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Lý Dynasty (Vietnam)

Lý Dynasty (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • The period of rule under the Lý Dynasty (1009-1225) is commonly considered a golden age in Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across Southeast Asia and the Far East.(More...)
  • When the Lê emperor Lê Long Đĩnh died in his twenties, a court general named Lý Công Uẩn took the chance to take over the throne and founded the Lý dynasty.(More...)
  • In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam.(More...)
  • Whether arguing from the historical, bureaucratic model of a strong Chinese dynasty or the theoretical, economic model of the Asiatic Mode of Production, scholars in and out of Vietnam have favoured the idea that, beginning with the Lý, dynastic power in Vietnam was expressed as a centralized state that wielded effective administrative control over the different territories of the realm.(More...)
  • The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty).(More...)

  • As the economy of Song China continued to decline, Wang Anshi sought to expand by invading Vietnam to eradicate its debt and he falsified his report about the latest wars between Dai Viet and Champa as Vietnamese was "on the losing side".(More...)


The period of rule under the Lý Dynasty (1009-1225) is commonly considered a golden age in Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across Southeast Asia and the Far East. [1] One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the T y Sơn, and the Nguyễn. [2]

In a futile, but costly series of battles along the river of Như Nguyệt, neither side came on top. During the battle came the first officially documented use of public war propaganda in Vietnam in the form of Lý Thường Kiệt’s short poem (even though Lĩnh Nam Ch'ch Quái - a collection of Vietnamese myths and legends - had a similar story about the earlier war against Song in the Early Lê dynasty.) [3] Coordinated with Champa and Chenla armies attacking from the south, the Song army took Quảng Nguyên (part of the current-day Cao Bằng), drove deep into Vietnamese territory until hitting the defenses that Lý Thường Kiệt set up along the river Như Nguyệt (now the river Cầu) east of the current-day city of Bắc Ninh. [3] After Vietnamese diplomatic inquiries were unanswered, the Lý king Nh n Tông sent 100 thousand soldiers under the command of Lý Thường Kiệt and a Nng tribal leader named Tôn Đản to attack Guangxi by water and by land. [3]

In 1977, he noted that the court chronicles record frequent appearances of dragons during the Lý dynasty and that the Lý kings often presided over traditional religious rites such as oaths and covenants or prayers for rain; he went on to surmise that the Ly family tried to establish imperialistic rule over rival clans by transforming traditional Vietnamese customs into national religious rites. [4]

The Later Ly was the first stable Vietnamese dynasty and helped establish many of the characteristics of the modern Vietnamese state. [5] "Invasion" is not the suitable word to be used for describing this historical fact about Vietnamese dynasty Lý/李( they did not occupy any arch of land from the Song China). [3]

According to Dai Viet Su Ky Toan Thu, a famous book about Vietnamese history written by many generations of Vietnamese historians in the feudal time, Do Temple was built in 1019 by the first king of the Ly Dynasty, Ly Cong Uan or Ly Thai To and was enlarged by his son Ly Thai Tong in 1030. [6] The meaningful verses highly praised the architecture of Do Temple, which is in honor of the eight Kings of Ly Dynasty (1009-1225) in Vietnamese history. [6]

When the Lê emperor Lê Long Đĩnh died in his twenties, a court general named Lý Công Uẩn took the chance to take over the throne and founded the Lý dynasty. [7] Historians have attributed to Hồ family quite a few notable scholars, dignitaries, and government officials under both the Lý Dynasty and Trần Dynasty. [8] The Lý dynasty ( / l iː / LEE ; Vietnamese: ) ( Vietnamese : Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm : 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. [9] Established by the Lý Dynasty in the 11th century, and used as a command base throughout the American War of the 1970s, the Citadel of Hanoi was the seat of Vietnamese power for nearly a thousand years. [10] The Lý Dynasty, beginning in the 11th century is viewed specifically as the golden age of Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across East and Southeast Asia. [11]

The conventional view of the Lý dynasty has been that it established a centralized state power in Vietnam during the course of the eleventh century. [4] The Lý Dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few conquests against neighboring Champa in the south. [12] During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). [12] All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xu n. [12] When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009 AD, a Palace Guard Commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. [12] Toward the end of the Lý Dynasty, a powerful court minister named Trần Thủ Độ forced king Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông's young daughter, to become queen. [12]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [13] Vietnam was conquered and ruled by the Ming Dynasty of China between 1407 and 1427 CE; during this period, many classical Vietnamese books were burned under an extreme process of sinicization. [1]

The largest foreign influence on nhã nhạc came from the Ming dynasty court of China (the name Nhã nhạc derived from the Chinese characters 雅樂, meaning "elegant music"), later on a few elements from the music of Champa, which the Vietnamese court found intriguing, were also adopted. [14] Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Later Lê dynasty early period (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Later Lê dynasty warlord period (1533 to 1788) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords. [15] Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. [2] From 939 to 1945, Vietnam history experienced autonomous and wealthy feudal Vietnamese dynasties from Dinh Dynasty to Nguyen Dynasty. [13] It was the first Vietnamese dynasty that held onto power for more than several decades. [16] Lê Li then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái T and establishing the Lê dynasty (1428-1788). [15] Harivarman IV, who in 1074 founded the ninth Cham dynasty, was able to stave off further Vietnamese and Cambodian attacks, but in 1145 the Khmers, under the aggressive leadership of Suryavarman II, invaded and conquered Champa. [15] Imperial City, Huế: During the reign of the Nguyen dynasty, a new imperial citadel in Huế was built, based on the Chinese Forbidden city in Beijing, and also called the Purple forbidden city but employing many Vietnamese characteristics in its design. [14] The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. [15]

The golden age of Vietnamese art occurred during the Ly dynasty (1010 to 1225), and its ceramics became prized across East and Southeast Asia and as far away as the Middle East. [14] The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Li's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sn brothers took over. [15]

Whether arguing from the historical, bureaucratic model of a strong Chinese dynasty or the theoretical, economic model of the Asiatic Mode of Production, scholars in and out of Vietnam have favoured the idea that, beginning with the Lý, dynastic power in Vietnam was expressed as a centralized state that wielded effective administrative control over the different territories of the realm. [4] In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation to the end of the Tang Dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phng Hưng. [12] Art and architecture during the Lê Dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần Dynasty. [12]

In foreign relations with the Song dynasty during the Lý dynasty, Vietnam acted as a vassal state, although at its zenith it had sent troops into Chinese territory to fight the Song during the Lý-Song War. [9] Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty. [9] Private and government traders frequently visited Chinese trading ports in present Guangxi to exchange spices, ivory and salt for silk, the Lý dynasty founded the port of V n Đồn in modern Quảng Ninh Province, a major trading port in South East Asia for hundreds of years. [9] Both of them then had blossom closed relationship; in aim to overthrow the rule of Lý dynasty, Trần Thủ Độ had arranged the marriage for 2 people in next year and Trần Thừa later became the prince consort of Lý dynasty. [9] For reasons unknown, Emperor Cao Tông forbade the trade of salt and metal, giving rise to unrest and rebellions against the central court, which later led to the collapse of the Lý dynasty. [9] Different from his brother in law, Tô Hiến Thành was the loyal subject to the Lý dynasty with skills and talents in organising military, he helped army to invade Champa and Lan Xang In 1174, dauphin Lý Long Xưởng caused debauchery with concubine of emperor, so he was deposed and emperor Lý Anh Tông made Lý Long Cán as dauphin. [9] The young dauphin had to enthrone with title emperor Lý Cao Tông and Lý dynasty began deep in the decline. [9]

Soon afterwards, Vietnamese peasants began moving into the untilled former Cham lands, turning them into rice fields and moving relentlessly southward, delta by delta, along the narrow coastal plain, the Lý Emperors supported the improvement of Vietnam's agricultural system by constructing and repairing dikes and canals and by allowing soldiers to return to their villages to work for six months of each year. [9] The rule of Lý was transferred to Trần.Then the former emperor Huệ Tông was forced to commit suicide by Trần Thủ Độ at Ch n giáo pagoda.The Lý dynasty was collaped and Trần dynasty was officially established. [9] One of the big event of Lý dynasty is changing name of country from Đại Cồ Việt (大瞿越) to Đại Việt (大越) in 1054 under reign of Lý Thánh Tông. [9] The Lý dynasty encouraged trade with foreign countries, primarily with Song China, Java, and Siam. [9] The Lý dynasty was started by Lý Công Uẩn, a former temple orphan who had risen to commander of the palace guard, succeeded Lê Long Đĩnh of the Early Lê dynasty in 1009, thereby founding the Lý dynasty. [9]

The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). [12] The original Vietnamese design ought to be originated from the Hung Kings dynasty. [17] The Secret of early Vietnamese Coin Styles: Chinese Kai Yuan style on early Tran dynasty coins. [18] Actually, the early Nguyễn Dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Vietnamese dynasties did (like building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos, etc), except those feats were not enough in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics. [12] Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [12] Within French Indochina, Cochin China had the status of a French Colony, Annam was a Protectorate where the Nguyen Dynasty still ruled in name, and Tonkin had a French Governor yet local governments were run by Vietnamese officials. [12]

Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government. [9] After the defeat of the Trung sisters, the Eastern Han dynasty strengthened its control over the region in 43, as the Han dynasty weakened, the prefect of Giao Chỉ, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese Emperors. [9]

According to legend, during this time Lý Thường Kiệt had also composed the famous poem Nam quốc sơn hà (Rivers and Mountains of the South Nation), which asserted the sovereignty of Vietnam over its land, this poem is considered the first Vietnamese Declaration of independence. [9] The dynasty was capped when Lý Chiêu Hoàng took the throne at 6 years old, becoming the only reigning empress in the history of Vietnam. [19] Some of the noble scholar such as Lê Văn Thịnh, Bi Quốc Khái, Doãn Tử Tư, Đoàn Văn Kh m, Lý Đạo Thành, Tô Hiến Thành made vast contributions culturally and politically, allowing the dynasty to flourish for 216 years. [9] The emperor Lý Cao Tông enjoyed the luxury life and exploit the property of civilians to build the palace and castle and the hatred of people was being cumulated and some revolts happened, typically Quách Bốc rebellion (chữ Hán: 郭卜之亂, Quách Bốc chi loạn) that was the main reason of weakening the dynasty and the power was seized by the other houses. [9]

Very few direct details about his parents are known, however, the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn, at least on his paternal side, was accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng. [9]

Generally speaking, the worldview and life outlook of the Nguyn Dynasty, especially of the high stratum of king, officials, and intellectuals were those of Confucianism, which were applied, improvised, and localized in the Vietnamese society in the first half of the 19th Century. [20] The same type of currency circulated in China, Japan and Korea for centuries, the first Vietnamese coins were cast under the rule of the Đinh Dynasty. [9]

It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407, the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnams history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty, there was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. [9]

As the economy of Song China continued to decline, Wang Anshi sought to expand by invading Vietnam to eradicate its debt and he falsified his report about the latest wars between Dai Viet and Champa as Vietnamese was "on the losing side". [3] In March 1076, the fortress fell as Lý Thường Kiệts troops arrived, most of the 50 thousand people of Ung Ch u either committed suicide or were massacred as they had refused to surrender. [3]

The Ly Dynasty on that day, wanted to ensure that the Chinese would not be able to gather amount of military force to invade Vietnam. [3] As you know, the Song Dynasty of China was one of the most ineffective and unstable dynasties in Chinese history. [3] The Ly did not interfere but also uncertain about Song Dynasty, despite the Song Dynasty was in problem as well. [3]

Tiring of the costly war, the Song government readily accepted the Vietnamese proposal for an end to the fighting, and began the withdrawal in March 1077. [3] Since the Han, Chinese imperial dynasties made Confucianism the state doctrine; the Vietnamese monarchy gradually adopted it. [21] Under the Ly, Vietnamese influence spread southward into the area controlled by the Indianized kingdom of Champa. [5]

After a long period of subjugation by the Chinese feudal empire, a period marked by numerous insurrections, the Vietnamese people finally won back their independence in the 10th century. [21]

With a small kingdom formed from 五代十国 period, Ly dynasty was the first stable and durable imperial dynasty to establish and defend country from other threats. [3] Under the Ly Dynasty, Do Thien compiled a history of the country which, now lost, was mentioned in Viet Dien U Linh and Linh Nam Chich Quai. [21] In the 11th century, when the Ly dynasty was founded, the frontiers of Dai Viet in the north and northwest had not yet been clearly delimited. [21] To the south of the lake, there is a huge pavilion to preserve stone slabs inscribed with the merits of the eight kings of Ly Dynasty, and to the north of the lake, a 5-compartment floating house for visitors to take a rest. [6] Its capital was Thang Long (Hanoi). (It is "later" with respect to the Earlier Ly dynasty, founded by Ly Bon and lasting from 544 to 602/603.) [5]

The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Ly Nam De who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [13] While for much of its history, Vietnam remained a tributary state to the much larger neighbor China, it repelled repeated attempts by China to make it once again part of the Middle Kingdom empire, including the three invasions by the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, when China was under Mongolian rule. [7] Weakened by war, Vietnam was soon conquered by the Ming Dynasty from China and overthrew the Ho Dynasty. [22] Some people believe that the control of Triu Dynasty was the beginning of China's domination in Vietnam, as Triu à used to be a commander under dynastic China. [15] Others claim that this is still an independent period of Vietnam because of during this period, the people of Triu Dynasty were assimilated into the culture of Âu Lc. [15]

Although the leader of the most unpopular and probably the most hated dynasty in the history of Vietnam, Hồ Quý Ly nevertheless initiated many economic, financial and educational reforms. [8] In Ly Vietnam, the dynasty was eventually brought down from within with the accession of a child monarch and the domination of the court by the powerful Tran family. [23] In 1407, Vietnam fell under Ming dynasty domination, which lasted until 1427, they renamed the area " Giao Ch ". [15]

In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [15] In 981, Le Hoan, general of the Vietnamese army, saved Vietnam by ambushing an invading Chinese force. [23] When Chinese influence permeated Vietnam, Chinese architecture had a large influence on the basic structure of many types of Vietnamese buildings, mostly pagodas and temples, communal houses, houses of scholar-bureaucrats, aristocracy, and imperial palaces and quarters. [14]

South Vietnamese who opposed Diệm's rule and desired the reunification of Vietnam under the Hanoi government of Hồ Ch' Minh organized the National Liberation Front, better known as the Việt Cộng. [7] In 1941 Hồ Ch' Minh, a trained Communist revolutionary, returned to Vietnam and joined the Việt Minh, which means "Vietnamese Allied." [7]

After millions of Vietnamese deaths, and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the capture of Saigon by the North in April 1975. [7] Only France and the North Vietnamese government (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) had signed the document. [7] The Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam and a groups ethnic minority Protestant people in the northern and central highlands (T y Nguyên) who want to secede are also suppressed, the Vietnamese government claims this is a result of their political involvement rather than their religious beliefs. [7] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, populations of Cham nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now comprise one of the minority peoples of modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [7] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [7] Similar to the defeat of Champa, Vietnamese military victories in these territories initiated the large-scale colonization of what is now southern Vietnam by Kinh settlers in an area previously populated mainly by Khmers. [7] The modern name of Vietnam is known officially came under the Emperor Gia Long's reign, but recently historians have found that this name has been existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country name Vietnam. [7] History of Vietnam from late 1850s to 1949 witnessed two invasions of French and Japan, along with many uprisings and campaigns of Vietnamese patriots. [13] History Vietnam, according to Vietnamese legends, dates back more than 4,000 years. [7]

Throughout this time period, Europeans missionaries introduced Christianity to Vietnam and were successful in converting many Vietnamese. [22] French invasion in Vietnam officially ended with the victory of Vietnamese armed forces in Dien Bien Phu. [13] Despite France modernizing Vietnam with railroads and other technology, many Vietnamese resisted French authority and rebelled. [22] Those who remained in the territories settled by the Vietnamese settlers became the Khmer Krom minority of modern Vietnam and have maintained a distinct ethnic identity, despite substantial intermarriage with Vietnamese and widespread adoption of the Vietnamese language and cultural influence. [7] In 1976, Vietnam was officially reunited under the current Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. [7] The Vietnamese government announced in 2007 that there was a new public holiday in Vietnam called the Hùng Kings' Festival at the Hùng Temple. [15]

Almost all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the ruler's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are an attribute chosen by the first emperors. [7] Excavations of Chinese tombs in the area indicate that during the ten centuries of rule by the Chinese, Vietnamese began to apply newly learned Chinese techniques to art and specifically ceramics, in conjunction with the continued production of art based on local traditions. [14] Chinese-influenced philosophies such as Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Taoism left lasting impressions on Vietnamese culture and art, which continued to flourish between the 10th and 15th centuries after Chinese dominance had waned. [1] The tombs contain objects brought by Han from China, objects produced by the Vietnamese, and objects made by Vietnamese artisans according the specifications of their Chinese patrons. [14] For centuries Vietnamese calligraphy used Chinese characters (known as Hán tự in Vietnamese), and Chu Nom, an obsolete form of writing using characters based on the Chinese model that developed during the 10th century. [14] Chữ nôm, created around the tenth century, allowed writers to compose in Vietnamese using modified Chinese characters. [14] It blends southern Vietnamese folk songs, classical music, hát tuồng (a classical theater form based on Chinese opera), and modern spoken drama. [14]

Ancient Vietnamese people learnt the architectural knowledge of Chinese and applied suitably in Vietnam. [13] Consequences of Vietnam War are huge to Vietnam, deep division in Vietnamese people, and disorder in the U.S and other countries and all over the world. [13] After the end of the First Indochina War and the creation of North Vietnam and South Vietnam, there were two Vietnamese film industries, with the Hanoi industry focusing on propaganda films and Saigon producing mostly war-society-themed or comedy films. [14] This war began in 1406 when Emperor Yongle (Vietnamese: Minh Thành Tổ) sent Kwang Tung ("Hoang Trung" in Vietnamese) with an army of 500,000 to lead the invasion. [8]

It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bo i abdicated the throne and transferred power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [15] The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Li after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. [15] The Lê dynasty was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six year interruption of the Mc dynasty usurpers (1527-1533). [15] The Nguyễn Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, witnessed a renewed interest in ceramics and porcelain, which became famous and were imported to imperial courts across Asia. [1] History of Vietnam in early dynastic age from 2879 to 111 BC experienced three dynasties including Hong Bang Dynasty, Thuc Dynasty and Trieu Dynasty. [13] He founded the Hng Bàng Dynasty, whose members ruled Vietnam until 258 BC. So much of the vestiges from this time is now lost to the ages. [15]

During the Nguyen dynasty (1802-1945), the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, the ruling family patronized the production of ceramics and porcelain art for use by the court, and court music and dance, adapted from China, became highly developed. [14] The Nguyen dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, saw a renewed interest in ceramics and porcelain art. [14] The art of this period was heavily influenced by the Ming Dynasty, a process that continued even after the liberation of Vietnam by the Lê Dynasty (1428-1788). [1] The art of this period and the subsequent Le Dynasty was heavily influenced by the Chinese Ming dynasty artistic tradition. [14] Much of northern Vietnam (from the Red River delta down to about the region of modern Thanh Hóa province) was incorporated into the Chinese prefecture/commandery of Jiaozhi, or Giao Chỉ, through much of the Han dynasty and the period of the Three Kingdoms. [7] Korea was not united under a single Korean ruler until the 7th century when the Silla kingdom defeated other factions and kings in the peninsula and pushed out the Chinese T'ang dynasty from outposts in Northern Korea. [23] Under a new dynasty in the 6th century, Champa threw off its allegiance to China and entered into an era of great independent prosperity and artistic achievements. [15] Champa was formed in ad 192, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China, when the Han official in charge of the region established his own kingdom around the area of the present city of Hu. [15] Others consider it an era of independence, because the Trieu family ruled Nam Viet were assimilated with the locals, and they ruled independently of what then constituted as China (Han dynasty) until 111 BC, when the Han troops invaded Nam Viet, and incorporated its territory into the Han empire, including what is now part of Northern Vietnam turned into Giao Chi (Giao Chỉ/Jiaozhi) commandary. [7] The Tran Dynasty was forced to resign where Ho Quy Ly became the next ruler and changed the name of the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. [22] Dinh Bo Linh would eventually be successful to unify the country once again, beacme Emperor Dinh Tien Hoang, and founded the Dinh Dynasty where he renamed the country from Tinh Hai Quan to Dai Co Viet. [22] Dinh founded the Dinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself Emperor of Dai Co Viet (Đại Cồ Việt), with his capital located in Hoa Lu (Hoa Lư, modern day Ninh B"nh). [7]

He killed the Lê emperor and set himself as king, starting the Mạc dynasty. [7] The second dynasty of Hùng kings was founded by Lc Long Quân. [15] The ceramics from this period were thought to have been largely influenced by both ancient native styles and the Tang and later Song dynasty art. [14] This short period ended when the Koryo Dynasty rose to prominence in the 10th century. [23] The Tran Dynasty that immediately followed in the thirteenth century saw a more subdued approach to art. [14]

Koryo Korea lasted longer than the Ly Dynasty of Vietnam, and its early security was in part due to its warm relations with China, though nomadic tribes, such as the Khitan and Mongols, caused the Koryo their fair share of problems. [23] This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [15] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. [15]

Some Vietnamese considered this period under Trieu's rule a Chinese domination, because Trieu Da was a former Qin general who defeated An Duong Vuong to established his rule over the territory that is now Northern Vietnam. [7] It began with Kinh Dng Vng as the first Hùng King ( Hùng Vng ), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. [15] Lac Long Quan and Au Co had 100 sons before they split (50 went with their father to the mountains and 50 with their mother down to the sea) and the eldest one became the first in the lines of early Vietnamese kings, collectively known as Hung kings (Hung Vuong: Hng Vương). [7] According to Vietnamese myths, the first Vietnamese descended from the dragon lord Lac Long Quan (L ạc Long Qu n) and the heavenly spirit Au Co ( u Cơ). [7]

At the direction of Moscow, he first convinced everybody of his patriotic intention and absorbed the various Vietnamese revolutionist groups into the Việt Minh. [7] The United States became strongly opposed to Hồ Ch' Minh, who had now re-asserted the dominance of the Vietnamese Communist Party within the Việt Minh in 1950. [7] It also saw massive changes to Vietnamese society: the previously Buddhist state became Confucian after 20 years of Ming rule. [15] The Ly rulers improved the Vietnamese state infrastructure, building dikes and dams across the country to control the seasonal floods. [23] Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people, although Francophone Vietnamese and English-speaking Vietnamese authors in Australia and the United States are counted by many critics as part of the national tradition. [14]

By the early twentieth century, French art institutions such as the Fine Arts College of Indochine (FACI) taught European methods to Vietnamese artists, and French-influenced modern art mostly thrived in the big cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. [14] Hát chầu văn, or hát văn: A traditional Vietnamese folk art which combines trance singing and dancing which originated in the sixteenth century. [14] In the 10th century the Vietnamese kingdom of i Vit began to exert pressure on Champa, forcing it to relinquish Quang Nam in 1000 and Bình nh in 1069. [15] During his rule, he started to expand Vietnamese territory south by invading the Champa Kingdom. [22] After April 30th, 1975, many of those who held high positions in the old South Vietnamese government were persecuted, and sent to reeducation camps. [7]

Vietnamese feature film output increased and by 1978, the number of feature films made each year was boosted from around three annually during the war years to 20. [14] The only reliable sources, however, indicate the Vietnamese or their country's history roughly dates to 2700 years ago. [7] Comedy movies were usually released around Tet, the Vietnamese New Year; most notable was Triệu Phú Bất Đắc Dĩ (The Reluctant Millionaire) starring the well loved comedian Thanh Việt. [14]

The Vietnamese forces, under the command of Trn Hng o (1228-1300), lay in wait for the invasion fleet, comprising 18,000 men and 400 vessels commanded by the Mongol general Omar Batur, knowing that they would have to return to China through the estuary at the mouth of the Bach Dang River. [15] The descendants took the title of Hùng Vng after the first king, and many Vietnamese folktales include mention of them. [15] After a long period of development, Vietnamese silk painting emphasizing softness, elegance and flexibility of style reached its height between 1925 and 1945. [14] It flourished in the eighteenth century when many notable Vietnamese writers and poets composed their works in chữ nôm and when it briefly became the official written script. [14] When Liu Hongcao arrived in Vietnamese waters with the Southern Han expedition, his plan was to ascend the Bch ng River and to place his army in the heart of Giacannoto Chau before disembarking; the Bch ng was the major river route into the Red River plain from the north. [15] This is not the last time Vietnamese battled with the powerful northern neighbor. [13] Vietnamese art ecompasses art created in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists, from ancient times to the present. [14]

Established by the Cham, a people of Malayo-Polynesian stock and Indianized culture, Champa was finally absorbed by the Vietnamese, who in turn were strongly influenced by Cham culture. [15] Modern Vietnamese artists began to utilize French techniques with many traditional mediums such as silk and lacquer, creating a unique blend of eastern and western elements. [14] During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, French influence was absorbed into Vietnamese art and the liberal and modern use of color especially began to differentiate Vietnamese silk paintings from their Chinese or Japanese counterparts. [14] During a thousand years of Chinese domination starting in the second century B.C.E., Vietnamese art absorbed many Chinese influences, which continued even after Vietname became independent from China in the tenth century C.E. [14] Northern Vietnamese art and architecture was highly influenced by over a century of Chinese domination. [1]

During the nineteenth century, French art strongly influenced the development of modern Vietnamese art. [14]

The Nguyen Dynasty was still allowed to rule over Vietnam but had to follow French requests. [22] The independence of Vietnam was just secured for 60 years until in 602 AD when Sui Dynasty reestablished control over northern Vietnam, starting the third domination. [13] During these 20 years, the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty administrators. [15] Because of the short span of the Hồ Dynasty and the tragic circumstances he brought upon the country, under the juggle of the Ming, the family name "Hồ" was disgraced thereafter. [8] In 1400, the founder of the H dynasty, H Quý Ly, changed the country's name to "i Ngu". [15] In 1838, during the Nguyễn Dynasty, the nation's name was changed temporarily to Đại Nam (大南). [7]

The Tran Dynasty faced continuous border conflicts with the Champa in the south. [22] This particular technique had also been used in the same general area on two previous occasions in 938 AD, when Ngô Quyn defeated the Southern Han Dynasty army, and in 981 AD, when Lê Hoan ordered stakes to be placed to block the Song Dynasty army. [15] Some are not considered official, such as the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the T y Sơn dynasty. [7]

While China was at times an enemy, the Chinese state bureaucracy also served as a model for the Ly Dynasty. [23] The last Emperor of the Lê dynasty, Lê Chiêu Thống, then went to the Qing Manchu Chinese emperor and asked for troops to put down this pesant rebellion. [7] The Trần Dynasty became known for emperors who reigned for only a few years before relinquishing the throne to a favorite son, and becoming Thái Thượng Hoàng Đế, the first dynasty to take the name of Father of "Hoàng Đế" emperor title. [8] The Nguyen dynasty also patronized the performing arts, such as imperial court music and dance, which became highly developed. [14]

The Capital of the Ly Dynasty was Đại La Citadel, which was later renamed Thăng Long and subsequently Hanoi. [16]

The name of the country was changed to Đại Việt by Emperor Lý Thánh Tông in 1054. [16] During the late Lý era, a court official named Trần Thủ Độ became powerful. [7]

Throughout this 1000 years of rule, the Vietnamese people managed to retain their identity yet at the same time integrated a lot of Chinese culture. [22] Although Au Lac people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over 1000 years. [13] Getting difficulty in westward expansion as the western Truong Son Mountains Range, Vietnamese people went to the south to enlarge their country. [13]

This is an important historic period proving the patriotism of Vietnamese people through typical revolts of Trung Sisters, Ly Nam De, Khuc Thua Du, and Ngo Quyen to regain autonomy. [13]

Vietnamese art and architecture has a long, rich history and has been shaped by the interaction of local customs with foreign cultures. [1]

These are names of Vietnam's greatest national heroes who, over the last 2000 years, have led the country in its repeated expulsion of foreign invaders and whose exploits have inspired subsequent generations of patriots. [7]

The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam). [12] Afterunnumbered wars, the refinement of Vietnamese architecture continues to be well presented in Hanoi Old Quarter, Vietnam ethnic stilt houses and myriad of temples and pagodas, communal houses, ancient villages across the country. [17] Copy at, After millions of Vietnamese deaths and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. [12] In the north, Chiang Kaishek's army entered Vietnam, also to disarm the Japanese, followed by the forces of the non-Communist Vietnamese parties, such as Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng and Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. [12] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh (Việt) settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [12] For those people who have visited Vietnam or those who are familiar with the Vietnamese culture and its people, it’s a safe guess that they have encountered several people who have the surname Nguyễn. [24] In 1976, Vietnam was officially reunited under the North Vietnamese government as "The Socialist Republic of Vietnam". [25] The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. [12] Written while living in Asia, the author presents the more accurate Asian view of Vietnamese numismatics based on earlier works from Vietnam, Japan, and China while correcting misconceptions that have propagated from early Western works. [18] Vietnam descended into violence -- rival Vietnamese factions clashing with each other and with the French. [25] In late 1978, following repeated raids by the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia into Vietnamese territory, Vietnam sent troops to overthrow Pol Pot. [12] Most groups attempted to infiltrate Vietnam but eventually were eliminated by Vietnamese security and armed forces. [12] NLF and North Vietnamese forces even captured the city of Huế, after which many mass graves were found with victims being executed for having relations with the South Vietnamese government or the U.S. (Thảm Sát Tết Mậu Th n). [12] North Vietnamese troops failed to penetrate the line and had to make a detour, which the South Vietnamese failed to stop due to lack of troops. [12] Nixon proposed "Vietnamization" of the war, with South Vietnamese troops taking charge of the fighting, yet still receiving American aid and, if necessary, air and naval support. [12] President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered the moving of all troops from the Central Highland to the coastal areas, as with shrinking American aid, South Vietnamese forces could not afford to spread too thin. [12] Copy at, Although the American-led troops succeeded in containing the advance of Communist forces, the presence of foreign troops, the widespread bombing over all of Vietnam, and the social vices that mushroomed around U.S. bases upset the sense of national pride among many Vietnamese, North and South, causing many to become sympathetic to North Vietnam and the NLF. [12] Due to lack of experience and logistics for such a large troop movement in such a short time, the whole South Vietnamese 2nd Corps got bogged down on narrow mountain roads, flooded with thousands of civilian refugees, and was decimated by ambushes along the way. [12] Hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese fled the country by all means: airplanes, helicopters, ships, fishing boats, barges, etc. Most were picked up by the U.S. Seventh Fleet in the South China Sea or landed in Thailand. [12] In 1960, at the Third Party Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party (renamed Labor Party on the surface since 1951), Lê Duẩn arrived from the South and strongly proposed the use of revolutionary warfare to topple Diệm's regime, unifying the country, and build Marxist-Leninist socialism. [12] The Vietnamese Communist Party dropped its front name "Labor Party" and changed the title of First Secretary (used by China) to Secretary General (used by the Soviet Union), with Lê Duẩn remained Secretary General. [12] Beside supplying materials, Chinese cadres also pressured the Vietnamese Communist Party, copy at, then under First Secretary Trường Chinh, to emulate their brand of revolution, unleashing a purge of "bourgeois and feudal" elements from the Viet Minh ranks, carrying out a ruthless and bloody land reform campaign (Cải Cách Ruộng Đất), and denouncing "bourgeois and feudal" tendencies in arts and literature. [12] The Period of Division with many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ng m) by Đặng Trần Côn (Chinese script version) and Đoàn Thị Điểm (Nôm version), and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xu n Hương. [12] During the 1930s, the Vietnamese Communist Party was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Trần Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ. [12] The Comintern sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1930, in Hongkong, with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [12]

Emperor Lê Hoàn was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [12] This war began in 1406 when Emperor Yongle (Vietnamese: Minh Thành T?) sent Kwang Tung ("Hoang Trung" in Vietnamese) with an army of 500,000 to lead the invasion. [26] From China, other non-Communist Vietnamese parties also joined Việt Minh and established armed forces with backing from the Guomingtang. [12] While others fled to China, most of the Vietnamese who feared being executed of the newly established regime chose to change their surnames to Nguyễn. [24] After Gia Định fell to French troops, many Vietnamese resistance movements broke out in occupied areas, some led by former court officers, such as Trương Định, some by peasants, such as Nguyễn Trung Trực, who sunk the French gunship L'Esperance using guerilla tactics. [12] South Vietnamese troops previously anticipated attack against the neighboring province of Pleiku, and were caught off guard. [12] Many of those who held high positions in the old South Vietnamese government and military, together with influential people in the literary and religious circles, were sent to reeducation camps, which were actually hard labor prison camps. [12] In response to the failure of establishing unifying elections, the National Liberation Front (NLF or Viet Cong ) was formed as a guerrilla movement in opposition to the South Vietnamese government. (The RVN and the U.S. referred to the NLF as Viet Cong, short for Viet Nam Cong San, or "Vietnamese Communist". [25] The young North Vietnamese were idealistically and innocently patriotic, ready to commit utmost sacrifice for the "liberation of the South" and the "unification of the motherland". [12] By the mid 1970s, he had leaned toward the "Third Party" (Thành Phần Thứ Ba), South Vietnamese elites who favored dialogues and cooperation with the North. [12] In 1968, the NLF launched a massive and surprise Tết Offensive (known in South Vietnam as "Biến Cố Tết Mậu Th n" or in the North as "Cuộc Tổng Tấn Công và Nổi Dậy Tết Mậu Th n"), attacking almost all major cities in South Vietnam over the Vietnamese New Year (Tết). [12] In subsequent major offensives in later years, copy at, North Vietnamese regulars with artillery and tanks took over the fighting. [12]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(28 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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3. (29) Vietnamese History - VIETNAMESE CULTURAL GARDEN

4. (28) Vietnamese art - New World Encyclopedia

5. (21) Lý dynasty - WikiVividly

6. (13) Chinese domination of Vietnam

7. (11) Why did Vietnams Ly Dynasty invade China? - Quora

8. (9) History - Vietnamese Student Association

9. (7) Vietnamese Art | Boundless Art History

10. (7) Vietnam & Korea (1000-1300 CE): Overview & Influences - Video & Lesson Transcript |

11. (6) Vietnamese Architecture - Reflecting One Part of Vietnamese Culture - Travel Guide - BestPrice Travel

12. (6) History of Vietnam

13. (5) HO DYNASTY | Vietnam History | Vietnam

14. (4) Ly Dynasty (1010-1225) - Viet Nam-Country and People - National Administration of Tourism

15. (4) Why 40% of Vietnamese People Have Nguyen For a Last Name

16. (4) HO DYNASTY

17. (3) Vietnam: Later Ly Dynasty Flashcards

18. (3) Tale of Vietnamese Dragon

19. (3) CHP-199-The History of China-Vietnam Relations Part 3 Teacup Media

20. (3) Authority and Legitimacy in 11th Century Vietnam (Chapter 7) - Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th Centuries

21. (3) Later Ly dynasty | Vietnamese history |

22. (3) The Temple honoring the Kings of Ly Dynasty

23. (2) The Historical Cash Coins of Vietnam - Dr. R Allan Barker

24. (2) A History of Court and Commoner Clothing in Vietnam | Cross-Currents

25. (1) Journey through Vietnams Past: Visiting the Citadel of Hanoi

26. (1) Vietnamese Art | Vietnam Travel Guide

27. (1) SEA Dynasties: What happened to the royal family in Vietnam? - Trunk Lines

28. (1) English/Vietnamese Handbook on Philosophy and Political Economy

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