kediri Kingdom - Wikipedia

4. (11) Indonesia History - Kediri Kingdom - 1045-1221

5. (10) Janggala - WikiVisually

6. (5) VOM - Voice of Malaysia: Kediri City-location of the Kediri Kingdom; a Hindu Kingdom in the 11th century.

7. (4) Singhasari kingdom | World Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online

8. (4) Srivijaya | World Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online

9. (4) Kingdom Of Kediri on Wikinow | News, Videos & Facts

10. (4) A List of Historical Time Periods to Take You Through the Past

11. (3) Kediri Kingdom | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers | scientific events

12. (2) History Of Kediri Regency - Kediri History

13. (2) Fantastic Kediri

14. (2) legend and myth: Majapahit, Ancient Kingdom Of Javanese

15. (1) A Brief History of Indonesia

16. (1) The Dutch East Indies Travel Guide!: Ancient History

17. (1) Read eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | Kalingga

18. (1) List of time periods - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

19. (1) Medieval Times - Traveling within the World


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