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Kiều Công Tiễn (Vietnam)

Kiều Công Tiễn (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • This led to a fierce battle in the area where the Vietnam natives fought Kiều Công Tiễn who was backed by the Chinese.(More...)
  • Kieu Chinh : Kiều Chinh (born Nguyễn Thị Chinh; 1939 in Vietnam) is a Vietnamese American actress best known for her role in The Joy Luck Club.(More...)

  • The Chinese reconquered the Vietnam land and ruled the same they did during their first rule, almost erasing Vietnamese culture.(More...)


This led to a fierce battle in the area where the Vietnam natives fought Kiều Công Tiễn who was backed by the Chinese. [1] In 931, Dương Đ"nh Nghệ defeated the Southern Han army, and briefly achieved independence until he was assassinated by Kiều Công Tiễn, one of his general who defected and fled. [2]

Kieu Cong Tien " Kiều Công Tiễn " or " Kiểu Công Tiện " ( ) was a general in the court of Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, a Vietnamese people Jiedushi of Vietnam who took over the position in 931 In 937 Kiều Công Tiễn assassinated the Jiedushi to seize his position and thus provoked a revolt led by Ngô Quyền who sought revenge his lord and father-in-law Dương Đ"nh Nghệ. [3] Kiều Công Tiễn : Kiều Công Tiễn or Kiểu Công Tiện (pinyin: Jiǎo Gōngxiàn) was a general in the court of Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, a Vietnamese Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải qu n who took over the position in 931. [4]

In 937 Kiều Công Tiễn assassinated the Jiedushi to seize his position and thus provoked a revolt led by Ngô Quyền who sought revenge his lord and father-in-law Dương Đ"nh Nghệ. [4]

In the same year of succeeding Dương's post, General Ngô Quyền defeated the forces of Kiều Công Tiễn, ending with the execution of the man himself. [5] Sadly, in 938A.D., his mentor and father-in-law was murdered by a rival rebel leader by the name of Kiều Công Tiễn. [5]

Kieu Chinh : Kiều Chinh (born Nguyễn Thị Chinh; 1939 in Vietnam) is a Vietnamese American actress best known for her role in The Joy Luck Club. [4] After Dương Đ"nh Nghệ was murdered by one of his aides (Kiều Công Tiễn), the fight was led by Ngô Quyền, who in 938 clashed with a Southern Han expeditionary corps approaching by sea. [6] Bằng was given the name Nguyễn Bằng Kiều on July 13th, 1973 in Hanoi. [7] In several ancient historical books of Historiography of China like the " New History of the Five Dynasties ", his family name (: wikt: 羡, " Kiều " ) was recorded by another character: wikt: 皎 which is often transcribed as " Hiệu " in Vietnamese. [3] The Period of Division with its many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse, including the epic poem The Tale of Kiều ( Truyện Kiều ) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife ( Chinh Phụ Ng m ) by Đặng Trần Côn and Đoàn Thị Điểm, and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by a female poet, Hồ Xu n Hương. [8]

The way Lý Công Uẩn ascended to the throne was rather uncommon in Vietnamese history. [8] Some of his best-known transcription and translation works include Truyện Kiều (The Story of Miss Kieu), Lục V n Tiên (written in Chinese characters as 陸雲僊, by Nguyen Dinh Chieu), Phan Trần, and Gia huấn ca (Book of Familial Educating), Lục súc tranh công (The Six Animals Vying for Services). [9] When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009, a palace guard commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. [8] Leaving Hoa Lư, a natural fortification surrounded by mountains and rivers, Lý Công Uẩn moved his court to the new capital in present-day Hanoi and called it Thăng Long. [8]

The Chinese reconquered the Vietnam land and ruled the same they did during their first rule, almost erasing Vietnamese culture. [1] As isolation was growing so was nationalism, over the next 1000 years, the people in what now Vietnam consider themselves not Chinese but Vietnamese. [2]

In this volume Keith Taylor draws on both Chinese and Vietnamese sources to provide a balanced view of the early history of Vietnam. [10] Vietnamese history prior to the tenth century has often been treated as a branch of Chinese history, but the Vietnamese side of the story can no longer be ignored. [10]

Ming only can rule for only 20 years after defeat by vietnamese and this time for good. [2] After 10 years of war, Vietnam regained its independence and the Ming Dynasty recognised Vietnam as an independent state. [2] We earned it by iron and blood, Vietnam declared independence after Tang collapse and had fought with Song dynasty. [2]

These two sisters ruled Vietnam briefly after the overthrowing the first Chinese rule, but were soon reconquered and executed. [1] China do not rule vietnam with flowers you know, like Roman empire, chinese rule to some degree was characterized by repression, brutality, demands for huge tributes and forced labor. [2] This extremely long rule of the north of modern Vietnam introduced monarchy, which the nation used from this rule all the way to 1955. [1] The last of the long stretches of rule under one family in Vietnam. [1]

After the North conquered the Southern capital city of Saigon, ending the war, they reunified Vietnam into a socialist republic. [1] The decision to again invade Vietnam was contributed from the death of Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, Ngô Quyền ’s father-in-law, who was Annam Lord Protector previously and a very decisive man. [2] The man who was credited with the victory, Ngô Quyền, a brilliant general and afterwards, King of Vietnam. [2]

The other contributing factor was that the Ming Dynasty that ruled North Vietnam (during the period of the 4th and final Chinese Domination) was weakening. [2]

The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese. [8] In this conflict, the North and the Viet Cong--with logistical support from the Soviet Union--defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. [8] Modern central and southern Vietnam were not originally part of the Vietnamese state. [8] For the most part of its history, the geographical boundary of present-day Vietnam covered 3 ethnically distinct states: a Vietnamese state, a Cham state, and a part of the Khmer Empire. [8] A Giao Chỉ prefect, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese emperors.Taylor, Keith Weller. [8] To this day, the Trưng Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [8] Upon settling in Vietnam, he married a Vietnamese woman, Huynh Thi Ngoc, with whom his Phan's father, Thanh Ngan was born from this union. [11] Two years after the withdrawal of the last U.S. forces in 1973, Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the communists, and the South Vietnamese army surrendered in 1975. [8]

Trương Vĩnh Ký (Chinese characters 張永記), known as Pétrus Ky and Jean-Baptiste Pétrus, (Vĩnh Long Province, 6 December 1837 - 1 September 1898) was a Vietnamese scholar whose publications helped improve understanding between colonial Vietnam and Europe. [9] The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century, followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. [8] Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the u Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). [8] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Vietnamese settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. [8] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [8]

Recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese referred to their country as Vietnam. [8] A Vietnamese forged and manufactured a fake ancient mythical script claimed to have been used in ancient Vietnam. [8] Except the Hồng Bàng and T y Sơn dynasties, all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the king's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are dictated by the dynasty founders and often used as the country's name. [8] Modern Vietnamese historians inserted word changes and altered the meanings of texts written by ancient Vietnamese historians on how battles between rebels in Vietnam and the Chinese states such as the Chen dynasty and Southern Han were viewed. [8] Professor Liam Kelley (Le Minh Khai) suggested that the "north" in B"nh Ngô đại cáo referred to the Ming collaborationist Hanoi scholars while the south referred to Thanh Hóa, the base of Lê Lợi since the text referred to "Dai Viet" and did not introduce China before mentioning north. cited John Whitmore and challenged the claim that "Ngô " referred to Ming dynasty China but instead referred to the Chinese settled Red River Delta area of Vietnam. [8] He believes that it was the Ming collaborationist scholars of Hanoi who were referred to as the "Ngô" and that it was not a term used for Chinese as is currently though in Vietnam, and that the B"nh Ngô đại cáo not directed at China. [8] The "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" criticized a people called "Ngô" in Vietnam, and it did not refer to the Ming Chinese. [8]

John D. Phan has suggested a new analysis of the linguistic situation in Vietnam under Chinese rule suggesting that a Middle Chinese dialect was spoken by the people of the Red River Delta during the Tang dynasty by drawing on Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary which showed evidence that it was derived from an existing language and that this Middle Chinese dialect was later displaced by a Muong language influenced by Chinese. [8] Once Vietnam did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, and for 1,100 years, Vietnam had been successively governed by a series of Chinese dynasties: the Han, Eastern Wu, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han; leading to the loss of native cultural heritage, language, and much of national identity. [8] During the rule of the Chinese Kingdom of Eastern Wu over Vietnam the local people learned Chinese after Chinese people were moved down to live with them. [8] The online journal, Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies, has recently published two articles which deal with the period when "Vietnam" was under "Chinese" rule. [12] Nguyễn dynasty and French Protectorate French Indochina, consisting of Cochinchina (southern Vietnam), Annam (central Vietnam), Tonkin (northern Vietnam) 1887-1945 Present-day Vietnam. [8] The 1954 Geneva Conference left Vietnam a divided nation, with Hồ Ch' Minh's communist DRV government ruling the North from Hanoi and Ngô Đ"nh Diệm's Republic of Vietnam, supported by the United States, ruling the South from Saigon. [8] North and South in B"nh Ngô đại cáo might have referred to internal divisions in Vietnam (Hanoi vs Thanh Hoa ) rather than China vs Vietnam. [8] It was English and French foreign languages translations which bowdlerized "south" into "Vietnam" and "north" into China even though people today have no true idea of what south and north referred to in the original text. [8] Territorial disagreements along the border and in the South China Sea that had remained dormant during the Vietnam War were revived at the war's end, and a postwar campaign engineered by Hanoi against the ethnic Chinese Hoa community elicited a strong protest from Beijing. [8] Vietnam also faces disputes, mostly with Cambodia over the border, and especially, China, over the South China Sea. [8]

People from Song dynasty China like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao fled to Tran dynasty ruled Vietnam after the Mongol invasion of the Song. [8] Triệu dynasty Nam Việt 南越 207-111 BC North and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Hoành Sơn Range), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [8] Han Domination Giao Chỉ (Jiaozhi) 交趾 111 BC - 39 AD Present-day north and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Ma River and Cả River delta), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [8] Trưng Sisters Lĩnh Nam 嶺南 40-43 Present-day north and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Ma River and Cả River delta). [8]

Later, Ngô Quyền had a decisive victory over the Southern Han in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River ( 938 ) and marked the independence of Vietnam from Chinese authorities. [3] When Ngô Quyền (King of Vietnam, 939-944) restoring sovereign power in the country, the next millennium was advanced by the accomplishments of successive dynasties: Ngôs, Đinhs, Early Lês, Lýs, Trầns, Hồs, Later Trầns, Later Lês, Mạcs, Trịnhs, Nguyễns, T y Sơns and again Nguyễns. [8] Champa was made a tributary state of Vietnam in 1312, but ten years later regained independence and Cham troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 and again in 1383. [8] Vietnam's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Vietnam under the Hng kings was for so long an independent and self-contained state. [8]

Many anti-Vietnam war protesters bought into a narrative that Vietnam's history consisted of Chinese invasion for 2,000 years and that Vietnam was a united country. [8] As a result of the Vietnam (Second Indochina) War (1954-75), Viet Cong and regular People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces of the DRV unified the country under communist rule. [8] In July 1949, the State of Vietnam was officially proclaimed, as a semi-independent country within the French Union, with Bảo Đại as Head of State. [8] Before modern times scholars in Vietnam wanted to copy China's civilization which they perceived as more civilized but since the French introduced nationalism Vietnam sought to present itself in a different aspect as a civilizational rival. [8] Overall, Vietnam remained very efficiently and stably governed except in times of war and dynastic breakdown, and its administrative system was probably far more advanced than that of any other Southeast Asian states and was more highly centralized and stable governed among Asian states. [8] At various points during the imperial dynasties, Vietnam was ravaged and divided by civil wars and witnessed interventions by the Songs, Mongol Yuans, Chams, Mings, Dutch, Manchus, French. [8]

Phan's mother was also of Chinese descent; her great-great grandfather migrated to Vietnam from Fujian province during mid 17th century. [11] Phan Thanh Tap migrated to Vietnam in the early 18th century, along with his family and relatives and settled in the village of Hoi Trung at B"nh Định Province. [11] Through his visit to France, Phan Thanh Giản obtained a first hand understanding of the level of advancement of France compared to Vietnam, was astonished at examples of technological innovation such as steam trains, and stated on his return to Vietnam that France's "wealth and strength are beyond description". [11] Nowadays, Phan Thanh Giản is being venerated as a minor god among his family members and a few in southern Vietnam. [11] Phan Thanh Giản (潘淸簡, November 11, 1796-1867) was a Grand Counsellor at the Nguyễn court in Vietnam. [11] Lê, Mạc, Trịnh-Nguyễn lords, T y Sơn dynasty, Nguyễn dynasty Đại Việt 1428-1804 大越 Gradually expanded to the boundary of present-day Vietnam. [8] Nguyễn dynasty Việt Nam 越南 1804-1839 Present-day Vietnam plus some occupied territories in Laos and Cambodia. [8] In 111 BC, Han troops invaded Nam Việt and established new territories, dividing Vietnam into Giao Chỉ now the Red River delta; Cửu Ch n from modern-day Thanh Hóa to Hà Tĩnh; and Nhật Nam ( pinyin : Rinan), from modern-day Quảng B"nh to Huế. [8]

The government of Vietnam says that 4 million of its citizens were exposed to Agent Orange, and as many as 3 million have suffered illnesses because of it; these figures include the children of people who were exposed.Ben Stocking for AP, published in the Seattle Times May 22, 2010 The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems due to contaminated Agent Orange. [8] Pre-historic Vietnam was home to some of the world's earliest civilizations and societies--making them one of the world's first people who practiced agriculture. [8]

Along with the split between northern and southern Vietnam in geographical territory came the divergence in their distinctive choices for institutional political structure. [8] While the Tang Dynasty was strong, the region of the present-day Vietnam remain a stable, secure part of the Southern Han's Viet domains. [13]

Vietnam was annexed directly as a province of China, the old policy of cultural assimilation again imposed forcibly, and the country was ruthlessly exploited. [8] At certain periods during these 1,100 years, Vietnam was independently governed under the Triệus, Trưng Sisters, Early Lýs, Khúcs and Dương Đ"nh Nghệ--although their triumphs and reigns were temporary. [8] A Provisional Central Government was formed in 1948, reuniting Annam and Tonkin, but the complete reunification of Vietnam was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchina's legal status. [8] In 1976, the government of united Vietnam renamed Saigon as Hồ Ch' Minh City in honor of Hồ, who died in 1969. [8] In September 1945, Hồ Ch' Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and held the position of chairman (Chủ Tịch). [8] Minh Mang used the name "Trung Quốc" 中國 to refer to Vietnam. [8] The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign. [8]

In the north, most movements were led by former court officers and lasted decades, with Phan Đ"nh Phng fighting in central Vietnam until 1895. [8] He then proclaimed himself King Ngô and effectively began the age of independence for Vietnam. [8] Between 1975 and 1980, more than 1 million northerners migrated to the south and central regions formerly under the Republic of Vietnam. [8] Handbook of Asian Education: A Cultural Perspective, p. 95 Another truly influential part of history in Vietnam occurred during the late Bronze Age, when the Đông Sơn culture dramatically advanced the civilization. [8] South Vietnam retained elements of Chinese culture and grammar in their language while North Vietnam actively engaged in a campaign to remove them- while North Vietnam maintained a pro-China position. it was the Cultural Revolution which led to North Vietnam encouraging anti-China sentiment. [8] Republican Era Việt Nam (with variances such as Democratic Republic, State of Vietnam, Republic of Vietnam, Socialist Republic ) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945-1976 in North Vietnam), State of Vietnam (1949-1955), Republic of Vietnam (1955-1975 in South Vietnam), Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976-present) Present-day Vietnam. [8]

The United States, in addition to citing Vietnam's minimal cooperation in accounting for Americans who were missing in action (MIAs) as an obstacle to normal relations, barred normal ties as long as Vietnamese troops occupied Cambodia. [8] It was also during this period that the Trần emperors waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Vietnamese long history of southern expansion (known as Nam tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence in the 10th century. [8] According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn Hống and Nghĩa Lĩnh. [8] The period of the Fourth Hng dynasty (c. 2252-1913 BC) saw the evidence for early Vietnamese calendar system recorded on stone tools and the population from the mountainous areas moved out and began to settle in the open along the rivers to join the agricultural activities. [8]

Both Chinese and Vietnamese sovereigns were honored at a temple constructed by the Nguyen dynasty. [8] Initially, Chinese was used for writing purposes, but by the 13th century, a set of derivative characters known as Chữ Nôm emerged that allowed native Vietnamese words to be written. [8] Learning a lesson from the Trưng revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. [8] While governors and top officials were Chinese, the original Vietnamese nobles (Lạc Hầu, Lạc Tướng) from the Hồng Bàng period still managed in some of the highlands. [8] The Vietnamese elites were educated in Chinese culture and politics. [8] The peoples of those areas developed a distinct culture from the ancient Vietnamese in the Red River Delta region. [8] Michael Churchman's "Before 'Chinese' and 'Vietnamese' in the Red River Plain: The Han-Tang Period," looks at the textual evidence for this period and argues none of the people mentioned for this period match our current understanding of the terms "Vietnamese" and "Chinese." [12] Ngô Th" Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to question the relations between Zhao Tuo's Nanyue Kingdom in Guangdong and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red River Delta was a mere vassal to Nanyue and not an integral part of it in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty. [8] In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Th" Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs. [8]

Japan's defeat by World War II Allies created a power vacuum for Vietnamese nationalists of all parties to seize power in August 1945, forcing Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate and ending the Nguyễn dynasty. [8] Within French Indochina, Cochinchina had the status of a colony, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and Tonkin had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials. [8] The basic nature of Vietnamese society changed little during the nearly 1,000 years between independence from China in the 10th century and the French conquest in the 19th century. [8] As the French suppressed both movements, and after witnessing revolutionaries in action in China and Russia, Vietnamese revolutionaries began to turn to more radical paths. [8] The negotiations led to the formal cession of Vietnamese territory that the French Expeditionary Corps had occupied in 1861 (the first parts of the future colony of Cochinchina): the provinces of Già Dinh, Mỹ Tho, Bien Hoa, and the Poulo Condore islands were ceded, and war reparations paid to the French. [11] The need to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, to cooperate in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and to fight invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states approximately 2879 BC. Ancient time Lê Huyền Thảo Uyên, 2012-13. [8] Lộc Tục succeeded his predecessor as tribal chief and made the first attempts to incorporate all tribes around 2879 BC. As he succeeded in grouping all the vassal states within his territory, a convocation of the subdued tribes proclaimed him King Kinh Dương Vương, as the leader of the unified ancient Vietnamese nation. [8] The land began as several tribal states, with King Kinh Dương Vương grouping all the vassal states at around 2879 BC. The ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period are collectively known as the Hng kings. [8]

Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc clan, followed by Dương Đ"nh Nghệ, ruled Tĩnh Hải qu n autonomously under the Tang title of Jiedushi ( Vietnamese : Tiết Độ Sứ), Virtuous Lord, but stopped short of proclaiming themselves kings. [8] In 1927, the Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party), modeled after the Kuomintang in China, was founded, and the party launched the armed Yên Bái mutiny in 1930 in Tonkin which resulted in its chairman, Nguyễn Thái Học and many other leaders captured and executed by the guillotine. [8] In 1930, the Communist International (Comintern) sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to Hong Kong to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party (CPV) with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [8] Emperor Lê Đại Hành was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [8] The Hồ dynasty's rule and Vietnamese who worked with the Ming were attacked in the "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" by Lê Lợi. [8] The Ming court reluctantly decided on a military intervention into the Vietnamese civil war, but Mạc Đăng Dung offered ritual submission to the Ming Empire, which was accepted. [8] In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the U.S. or the Saigon government, confounding Western fears. [8] Declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500. cf. cf. In the South, Diem went about crushing political and religious opposition, imprisoning or killing tens of thousands. [8] Modern Vietnamese have retroactively labelled figures like Trần Ích Tắc as "traitor" to Annam, even though the word for traitor did not exist in Vietnamese during his time and Vietnamese histories like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư do not refer to him as a traitor. [8] By this time, Vietnamese nationalism had reached a point where attempts to sinicize them could only strengthen further resistance.Almost immediately, Trần loyalists started a resistance war. [8] In 1479, King Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos in the Vietnamese-Lao War and captured its capital Luang Prabang, in which later the city was totally ransacked and destroyed by the Vietnamese. [8] Because of his role in these negotiations, Phan Thanh Giản became rather unpopular, both with the Vietnamese population, and with the court of king Tự Đức. [11] Phan Ch u Trinh, who favored a peaceful, non-violent struggle to gain independence, led a second movement, Duy T n ( Modernization ), which stressed education for the masses, modernizing the country, fostering understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and peaceful transitions of power. [8] John D Phan has formulated a new theory on the genesis of Vietnamese that departs from the current concepts of Vietnamese linguistic history. [12] The Vietnamese nation originated in the Red River Delta in present-day Northern Vietnam and expanded over its history to the current boundary. [8] From the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [8]

By 3rd century AD, the Sinicized northern Vietnamese had already viewed bronze drum-owning practice of their neighbors as barbaric. [12] The Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams. [8] The eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. [8] Sinitic vocabularies have long been noticed in the Muong languages but we often assume that they are loans from the Vietnamese. [12] John Phan demonstrates that the Sinitic words in Muong languages did not come through Vietnamese. [12]

He served in the French colonial regime as a linguist, and also translated many literary works into modern Vietnamese. [9] Ch u's plan was to send Vietnamese students to Japan to learn modern skills, so that in the future they could lead a successful armed revolt against the French. [8]

Some of them set up Vietnamese independence societies in Japan, which many viewed as a model society (i.e. an Asian nation that had modernized, but retained its own culture and institutions). [8] There are some caves with Paleolithic remains typified by the Nguom industry and the Sơn Vi culture, dating from 28,000 BC to 8,000 BC. The most important event in Vietnamese prehistory is the appearance of Hòa B"nh and Bắc Sơn cultures--the most typical cave cultures in Southeast Asia. [8]

Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. [8]

Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [8] This period is controversial as on one side, some Vietnamese historians consider Triệu's rule as the starting point of the Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general, whereas others consider it still an era of Vietnamese independence as the Triệu family in Nam Việt were assimilated to local culture. [8] Due to psychological embarrassment over their rule by foreign imperialists, ancient historical texts were edited for nationalistic purposes by modern Vietnamese historians. [8]

Phan argues that the Vietnamese language emerged when speakers of a local Chinese dialect, what he calls "Annamese Middle Chinese," switched to speaking a variant of Proto-Vietnamese around the time of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). [12] Chinese clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn. [8] I think the complexity of Vietnamese language, and of Vietnamese people as well, rests in the complex history of northern Vietnam. [12] Noted Trần dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [8]

When newer Chinese immigrants arrived in the Sui-Tang dynasty, carrying with them the newer Sinitic speech, the older Sinitic speech in northern Vietnam was probably considered "native" and the characters were probably preserved to write the newer speech. [12] Hồng Bàng dynasty Văn Lang 文郎 2524-258 BC Territory reduced to modern Northern Vietnam including the three modern provinces of Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh. [8] From ancient times, modern northern Vietnam and southern China were peopled by many races. [8] Tribal leaders from southern China and southeast Asia, as far Indonesia looked to the Red River delta like a mandala center, as they frequently imported bronze drums from northern Vietnam to used as symbol of power and authority. [12] We know from archeological and textual evidence that northern Vietnam was a cosmopolitan center of Southeast Asia and Southern China. [12]

This Sinitic language rooted from China but developed locally and was an everyday language as well the lingua franca of northern Vietnam for the first millennium. [12] I wouldn't be surprised if people grew up in northern Vietnam in the first millennium knew how to speak multiple languages. [12] To make the long story short: Over the first millennium, a distinctive Sinitic language was spoken in northern Vietnam. [12] The Han rule initially didn't cause any disturbance in the social and cultural structure of northern Vietnam, but after 150 years, a clash between Viet elites and Han imperially appointed governors led to the decline of local culture and rise of Han-oriented culture and language. [12] Phan postulates that the political events in or toward the 10th century (look into history topics for details) led the elites in northern Vietnam to shift their language allegiance. [12] For such condition to occur requires a community of Sinitic speakers within northern Vietnam that used the language regularly. [12] French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam (Trung Kỳ, central Vietnam), Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ, northern Vietnam), Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ, southern Vietnam, and Cambodia, with Laos added in 1893). [8] A few years later, French troops landed in northern Vietnam (which they called Tonkin) and captured Hà Nội twice in 1873 and 1882. [8]

In 1941 Nguyễn Ái Quốc, now known as Hồ Ch' Minh, arrived in northern Vietnam to form the Việt Minh Front, and it was supposed to be an umbrella group for all parties fighting for Vietnam's independence, but was dominated by the Communist Party. [8] He then renamed his newly acquired state from Văn Lang to u Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê in the present-day Phú Thọ town in northern Vietnam, where he tried to build the Cổ Loa Citadel (Cổ Loa Thành), the spiral fortress approximately ten miles north of that new capital. [8] Northern Vietnam (Dai Viet) opted for a centralized bureaucratic regime while the southern is based on a patron-client mechanism heavily relied on personalized rule. [8] They ruled northern Vietnam for decades, but did not declare themselves "King" like some Jiedushi's in China did. [12] Archeological excavations in Thailand and northern Vietnam (Dong Son, Hòa B"nh) revealed a major surprise: the first Southeast Asians had agriculture and pottery at the same time as the city-states of ancient Mesopotamia. [8]

During the Chinese domination of North Vietnam, several civilizations flourished in what is today central and south Vietnam, particularly the Funanese and Cham. [8]

The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư contained a constructed genealogy tracing back the political legitimacy of Vietnam's rulers to the Chinese Emperor Shennong similar to how the Northern Wei traced the legitimacy of the Tuoba to the Yellow Emperor. [8]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(13 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (117) Vietnam: History

2. (18) Vietnamese language genesis - A new mind-boggling theory

3. (9) How did Vietnam gain independence from China after 1,000 years? - Quora

4. (8) About Phan Thanh Giản | Writer | Vietnam ⋮ UpClosed

5. (6) Henry Whittaker History Of A Land Project - Vietnam Timeline | Preceden

6. (3) Kieu Tien - Address, Phone Number, Public Records | Radaris

7. (3) Kieu: What Is The Meaning Of The Name Kieu? Analysis Numerology Origin

8. (3) About Pétrus Ky | Historian, Linguist, Journalist, Writer | Vietnam ⋮ UpClosed

9. (2) The Birth of Vietnam by Keith Weller Taylor | LibraryThing

10. (2) Paracel Islands & Spratly Islands belong to Vietnam: Ngô Quyền and the Struggle for Independence

11. (1) Southern Han | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online

12. (1) Third Chinese Domination Of Vietnam | World eBook Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online

13. (1) What Does The Name Kieu Mean?

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