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Majapahit History (1293–1500)

Majapahit History (1293–1500)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • The Trowulan archaeological area has become the center for the study of Majapahit history.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The literature of Majapahit was the continuation of Javanese Kawi Hindu-Buddhist scholarly tradition that produces kakawin poem that has been developed in Java since the 9th century Medang Mataram era, all the way through Kadiri and Singhasari periods.(More...)
  • Because of their strategic location, Majapahit was blessed with great fortune which enable them to support large kingdom (later empire) with large army to control the Java sea trade and border expansion.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
The Trowulan archaeological area has become the center for the study of Majapahit history. [1] The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness. [1] The Javanese Hindu civilisation since the era of Airlangga to the era of Majapahit kings has profoundly influenced and shaped the Balinese culture and history. [1] Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains, and some details of the history are rather abstract. ( p18 ) Nevertheless, local Javanese people did not forget Majapahit completely, as Mojopait is mentioned vaguely in Babad Tanah Jawi, a Javanese chronicle composed in the 18th century. [1] This expansion marked the greatest extent of Majapahit, making it one of the most influential empires in the Indonesian history. [1]

During the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit employed a well-organised bureaucratic structure for administrative purposes, the hierarchy and structure relatively remain intact and unchanged throughout Majapahit history. [2] The Trowulan archaeological area has become the center for the study of Majapahit history, the aerial and satellite imagery has revealed extensive network of canals criss-crossing the Majapahit capital. [2] The Javanese Hindu civilization since the era of Airlangga to the era of Majapahit kings has profoundly influenced and shaped the Balinese culture and history. [3] This expansion marked the greatest extent of Majapahit, making it one of the most influential empires in the Indonesian history, it is considered as a commercial trading empire in the civilisation of Asia. [2] The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and his rule was marked by the victory against the army and the navy of Kublai Khans Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire. [2]

Majapahit kingdom is the kingdom of the last Hindu-Buddhist master of the Malay Peninsula and is regarded as one of the greatest country in history unfolds Indonesia.Kekuasaannya in Java, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulu Archipelago, Manila (Saludung), east to Indonesia, although the power is still being debated. [4] The Majapahit empire was the last of the major Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history. [5]

The Majapahit Empire was the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that ruled the archipelago and is considered one of the greatest country in the history of Indonesia. [6] Complete History Majapahit Empire - empire is one of the great kingdom in the archipelago. [7]

Intresting facts about Majapahit Empire. -Mjapahit was one of the major empires of the regin and is considered yo be one of the greatest and most powerful empires in the history of indonesia. [8]

The kingdom of Majapahit Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that controls the final archipelago and is considered as one of the greatest country in the history of Indonesia. [9] Majapahit was the last Hindu Kingdom ruled over nusantara and considered as one of the biggest kingdoms in Indonesia history. [10] Kingdom of Majapahit adl last Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms who master the Malay Peninsula and is considered as one of the largest state in Indonesia's history. [11] There is little physical evidence remains of Majapahit and history major who jelas.Sumber not be used by historians adl Pararaton - The Book of Kings in the Kawi language and Java language Nagarakertagama Kuno.Pararaton especially telling Ken Arok (founder Singhasari ) but also includes several short sections on the form of Majapahit. [11] Majapahit has the structure and composition of the government bureaucracy who regularly during the reign of Hayam Wuruk and visible structure and the bureaucracy have not changed much during the development of its history. [11] Majapahit kingdom was Hindu- Buddhist kingdom that controlled the Malay Peninsula last and regarded as one of the greatest country in the history of Indonesia.Kekuasaannya unfolds in Java, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulu Islands, Manila ( Saludung ), to eastern Indonesia, although the area power is still debated. [12] History - Majapahit kingdom Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia who had stood from about 1293 to 1500 AD The kingdom reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who reigned from 1350 to 1389. [12]

Hayam Wuruk was the ruler of the mighty Javanese Hindu Empire of Majapahit (1293-1500), an extraordinary era of Indonesia's rich history. [13] At the time, Raden Wijaya is son-Kertanegara given a land named Tarik which he used to build a village that became the beginning of the history of the establishment of the kingdom of Majapahit. [14] The Kingom Of Majapahit Have you heard about Majapahit Kingdom in Indonesian history ? Majapahit was a vast archipelagic empire location on the Eastern part of Java (1293-1500 AD) ORIENTATION East Javanese history was divided into three dynasty periods. [15] How much influence did the majapahit empire have on the indonesian archipelago majapahit empire influence does not a history of modern indonesia. [16]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
The literature of Majapahit was the continuation of Javanese Kawi Hindu-Buddhist scholarly tradition that produces kakawin poem that has been developed in Java since the 9th century Medang Mataram era, all the way through Kadiri and Singhasari periods. [1] Majapahit art was the continuation of East Javanese art, style and aesthetic developed since the 11th century during Kediri and Singhasari period. [1]

According to the Nagarakretagama ( Desawarñana ) written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea ; ( p87 ) consisting of present-day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, and East Timor, although the true nature of Majapahit sphere of influence is still the subject of studies among historians. [1] In the western part of the crumbling empire, Majapahit found itself unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca that in the mid-15th century began to gain effective control of Malacca Strait and expand its influence to Sumatra. [1] Under Gajah Mada's command (1313-64), Majapahit conquered more territories and became the regional power. : 234 According to the Nagarakretagama, canto XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago and some parts of the Visayas islands as under Majapahit realm of power. [1]

After the fall of Majapahit, the Hindu kingdoms in Java only remained in Blambangan on the eastern edge and Pajajaran in the western part. [1] During its formation, Majapahit traditional realm only consists of lesser vassal kingdoms (provinces) in eastern and central Java. [1]

This novel describes the sagas, royal intrigues, and romance of the formation of the kingdom as well as the adventure of the main character, a commoner named Upasara Wulung and his forbidden love affair with princess Gayatri Rajapatni, whom later becomes the consort of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit. [1] The Javanese kingdom mentioned in this record is Majapahit, and the time of his visit is between 1318-1330 during the reign of Jayanegara. [1] Ma Huan visited Java during Zheng He's 4th expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana. [1] Zheng He's translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description of Majapahit and where the king of Java lived. [1]

Majapahit core realm and provinces ( Mancanagara ) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali. [1] In weaponry, the Majapahit expansion is believed to be responsible for the widespread use of the keris dagger in Southeast Asia; from Java, Bali, Sumatra, Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Thailand, to the Philippines. [1] Majapahit was the largest empire ever to form in Southeast Asia. ( p107 ) Although its political power beyond the core area in east Java was diffuse, constituting mainly ceremonial recognition of suzerainty, Majapahit society developed a high degree of sophistication in both commercial and artistic activities. [1] It is also due to the fact that after the fall of the empire, many Majapahit nobles, artisans and priests had taken refuge either in the interior mountainous region of East Java or across the narrow strait to Bali. [1]

He is the leader of the Indonesian civilisation, with the emblem of the Indonesian empire being the Surya Majapahit, although in the game the empire is known as the "Indonesian empire" instead. [1] The Ming's support for Malacca has weakened Majapahit maritime influence in the region that finally reduced only in Java sea and eastern Indonesian waters. [1] Perhaps the most significant Chinese intervention was its support for the newly established Sultanate of Malacca, as a rival and counter-weight to the Majapahit influence of Java. [1] The Hindu Majapahit were the most powerful maritime power in Southeast Asian seas that time and were opposed to Chinese expansion into their sphere of influence. [1] According to Babad Tanah Jawi and Demak tradition, the source of Patah's legitimacy was because their first sultan, Raden Patah, was the son of Majapahit king Brawijaya V with a Chinese concubine. [1] Demak came under the leadership of Raden (later crowned as Sultan) Patah (Arabic name: Fatah), who was acknowledged as the legitimate successor of Majapahit. [1] After this coup, the war between Demak and Daha receded, with some sources saying Raden Patah, Sultan of Demak, left Majapahit alone as his father had done before, while others said Udara agreed to become a vassal of Demak, even marrying Raden Patah's youngest daughter. [1] Another argument supports Demak as the successor of Majapahit; the rising Demak sultanate was easily accepted as the nominal regional ruler, as Demak was the former Majapahit vassal and located near the former Majapahit realm in Eastern Java. [1] Kertabhumi managed to reverse this event, under his rule he allied Majapahit with Muslim merchants, giving them trading rights on the north coast of Java, with Demak as its centre and in return he asked for their loyalty to Majapahit. [1] Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit. [1]

Mancanegara, areas surrounding Negara Agung -- traditionally refer to Majapahit provinces in East and Central Java. [1] He argued that Majapahit territory was confined only in East and Central Java. [1]

The aesthetics and style of bas-reliefs in Majapahit East Javanese temples were preserved and copied in Balinese temples. [1] Examples of Majapahit statues are the Harihara statue from Simping temple, believed to be the deified portrayal of King Kertarajasa, the statue of Parwati believed to be the portrayal of Queen Tribhuwana, and statue of queen Suhita discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java. [1] In 1357 the Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit to accompany and marry his daughter to Hayam Wuruk. : 239 However, Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda's submission to Majapahit overlordship. [1] During his inauguration Gajah Mada declared his Sumpah Palapa, revealing his plan to expand Majapahit realm and building an empire. [1] Subsequently, in 1377--a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang, ( p19 ) contributing to the end of Srivijayan successor kingdom. [1] In the 14th century a Malay Kingdom of Singapura was established, and it promptly attracted a Majapahit navy that regarded it as Tumasik, a rebellious colony. [1] Through this campaign, Majapahit planted a vassal dynasty that would rule the Bali Kingdom in the following centuries. [1] In some ways the Kingdom of Bali was the successor of Majapahit. [1] Bali in particular was heavily influenced by Majapahit and the Balinese consider themselves to be the true heirs of the kingdom. [1] Deposed Singhawikramawardhana retreated upstream of Brantas River, moved the kingdom’s capital further inland to Daha (the former capital of Kediri kingdom ), effectively splitting Majapahit, under Bhre Kertabumi in Trowulan and Singhawikramawardhana in Daha. [1] Majapahit (sometimes also spelled Mojopait ) is also known by other names: Wilwatikta, although sometimes the natives refer to their kingdom as Bhumi Jawa or Mandala Jawa instead. [1] Mitreka Satata can be considered as Majapahit's allies, since other foreign kingdoms in China and India were not included in this category, although Majapahit is known to have conducted foreign relations with these nations. [1]

Like Majapahit, the modern state of Indonesia covers vast territory and is politically centred on Java. [1] The Majapahit architectural style that often employs terracotta and red brick heavily influenced the architecture of Java and Bali in the later period. [1] The Majapahit Hindu-Javanese culture has shaped the culture of Bali, that led to popular expression; "without Java there is no Bali". [1]

Arya Kenceng led his brothers to govern Bali under Majapahit suzerainty, and he would become the progenitor of the Balinese kings of the Tabanan and Badung royal houses. [1] Under the initiative of her able and ambitious prime minister, Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent its armada to conquer the neighbouring island of Bali. : 234 According to the Babad Arya Tabanan manuscript, in 1342 Majapahit forces led by Gajah Mada, assisted by his general Arya Damar, the regent of Palembang, landed in Bali. [1] During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of prime minister Gajah Mada. [1]

Following Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, Majapahit power entered a period of decline with conflict over succession. : 241 Hayam Wuruk was succeeded by the crown princess Kusumawardhani, who married a relative, Prince Wikramawardhana. [1] Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia. [1] The Nagarakretagama is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk, after which some events are covered narratively. ( p18 ) The Dutch acquired the manuscript in 1894 during their military expedition against the Cakranegara royal house of Lombok. [1] During the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit employed a well-organised bureaucratic structure for administrative purposes. [1]

The rulers of Majapahit was the dynastic continuity of the Singhasari kings, which started by Sri Ranggah Rajasa, the founder of Rajasa dynasty in the late 13th century. [1] The Chinese accounts on Majapahit, mainly owed to the 15th century Zheng He's account -- a Ming Dynasty admiral reports during his visit to Majapahit between 1405 and 1432. [1] While in later period, Yingya Shenglan mentioned that large numbers of Chinese traders and Muslim merchants from west (from Arab and India, but mostly from Muslim states in Sumatra and Malay peninsula) are settling in Majapahit port cities, such as Tuban, Gresik and Hujung Galuh (Surabaya). [1] Previously, Majapahit has succeed to assert its influence in Malacca strait by contained the aspiration of Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to ever reach the geopolitical might like those of Srivijaya. [1] The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. [1]

The current prevalence of Majapahit style pendopo pavilion, candi bentar and paduraksa gates, was owed to the influence of Majapahit aesthetics on Javanese and Balinese architecture. [1] The name Majapahit derives from local Javanese, meaning "bitter maja ". [1] The name originally referred to the area in and around Trowulan, the cradle of Majapahit, which was linked to the establishment of a village in Tarik timberland by Raden Wijaya. [1] The Brantas river valley corridor, connecting Majapahit Trowulan area to Canggu and estuarine areas in Kahuripan (Sidoarjo) and Hujung Galuh port (Surabaya) are considered as parts of Negara Agung. [1]

Jero Wacik, the Indonesian Minister of Culture and Tourism stated that the Majapahit Park would be built on the site and completed as early as 2009, to prevent further damage caused by home-made brick industries that developed in the surrounding area. [1] Indonesian founding fathers--especially Sukarno and Mohammad Yamin, built a historical construct around Majapahit to argue for the ancient unified realm, as a predecessor of modern Indonesia. [1] For Indonesians in later centuries, Majapahit became a symbol of past greatness. [1] Later, in Civilization 6 (2016), a downloadable content has one of its rulers, Dyah Gitarja (referred as Gitarja in-game) as the leader of the Indonesian civilization, with the emblem being a simpler version of the Surya Majapahit. [1] Majapahit had a momentous and lasting influence on Indonesian architecture. [1] The current Indonesian president is often portrayed as a Majapahit monarch or prime minister. [1]

After seven months of battles, Majapahit forces defeated the Balinese king and captured the Balinese capital of Bedulu in 1343. [1] Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture. [1] In later period near the fall of Majapahit, the art and architecture of Majapahit witnessed the revival of indigenous native Austronesian megalithic architectural elements, such as Sukuh and Cetho temples on western slopes of Mount Lawu. [1] Those typical Majapahit architectural style has deeply influenced the Javanese and Balinese architecture of later period. [1]

In its propaganda from the 1920s, the Communist Party of Indonesia presented its vision of a classless society as a reincarnation of a romanticised Majapahit. ( p174 ) It was invoked by Sukarno for nation building and by the New Order as an expression of state expansion and consolidation. [1] The Nagarakretagama states that the fame of the ruler of Wilwatikta (a synonym for Majapahit) attracted foreign merchants from far and wide, including Indians, Khmers, Siamese, and Chinese among others. [1] The Chinese historical sources on Majapahit mainly acquired from the chronicles of Yuan and following Ming dynasty. [1] Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. [1] Large numbers of Majapahit manuscripts, such as Nagarakretagama, Sutasoma, Pararaton and Tantu Pagelaran, were being well-kept in royal libraries of Bali and Lombok, and provides the glimpse and valuable historical records on Majapahit. [1] The chronicle described that the Majapahit invasion was a punishment for Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir's crime on ruining a royal marriage between Pasai Prince Tun Abdul Jalil and Raden Galuh Gemerencang, a Majapahit princess -- that led to the death of the royal couple. [1] The Indonesian national flag "Sang Merah Putih" ("Red and White") or sometimes called "Dwiwarna" ("The bicolor"), derived from the Majapahit royal colour. [1] The Indonesian national motto, " Bhinneka Tunggal Ika ", is a quotation from an Old Javanese poem "Kakawin Sutasoma", written by a Majapahit poet, Mpu Tantular. [1]

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in 1350-89. [1] Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Dyah Gitarja, or known in her formal regnal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni's auspices. [1]

Some scholars has discounted this claim as merely a sphere of limited influence, or even just a statement of geographical knowledge. ( p87 ) Scholars, such as historian Hasan Djafar, argued that Nusantara should be translated as "other islands", which denotes that they are beyond Majapahit sovereignty. [1] It refers to independent foreign states considered as Majapahit's equals, not the subject of Majapahit powers. [1] The Majapahit Empire ( Javanese : ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Indonesian : Kerajaan Majapahit ) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500. [1] Expansion of the Majapahit Empire started in Trowulan Majapahit in the 13th century and extended to much of the Indonesian archipelago until it receded and fell in the early 16th century. [1]

Majapahit did produce physical evidence: the main ruins dating from the Majapahit period are clustered in the Trowulan area, which was the royal capital of the kingdom. [1] Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style. [1] Other than Javanese sources, some regional legends mentioning Majapahit kingdom or its general Gajah Mada, also can be found; from Aceh, Minangkabau, Palembang, Malay Peninsula, Sunda, Brunei, Bali to Sumbawa. [1] In 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. : 200-201 The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to 10 November 1293. [1] In West Sumatra, the legend of Minangkabau mentioned an invading foreign prince -- associated with Javanese Majapahit kingdom -- being defeated in a buffalo fight. [1]

Notable Javanese literary works dated from earlier period, such as Kadiri's 11th century Kanwa's Arjunawiwaha, 12th century Dharmaja's Smaradahana, Sedah's Bharatayuddha, Panuluh's Hariwangsa also popular Panji cycles are continuously preserved and rewritten by Rakawi (Hindu-Buddhist poet or scholar) in Majapahit era. [1] The statue and relief of Garuda have been found in many temples in Java such as Prambanan from the ancient Mataram era, and the Panataran as well as the Sukuh temple dated from the Majapahit era. [1] This Ming dynasty voyages is extremely important for Majapahit historiography, since Zheng He's translator Ma Huan wrote Yingya Shenglan, a detailed description of Majapahit, which provides a valuable insight on the culture, customs, also various social and economic aspects of Java during Majapahit period. [1] In Yingya Shenglan -- a record about Zheng He's expedition (1405-1433) -- Ma Huan describes the culture, customs, various social and economic aspects of Chao-Wa (Java) during Majapahit period. [1]

Approximately during Jayanegara's reign, the Italian Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited the Majapahit court in Java. [1] Composed by Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk. [1] In about the year 1300, in the reign of Majapahit's first king, an important change took place: the indigenous coinage was completely replaced by imported Chinese copper cash. [1] The Majapahit Empire had trading links with Chinese Ming dynasty, Annam and Champa in today Vietnam, Cambodia, Siamese Ayutthayan, Burmese Martaban and the south Indian Vijayanagara Empire. [1] It describes the decaying Majapahit empire where royals are fighting each other for power while the commoners suffer. [1] The model of political formations and power diffusion from its core in the Majapahit capital city that radiates through its overseas possessions, was later identified by historians as " mandala " model. [1]

The Majapahit temple architecture follows the east Javanese styles, in contrast of earlier central Javanese style. [1] These areas are directly influenced by Javanese Majapahit court culture, and obliged to pay annual tributes. [1]

With the fall of Daha, crushed by Demak in 1517, ( pp36-37 ) the Muslim emerging forces finally defeated the remnants of the Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century. [1] Indonesian Ancient Relics Conservation Bureau (BP3) of East Java verified that those coins dated as early as Majapahit era. [1] The large split gate of Wringin Lawang located at Jatipasar, Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java, is one of the oldest and the largest surviving candi bentar dated from Majapahit era. [1] Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period. [1]

Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts of 14th-century Majapahit's power in more or less legendary form. [1]

Demak established itself as the regional power and the first Islamic sultanate in Java, after the fall of Majapahit, the Hindu kingdoms in Java only remained in Blambangan on the eastern edge and Pajajaran in the western part. [2] Under his rule, Majapahit extended its power throughout the Indonesian archipelago, according to Pararaton and Kidung Sunda, in 1357 King Hayam Wuruk was expected to marry Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi, the princess of the Sunda Kingdom. [2] It takes place in the late Singhasari period and formation of Majapahit, this novel describes the sagas, royal intrigues, and romance of the formation of the kingdom as well as the adventure of the main character, a commoner named Upasara Wulung and his forbidden love affair with princess Gayatri Rajapatni, whom later becomes the consort of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit. [2] During its formation, Majapahit traditional realm only consists of lesser vassal kingdoms (provinces) in eastern and central Java, this region is ruled by provincial kings called Paduka Bhattara with the title Bhre. [2] Begun as a popular radio drama program in the late 1980s, Saur Sepuh is based on 15th-century Java, centred around the story about a fictional hero named Brama Kumbara, the king of Madangkara, a fictional kingdom neighbour of the Pajajaran ; in several stories the Paregreg war is described, that is to say the civil war of Majapahit between Wikramawardhana and Bhre Wirabhumi. [2] These family conflicts and the growing power of the north-coastal kingdoms in Java gradually brought about the decline of Majapahit, which found itself unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. [5] Majapahit was a vast thalassocratic archipelagic empire based on the island of Java (modern-day Indonesia ) from 1293 to around 1500. [3] According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana) written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea ; consisting of present day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, Sulu Archipelago, Manila, and East Timor, although the true nature of Majapahit sphere of influence is still the subject of studies among historians. [3] In western part of the crumbling empire, Majapahit found itself unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca that in the mid-15th century began to gain effective control of Malacca strait and expands its influence to Sumatra. [3] The Majapahit dynasty, based in and around East Java, began the foundations of an empire that was to dominate the entire Indonesian archipelago, the Malay peninsula and part of the Philippines, also establishing profitable trade relations with China, Cambodia, Siam, Burma and Vietnam. [17] The aesthetics and style of bas-reliefs in Majapahit East Javanese temples were preserved and copied in Balinese temples, it is also due to the fact that after the fall of the empire, many Majapahit nobles, artisans and priests had taken refuge either in the interior mountainous region of East Java or across the narrow strait to Bali. [2] The Majapahit style candi bentar split gate, the kori or paduraksa towering red brick gate, and also pendopo pavilion has become ubiquitous in Javanese and Balinese architectural features, as evidence in Menara Kudus Mosque, Keraton Kasepuhan and Sunyaragi park in Cirebon, Mataram Sultanate royal cemetery in Kota Gede, Yogyakarta, and various palaces and temples in Bali. [3] Majapahit had a momentous and lasting influence on Indonesian architecture, the descriptions of the architecture of the capital's pavilions ( pendopo ) in the Nagarakretagama evoke the Javanese Kraton also the Balinese temples and palace compounds of today. [2] For Indonesians in later centuries, Majapahit became a symbol of past greatness, and has been evoked by numerous political entities, including the Islamic sultanates of Demak, Pajang, and Mataram, various Central Javanese dynasties, the Indonesian National Revival and the Communist Party of Indonesia as a symbol of power and legitimacy. [5] Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, China, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. [2] Although it has been suggested that the keris, and native daggers similar to it, predate Majapahit, nevertheless the empire expansion contributed to its popularity and diffussion in the region around the year 1492, for Indonesians in later centuries, Majapahit became a symbol of past greatness. [2] He's the leader of the Indonesian civilization, with the emblem of the Indonesian empire being the Surya Majapahit, although in the game, the empire is known as the Indonesian empire instead of Majapahit. [3]

This evidence cannot explain more complicated matters such as how lifestyles were affected by the new religion or how deeply it affected societies, nevertheless, a clear turning point occurred when the Hindu empire Majapahit in Java fell to the Islamised Demak Sultanate. [2] Besides, some Indian and Arabic accounts also describes vaguely about the riches, Srivijaya had become a symbol of early Sumatran importance as a great empire to balance Javas Majapahit in the east. [2] According to the book of Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. [3] Previously, Majapahit has succeed to assert its influence in Malacca strait by contained the aspiration of Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula to ever reach the geopolitical might like those of Srivijaya, the Hindu Majapahit were the most powerful maritime power in Southeast Asian seas that time and were opposed to Chinese expansion into their sphere of influence. [2] Historical records of Chinese, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been a transfer of power from the hands of the Hindu Majapahit into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 M. [4]

The statues of Hindu gods and Buddhist deities in Majapahit art were also the continuisation of its previous Singhasari art, the statues of East Javanese period tends to be stiffer and frontal-formal pose, compared to the statues of Central Javanese art (c. 9th century) that are more Indianized style, relaxed in tribhanga pose. [2] It is not known what became of the kingdom after these pillars had been erected and it may be possible that the name Kutai, as in Tuñjung Kute of the 1365 Javanese Majapahit poem Nāgarakṛtāgama is as ancient and reflects the original name used a thousand years earlier. [2] Despite weakened by internal struggle, in 1409 Majapahit continued its invasion against West Sumatran Pagaruyung Kingdom, as recorded in a semi-legendary account of the Minangkabau legend, it was mentioned that the Javanese force was being defeated in a buffalo fight. [2]

Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia which had stood from about 1293 to 1500 AD This kingdom reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who ruled from 1350 until 1389. [4] The manuscript described Hayam Wuruks royal excursion around the Majapahit realm to visit villages, holy shrines, vassal kingdoms and he sent embassies to China from 1370 to 1381. [2]

Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. [5] Although the Majapahit royal family stabilized itself in 1486, warfare broke out with the Muslim state of Demak and the dynasty, then ruling only a portion of eastern Java, ended in the 1520s or 1530s. [17] Like Majapahit, the modern state of Indonesia covers a vast territory and is politically centered on Java. [5] The first European record about Majapahit came from the travel log of the Italian Mattiussi, a Franciscan monk; in his book: "Travels of Friar Odoric of Pordenone ", he visited several places in today's Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, and Banjarmasin in Borneo, between 1318-1330. [2]

Majapahit was the largest empire ever to form in Southeast Asia, ( p107 ) although its political power beyond the core area in east Java was diffuse, constituting mainly ceremonial recognition of suzerainty, Majapahit society developed a high degree of sophistication in both commercial and artistic activities. [2] It is also due to the fact that after the fall of the empire, many Majapahit nobles, artisans and priests has took refuge either in the interior mountainous region of East Java or across the narrow strait to Bali. [3] Under the initiative of her able and ambitious prime minister, Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent its armada to conquer the neighbouring island of Bali. : 234 According to the Babad Arya Tabanan manuscript, in 1342 Majapahit forces led by Gajah Mada, assisted by his general Arya Damar, the regent of Palembang, landed in Bali, after seven months of battles, Majapahit forces defeated the Balinese king and captured the Balinese capital of Bedulu in 1343. [2] Tribhuwana appointed Gajah Mada as the Prime Minister in 1336, during his inauguration Gajah Mada declared his Sumpah Palapa, revealing his plan to expand Majapahit realm and building an empire. [2] Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia, his achievement is also credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada. [2] In 1357 the Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit to accompany and marry his daughter to Hayam Wuruk. : 239 However, Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda's submission to Majapahit overlordship, the skirmish between the Sunda royal family and the Majapahit troops on Bubat square was inevitable. [2] In 1350 Gayatri Rajapatni died in her retirement at a Buddhist monastery and she was the consort of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit, and also the grandmother of Hayam Wuruk. [2] Jayakatwangs reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegaras son-in-law, Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. [2]

Later in 14th to 15th century, the kingdom was recognised as one of Majapahits 12 provinces. [2] Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudung, who later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudus, but they came too late to save Kertabumi although they managed to repel the Ranawijaya army, this event is mentioned in Trailokyapuri (Jiwu) and Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he already defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom. [2] Demak under the leadership of Raden (later crowned as Sultan) Patah (Arabic name: Fatah) was acknowledged as the legitimate successor of Majapahit. [3] In 1498, there was a turning point when Girindrawardhana was deposed by his vice regent, Udara, after this coup, the war between Demak and Daha receded, with some sources saying Raden Patah, Sultan of Demak, left Majapahit alone as his father had done before, while others said Udara agreed to become a vassal of Demak, even marrying Raden Patah's youngest daughter. [2] After Udara managed to usurp Girindrawardhana, the war between Demak and Daha recede, some source said Raden Patah leave alone Majapahit like his father done before while other said Udara agree became Demak vasal even marry Raden Patah youngest daughter. [3]

Bhatara Prabhu Girindrawardhana Dyah Ranawijaya, was the last known king of Majapahit, possibly ruling until around 1520, when the capital was finally overrun by the forces of Demak. [17] The traditional or initial area of Majapahit during its formation before entering the imperial phase, this includes the capital city and the surrounding areas where the king effectively exercises his government. [2] Zheng He's translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description about Majapahit and where the king of Java lived. [3] Majapahit stationed their officials and officers in these places and regulate their foreign trade activities and collect taxes, yet they enjoyed substantial internal autonomy, this includes the rest of Java island, Madura and Bali. [2] The Majapahit architectural style that often employs terracotta and red brick had heavily influenced the architecture of Java and Bali in the later period. [3] Bali in particular was heavily influenced by Majapahit and they consider themselves to be the true heirs of the kingdom. [5] Majapahit was the last great Hindu kingdom in South East Asia. [17] Singhawikramawardhana moved the Kingdom’s capital further inland to Daha (the former capital of Kediri kingdom ), effectively split Majapahit under Bhre Kertabumi in Trowulan and Singhawikramawardhana in Daha. [3] Singhawikramawardhana moved the Kingdom's capital to Daha and continued his rule until he was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya in 1474 AD. In 1478 AD he defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom. [18] In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada's death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against Palembang, contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. [5] In 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sea to attack Palembang, led to the collapse of the remnants of the kingdom of Srivijaya. [4] Majapahit is usually regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms and it was both an agrarian and a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and foreign trade. [2] Following Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, Majapahit power entered a period of decline due to conflicts over succession. [5] Indonesian art enjoyed a golden age under Majapahit rule, and an enormous number of Hindu-Buddhist temples, or candi, were built during this period. [19] This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.This empire also serve as one of the most influential empires in the Indonesian history.It is considered as a commercial trading empire in the civilization of Asia. [3] Raden Wijaya was crowned as the Majapahit Emperor, and the Empire began to expand slowly. [20] Majapahit was the largest empire ever to form in Southeast Asia. [5]

The fact that the temple is a Hindu one is very interesting as Majapahit kings were Buddhist. [17] The rulers of Majapahit was the dynastic continuity of the Singhasari kings, which started by Sri Ranggah Rajasa, the founder of Rajasa dynasty in late 13th century. [3] The Chinese historical sources on Majapahit mainly acquired from the chronicles of Yuan and following Ming dynasty, the Chinese accounts on Majapahit, mainly owed to the 15th century Zheng He's account -- a Ming Dynasty admiral reports during his visit to Majapahit between 1405 and 1432. [2]

Majapahit Terracotta Piggy Bank, 14-15 century AD Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta ). [5] The name originally referred to the area in and around Trowulan, the cradle of Majapahit, which was linked to the establishment of a village in Tarik timberland by Raden Wijaya, it was said that the workers clearing the Tarik timberland encountered some bael trees and consumed its bitter-tasting fruit that subsequently become the village's name. [2] In 1293 C.E., Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold, and named his capital Majapahit, from maja (a fruit name) and pahit (or bitter). [5] He was the son of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi and Sri Kertawardhana or Cakradhara and his mother was the daughter of Raden Wijaya founder of Majapahit, meanwhile his father was the son of Bhre Tumapel lesser king of Singhasari. [2] However these areas usually possess their own native rulers or kings, that might foster alliance or intermarried with the Majapahit royal family. [3] Kertanegara policies were continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk. [2] Some accounts tell of Hayam Wuruks performances in a traditional ceremonial Javanese mask dance and his mother, Queen Tribhuwana, educated and groomed him to become the next monarch of Majapahit. [2] Extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakertagama; the accuracy of such Javanese depictions is disputed. [5] Most of them mentioned about the incoming Javanese forces to their land, which was probably a local testament of the empire's expansive nature that once dominating the archipelago, the Hikayat Raja Pasai, a 14th-century Aceh chronicle tell a Majapahit naval invasion against Samudra Pasai in 1350. [2] During this time he succeeded in gaining the islands of the Indonesian Archipelago under Majapahit rule. [21] He succeeded in spreading Majapahit rule in the Malay Archipelago, beyond present-day Indonesia. [21] At the end of the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century, the influence of Majapahit in the archipelago began to decrease. [4] This suggested that those areas were within Majapahit spheres of influence, Prapanca said the states were subsumed by Majapahit or were vassal states. [2] The territories belongs within Majapahit Mandala sphere of influence were those categorised as Mancanegara and Nusantara, these areas usually have their own indigenous rulers, enjoy substantial autonomy and have their own political institution intact without further integration into Majapahit administration. [2]

Although its political power beyond the core area in east Java was diffuse, constituting mainly ceremonial recognition of suzerainty, Majapahit society developed a high degree of sophistication in both commercial and artistic activities. [5] Jero Wacik, the Indonesian Minister of Culture and Tourism stated that the Majapahit Park would be built on the site and completed as early as 2009, in order to prevent further damage caused by home-made brick industries that develop on the surrounding area. [3] Several other former Majapahit vassals and colonies began to release themselves from Majapahit domination and suzerainty, but Kertabhumi managed to reverse this event, under his rule he allied Majapahit with Muslim merchants, giving them trading rights on the north coast of Java, with Demak as its centre and in return he asked for their loyalty to Majapahit. [2] In 1357, the remaining state refusing to acknowledge Majapahits hegemony was Sunda, in West Java. [2] The Hindu-Javanese Majapahit dynasty reigned from about 1293 to 1500 from eastern Java. [21] In 1292 Nararya Sanggrama Wijaya, later known as Kertarajasa Jayawardhana, the son-in-law of Kertanegara, went on to establish his own line of dynasty, known as the Majapahit dynasty. [21] He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of both the Singhasari and later the Majapahit line of monarchs and he was assassinated by Anusapati, in revenge for killing his father, Tunggul Ametung. [2] After a series of battles with the Sultanate of Demak, the last remaining noblemen of Majapahit were forced to withdraw eastward to Kediri; it is unclear whether they were still under the rule of the Majapahit dynasty. [5] Demak managed consolidate its power to defeat Daha in 1527 because it is accepted as legitimate successor of Majapahit. [2] Under Gajah Mada's command (1313-1364), Majapahit conquered more territories and become the regional power. [3] After reaching its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power gradually weakened. [4] This policy boost Majapahit treasury and power but weaken Hindu - Buddha as its main religion because Islam spread faster. [3]

During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the support of his Prime Minister, Gajah Mada. [5] Gadjah Mada was a skilful politician and was responsible for the glorious period of Majapahit rule. [21] The Majapahit prime minister, Gaja Mada (1331-1364), united all of the archipelago for 75 years. [17] Gajah Mada - He delivered an oath called Sumpah Palapa, in which he vowed not to eat any food containing spices until he had conquered all of the Southeast Asian archipelago of Nusantara for Majapahit. [2] Queen Tribhuwana had to abdicate because she ruled Majapahit under Rajapatnis auspices, Hayam Wuruk inherited the throne in 1350 at the age of 16 when the patih Gajah Mada was at the height of his career. [2] Nagarakertagama is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk; subsequent events are unclear. [5] During the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit employed a well-organized bureaucratic structure for administrative purposes. [3] Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit from 1350-1389. [5] Mitreka Satata can be considered as Majapahit's allies, since other foreign kingdoms in China and India was not included in this category, although Majapahit known has conducted foreign relations with these nations. [3] It refer to independent foreign states that is considered as Majapahit's equals, not the subject of Majapahit powers. [3] In its propaganda from the 1920s, the Communist Party of Indonesia presented its vision of a classless society as a reincarnation of a romanticised Majapahit, ( p174 ) it was invoked by Sukarno for nation building and by the New Order as an expression of state expansion and consolidation. [2] There he installed Adityawarman, a Majapahit prince as vassal ruler of the Minangkabau in West Sumatra and he then conquered the first Islamic sultanate in Southeast Asia, Samudra Pasai, and another state in Svarnadvipa. [2] According Kakawin Nagarakretagama Canto XIII-XV, Majapahit territory covering Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines. [4] The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. [5] In Malay peninsula, the Malay annals mentioned the legend of the fall of Singapura to Majapahit forces in 1398 was due to the betrayal of Sang Rajuna Tapa that opened the fortified city gate; in Brunei, the folk legend of Lumut Lunting and Pilong-Pilongan islands in Brunei Bay also connected to Majapahit. [2] Toward the end of their rule, many members of Majapahit aristocracy moved to Bali, where they lived in isolation till the island was colonized. [21]

Archeologist Sri Soeyatmi Satari claims that the name Bajangratu is closely connected to King Jayanegara of Majapahit, since the word 'bajang' means a dwarf. [17] Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni's auspices. [3]

The example of kori agung or paduraksa style gate is the elegant Bajang Ratu gate richly decorated with Kala demon, cyclops and also the bas-relief telling the story of Sri Tanjung, those typical Majapahit architectural style has deeply influenced the Javanese and Balinese architecture of later period. [2] Little of the Majapahit Empire's former glory still stands in East Java, however, with the exception of temple ruins and some archeological discoveries. [17] With the rise of Malacca, so did Demak rise into prominence and its supremacy also enhanced with claim of direct descent of Raden Patah to Majapahit royalty and his marriages ties with neighboring city-states. [2]

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14. (7) Epic World History: Majapahit Kingdom

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19. (4) Majapahit kingdom by caitlyn childs on Prezi

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