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Meiji Period (Japan, 1868 - 1912)

Meiji Period (Japan, 1868 - 1912)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912.(More...)
  • Mutsuhito, who was to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title-- Meiji, or Enlightened Rule--to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history.(More...)
  • The early Meiji period saw the abolition of the domains and the formation of prefectures, the creation of a modern national army, navy and police force, the beginnings of a national railway and national education system.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day, bringing to an end the era known as sakoku (the foreign relations policy, lasting about 250 years, prescribing the death penalty for foreigners entering or Japanese nationals leaving the country).(More...)
  • POSSIBLY USEFUL When the Meiji emperor was restored as head of Japan in 1868, the nation was a militarily weak country, was primarily agricultural, and had little technological development.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912. [1] This essay certainly encouraged the economic and technological rise of Japan in the Meiji period, but it also may have laid the intellectual foundations for later Japanese colonialism in the region. [1] The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu ) and the beginning of the Meiji period. [2] The Industrial Revolution in Japan occurred during the Meiji period. [1] After the first twenty years of the Meiji period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments. [1]

The Meiji period (September 1868 through July 1912) represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudalism to its modern form. [3] Meiji Restoration, in Japanese history, the political revolution in 1868 that brought about the final demise of the Tokugawa shogunate (military government)--thus ending the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603-1867)--and, at least nominally, returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under Mutsuhito (the emperor Meiji ). [4] In 1868 the Tokugawa military rulers were overthrown by supporters of Emperor Meiji (whose name means "enlightened rule"), marking the end of the Edo period and ushering in a new era of Japanese government. [5]

Oil painting was introduced to Japan in the Meiji Period and practised by Kawakami Togai and Takahashi Yuichi, ironically at a time when Western appreciation of Japanese traditional art was very high. [6] As for eating habits, the Meiji period saw a wider diffusion of changes in Japanese people's diets begun in Tokugawa times with increases in the consumption of polished rice, tea, fruit, sugar and soy sauce. [6] The Meiji Period of Japanese history saw great change in the decades following the decisive defeat of the Tokugawa regime by pro-imperial forces at the Battle of Toba-Fushimi and the short Boshin War that followed as anti-Tokugawa forces pushed up from Kyoto to Edo and beyond. [6]

The law along with the Land Tax Revision was a major contributor to the modernization of Japanese society in the Meiji Period. [6] It was during the Meiji Period that Japanese and European art began to influence each other. [7]

In a wider context, however, the Meiji Restoration of 1868 came to be identified with the subsequent era of major political, economic, and social change--the Meiji period (1868-1912)--that brought about the modernization and Westernization of the country. [4]


Mutsuhito, who was to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title-- Meiji, or Enlightened Rule--to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. [1] It wasn't until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 that the Japanese government began taking military modernization seriously. [1]

The industrial revolution began about 1870 as Meiji period leaders decided to catch up with the West. [1]

The Meiji period, also known as the Meiji era (明治時代 Meiji Jidai), is a Japanese era which extended from 1868 until 1912. [3] The Meiji period is an era in Japanese history which spans from 1868, when the Meiji Government was formed (also often called the Meiji Restoration ), to 1912 when Emperor Mutsuhito passed away. [3] The Meiji period (明 Meiji-jidai) was an era in Japanese history that extended from September 1868 through July 1912. [3]

The first army clinic was founded in Meiji 1 (1868), and the number of army hospitals increased to a total of 87 in all Japanese territories including Korea, Manchuria, Taiwan and South Sakhalin in Meiji 43 (1910) This essay contributed to the economic and technological rise of Japan in the Meiji period, but it may also have laid the foundations for later Japanese colonialism in the region. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. The Tokugawa shogunate did not officially share this point of view, and not until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 did the Japanese government begin to modernize the military. [3]

Japanese people were both inspired and forced to change their way of life during the Meiji Period. [6] The Meiji Period (1868-1912) is the 45-year division of Japanese history that directly followed the Edo Period. [7]

The most important feature of the Meiji period was Japan's struggle for recognition of its considerable achievement and for equality with Western nations. [8]

The death of the emperor Meiji in 1912 marked the end of the period, although several of the important Meiji leaders carried on as elder statesmen ( genro ) in the new regime (1912-26) of the Taishō emperor. [4] The Meiji Period was a time of profound transformation, during which Japan went from being virtually sealed off from outside influence to emerging as a dominant global economic power. [7] If we include the Mito Uprising in 1864, Chōshū Rebellion in 1866, foreign wars, minor revolts by former samurai during the early Meiji period, punishments, and assassinations, the death toll for the Meiji Revolution likely reaches as high as 30,000 people in a country with a population of 34 million. [9] Another area of change and modernization in the Meiji Period was the press which grew out of Western initiatives in the treaty ports of Yokohama and Kobe. [6] Economic and social changes paralleled the political transformation of the Meiji period. [4]

The Meiji oligarchs held power for the first half of the Meiji period from 1868 to 1890, but many Japanese argued for political representation. [3] Japan's Tokugawa (or Edo) period, which lasted from 1603 to 1867, would be the final era of traditional Japanese government, culture and society before the Meiji Restoration of 1868 toppled the long-reigning Tokugawa shoguns and propelled the country into the modern era. [3] As historian John Whitney Hall pointed out in his book, Japan: From Prehistory to Modern Times, the Meiji period definitely marked "Japan's transition to modernity" and "proved to be one of the pivotal events in Japanese history." (Hall; 266). [3] The Meiji period (1868-1912) brought about the rapid modernization of Japanese economic, political, and social institutions, which resulted in Japan's attaining the status of the leading country in Asia and a world economic and political power. [3]

The Meiji Era was the 44-year period of Japan's history from 1868 to 1912 when the country was under the rule of the great Emperor Mutsuhito. [3]

Japan modernized, industrialized, and connected more with other nations during the Meiji period (1868 - 1912). [3] This teacher's guide provides an overview of the Meiji period in Japan, which lasted from 1868 to 1912. [10] The Meiji period (明治時代, Meiji-jidai) denotes the 45 year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. [3] The establishment of this new government in 1868 marked the beginning of Japan's Meiji period (1868-1912). [3] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Covering an era spanning the founding of the Meiji state (1868) and Japan's surrender in World War II (1945), it complements works of a similar genre, such as W. G. Beasley's Japanese Imperialism: 1895-1945 (1987) and Michael Barnhart's Japan and the World since 1868 (1993). [3]

Viewed expansively, however, the Meiji Restoration was more than a mere regime change: It initiated a revolutionary transformation, achieved during the Meiji period (1868 – 1912), that was comparable in scope to the mid-sixth-century introduction of Buddhism and Chinese civilization. [3] In each wing, massive paintings are installed into the walls, and are arranged in a chronological order, telling the history of the Meiji period (from 1868 to 1912). [3]


The early Meiji period saw the abolition of the domains and the formation of prefectures, the creation of a modern national army, navy and police force, the beginnings of a national railway and national education system. [6] A new exhibition opening at the Hope College Kruizenga Art Museum on Tuesday, Aug. 29, will explore the exciting innovations that occurred in Japanese art during the Meiji period (1868-1912) and reveal how art contributed to the larger political, social and economic changes that transformed Japan into a modern world power at that time. [3] These studies allowed Japanese to be exposed to Western technology and ideas, which facilitated the transition of Japan to a modern country in the Meiji period. [3] Westernization, or bunmei kaika, literally 'the opening of culture' in Japanese, refers to when Western culture first entered Japan at the beginning of the Meiji period. [3]

KEY TOPICS Meiji Restoration, in Japanese history, the political revolution in 1868 that brought about the final demise of the Tokugawa shogunate (military government)--thus ending the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603-1867)--and, at least nominally, returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under Mutsuhito (the emperor Meiji ). [3] KEY TOPICS The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912. [3] The period from 1868 until 1912 in Japan is called the Meiji era - after the name chosen by the young prince Mutsuhito, when he followed his father to the throne. [3]

When the Meiji period ended with the Emperor's death in 1912, Japan was a well-developed nation with a constitutional monarchy, an elected government, a strong economy, a powerful military and a well educated population. [11] At the end of the Meiji period in 1912, Japan had become an industrialized and modern nation in many ways, and was regarded as a new global power. [3] The Meiji period lasted until 1912 and catapulted Japan into the modern era. [3] Emperor Meiji died in 1912 ending the Meiji Period and moving Japan toward a new time period. [3] Throughout the Meiji Period, there was little recognition of Japanese writings in foreign publications, which suggests that by the end of the Meiji period, a national painting style failed to emerge despite the efforts to adapt European aesthetics and art to Japan. [3] This essay certainly contributed to the economic and technological rise of Japan in the Meiji period but it may also have laid the foundations for later Japanese colonialism in the region. [3] Many aspects of the Tokugawa system provided the Japanese people with a common social and cultural background, which facilitated the transition of Japan in the Meiji period to a modern nation-state and world economic power. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. Japanese people were both inspired and forced to change their way of life during the Meiji Period. [3] For the Japanese people, the Meiji period carries with it the image of the spread of Western culture and the beginnings of modernization in Japan. [3] The modernization of the Japanese military during the Meiji period was a response to the growing presence and threat of Western colonial powers. [12] It was during the Meiji period (1868-1912) that Japanese were first widely exposed to Western influences. [3] This first chapter in the history of Japanese railroads is virtually coterminous with the Meiji period (1868-1912), the initial phase of Japan’s modern era. [3] In this thorough and detailed study of the development of the Japanese railroad industry during the Meiji period, Steven Ericson explores the economic role of government and the nature of state-business relations during Japan’s modern transformation. [3] Objective The modern Japanese health care system was established during the Meiji period (1868-1912) using the example of Germany. [3] "The second phase from the 1860s accelerated by the new Meiji Era, involved the importation of Western technology and the expertise to operate it; while the third and final phase in the late Meiji period (between 1890 to 1910), was full-blown local industrialization achieved with newly-acquired Japanese expertise and through the active adaptation of Western technology to best suit Japanese needs and social traditions, on Japan’s own terms. [3] The Meiji Era or Meiji Period was a time of incredible transformation in Japanese society. [3] One of the main modes of Japanese export during the Meiji period was through the World's Fairs and Expositions that were held every few years in the West at that time. [3]

From 1868 to 1912, I will give the 元号 gengō imperial year (eg; Meiji 1, Meiji 2, etc) to show distance from the Edo Period. [3]

According to "Topics in Japanese Cultural History": By 1868, "a relatively small number of medium to low ranking samurai, the leaders coming from only four different domains in the southern part of Japan, had deposed the bakufu and established a new government in the name of the Emperor Meiji. [3] English: Meiji era is from 1868 to 1912 in Japanese history, from the Meiji Restoration to the death of Emperor Meiji. [3] The appearance of Western clothing and fashion during the Meiji era (1868 1912) represents one of the most remarkable transformations in Japanese history. [3]

Kimonos continued to dominate in the early Meiji period, and men and women combined Japanese kimonos with Western accessories. [3] By some counts 20,000 to 30,000 Japanese girls left home between the early Meiji period and World War II to work as prostitutes in China, Southeast Asia, India, Siberia and even Africa. [3] Professor Smith’s talk reports on a detailed scientific analysis that proves this consensus to be fundamental. ly wrong, describing first the story of how this misguided opinion was formed, then how science revealed a very different and much more interesting and complicated story, and finally some thoughts on what the color red might really have meant to Japanese of the Meiji period. [3] Meiji period ( 明治時代, Meiji-jidai ? ), also known as the Meiji era, was a Japanese era name ( 年号,, nengō, ?, lit. [3] Han : The Japanese historical term for the estate of a warrior after the 12th century or of a daimyō (feudal lord) in the Edo period (1603-1868) and early Meiji period (1868-1912). [12] Iwakura Mission : A Japanese diplomatic voyage to the United States and Europe conducted between 1871 and 1873 by leading statesmen and scholars of the Meiji period. [12] This essay is a comprehensive overview of studies of Twain’s influences on Japan and the relationship between Twain’s works and Japanese people, in roughly chronological order from the Meiji period (1868-1912) to the Heisei period (1989-2000s), with a focus on the major translations and adaptations. [3]

The Meiji Period (1868-1912) began with restoration of Emperor Mutsuhito to the throne in 1868. [3] The Meiji Period (1868-1912) began with this so-called Meiji Restoration in 1868, and the Imperial court was moved from Kyoto to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo, meaning the Eastern Capital. [3] During the first half of the Meiji period, from 1868 to 1890, the Meiji oligarchs instituted numerous reforms to achieve domestic stability, promote industrialization, improve education, and establish an effective government structure, including the promulgation of a constitution in 1889. [3] During the Meiji Period, which ended with the emperor’s death in 1912, the country experienced significant social, political and economic change-including the abolition of the feudal system and the adoption of a cabinet system of government. [3] The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Late Tokugawa shogun ) and the beginning of the Meiji period. [3] The Meiji period saw Japan's transformation from a feudal polity into a modern industrial state, along with its emergence from isolation into the ranks of major world powers. [3] In the Meiji Period, Japan's military reorganization made it a major world power. [3] Japan's greatest military achievements of the Meiji period were its victories over China in 1895 and Russia in 1905. [3]

The Emperor was the perfect figure head for Japan's period of the 'great leap forward' from 1868 until his death in 1912. [3] The Meiji-era is the period of Japanese history from 1868 to 1912. [3]

Men's kimono remains locked in this mode because in 1868, the Meiji Period began, and with it came Western fashion for men. [3] This specifically backs up my statement, "Kimonos continued to dominate in the early Meiji period" The Meiji period was after Emporer Tokugawa's fall in 1868. [3] An inhalational anesthetic, especially chloroform, was administered for cesarean section in early Meiji Period (from 1868) up to 1897. [3]

The Meiji period ended with the death of the emperor Meiji on July 30, 1912, when Emperor Taishō took the throne, beginning the Taishō Period. [3] The following Meiji Period (1868-1912) was marked by Japan's opening to the West and the establishment of a strong centralized government. [3] Just as opinions divided between kaikoku (open the country) and jôi (expel the barbarians) after Commodore Perry landed in 1853, tensions continued throughout the Meiji period regarding Japan's policy toward foreigners and foreign ideas. [3] These enterprises served as forerunners to the zaibatsu (huge industrial and financial conglomerates), which were formed in the Meiji period and were responsible for much of Japan's rise to an industrial world power. [3] AMERICAN RESCUES JAPAN'S BUDDHIST STATUARY. Some lament the great pillaging and pilfering that occurred in the Meiji period, when temple treasures were sold off at rock-bottom prices, with many pieces finding their way into the hands of Western collectors and museums. [3] This growth of cities during the Tokugawa period provided a firm foundation for Japan's modernization during the Meiji period. [3]

It was only during the early Meiji period - a little more than two decades or so - that the concept of kokumin (usually translated as "citizen", more literally "country-person") entered the popular vocabulary for the first time in Japanese history. [3] Prostitutes on display in Yoshiwara during the Meiji period (the period following the Edo period in the Japanese history), possibly by Kusakabe Kimbei. [12] Japanese people now had the ability to become more educated as the Meiji period leaders inaugurated a new, more accessible Western-based education system. [12]

With the death of Emperor Meiji in 1912, this period of progress and modernization in Japan ended. [3] After the death of the Meiji Emperor in 1912, the Taisho Emperor took the throne, thus beginning the Taisho Period. [3]

Although the Japanese leadership received pressure from political parties and others to quickly establish a representative form of government, the Meiji leaders basically agreed with these democratic ideas, but they wanted to carefully prepare an effective form of constitutional government that would be implemented in the time period they believed best. [3] The years in which Meiji was the Japanese monarch comprise this modern period or era. [3]

The first army clinic was founded in Meiji 1 (1868), and the number of army hospitals increased to a total of 87 in all Japanese territories including Korea, Manchuria, Taiwan and South Sakhalin in Meiji 43 (1910). [3]

" Financial Intermediation and Late Development: The Case of Meiji Japan, 1868 to 1912," Working Papers 08-01, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau " Financial intermediation and late development in Meiji Japan, 1868 to 1912," Financial History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(02), pages 111-135, August. [3] In 1868 the restoration of imperial rule in Japan brought the Edo shogunate to an end, and marked the start of the Meiji era, which would last until the death of Emperor Meiji in 1912. [3] The Meiji Restoration was a chain of events, triggered by an internal crisis and strong anti-Western sentiments, that ended the Edo period and thus the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. [12] Edo period : The period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. [12] Meiji Japan analyses the impact of the West, and of sometimes complacent Western notions of modernity, on this critical period in Japanese history. [3] The second part of this essay analyzes the possible causes of three significant disturbances that arose in the Meiji Reform period: (1) dissatisfaction of the samurai, (2) development of Japan as a nation-state, and (3) the extent of Japan's borrowing from the West. [3] The educational achievements and the high respect for learning of Tokugawa Japan played a large role in Japan's smooth transition to the modern age in the Meiji Restoration period. [3] The reign of Emperor Meiji and the beginning of Japan's modern period. [3] This essay briefly describes some key events in Japan's Meiji (1868-1912) and Taish (1912-1925) periods. [3]

They are also valuable because they influenced the ways in which Meiji and Taish period Japanese understood their own world. [3]

Meiji restoration, The term refers to both the events of 1868 that led to the "restoration" of power to the emperor and the entire period of revolutionary changes that coincided with the Meiji emperor's reign (1868-1912). [3] The new era, which marked the end of feudalism in Japan and the beginnings of democracy and capitalism, is known as the Meiji Restoration, named after the Emperor Meiji who ruled Japan from 1868 until 1912. [3] Narrowly conceived, the Restoration amounted to little more than the coup d ’ é tat of 1868, which forced the resignation of the last Tokugawa (1600 – 1868) shogun and elevated Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito, 1852 – 1912), then a teenager, to sovereign administrative rule. [3] The new Emperor, who would reign until 1912, selected a new reign title -- Meiji, or Enlightened Rule -- to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. [3] Japan's democratic political system continues to evolve under the Meiji constitution, but then is unable to meet the dual challenges of economic depression and the political power of the Japanese military leaders in the 1920s and 1930s. [3] During the Meiji restoration, the Emperor sought to switch Japan's national language from Japanese to English. [3] Copeland and Ortabasi (2006, ix) show how Shikin and her colleagues benefitted from Murasaki and her contemporary Sei Shōnagon as the "earliest examples of a refined and elegant Japanese literary language," whereas Sawako Nakayasu's introduction to her 2015 translation of the collected poems of Sagawa Chika (1911-36), Japan's first female modernist poet, traces a divergence from the modern Murasaki model after the Meiji era. [3]

After the Meiji restoration in 1868, the Ainu were forced to shift from hunting, fishing, and gathering to agriculture and commercial fishing, and because of intermarriage with the Japanese the total unmixed population of this ancient people continues to decline. [3] After the emperor's death in 1912, the Japanese Diet passed a resolution to commemorate his role in the Meiji Restoration. [3]

Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. Geopolitically, Japan was reconfigured during the Meiji period, first with the move of the imperial capital away from its home for over a millennium, Kyoto, to a new center, Edo, the capital of the Tokugawa shoguns, now renamed Tokyo. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. As for eating habits, the Meiji period saw a wider diffusion of changes begun in Tokugawa times with increases in the consumption of polished rice, tea, fruit, sugar and soy sauce. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. The Meiji Period was a time of profound transformation, during which Japan went from being virtually sealed off from outside influence to emerging as a dominant global economic power. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. While based on traditions over a thousand years old, the term was coined in the Meiji period of the Imperial Japan to distinguish such works from Western style paintings, or Yōga. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. Inspired somewhat by European Christianity and European monarchies, reformers in the Meiji Period (1868-1912) revived the pontifical role of the Emperor when it made Shinto the state religion as a way of unifying Japan. [3] Just seven years after the Meiji period ended, a newly modernized Japan was recognized as one of the "Big Five" powers (alongside Britain, the United States, France and Italy) at the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. Therefore, innovation was needed during the Meiji period because the power of photography was constantly growing - and different art forms were gaining greater attention internally - once Japan began to open up to the outside world. [3]

The Meiji period was a time of great political and social upheaval in Japan - one that saw the country open its doors to the world, and end systems of government that had flourished for hundreds of year. [3] During the Meiji period, Japan underwent a radical political and social change, opening to the West for the first time after centuries. [3] The Meiji Period was a time of profound transformation, during which Japan went from being virtually sealed off from outside influence to emerging as a dominant global economic power Throughout the Meiji period, conflicts arose over how much Japan should emulate or borrow from the Western powers. [3] During the Meiji period Japan underwent a stunning development from a medieval society to a leading economic and military power in Asia. [3] During the brief Meiji period, Japan underwent an astonishing metamorphosis from feudal state to modern industrial and military power. [3] By the end of the Meiji period, Japan was recognized as the leading military and imperial power among East Asian nations. [3] Geopolitically, Japan was reconfigured during the Meiji period, first with the move of the imperial capital away from its home for over a millennium, Kyoto, to a new center, Edo, the capital of the Tokugawa shoguns, now renamed Tokyo. [3] It was also during the Meiji Period that Japan began its own imperialist expansion, expanding northward to subdue the indigenous Ainu people of Hokkaido, and acquiring Korea, Taiwan and the southern half of Sakhalin Island in the first Sino-Japanese (1894 - 1895) and Russo-Japanese (1904 - 1905) Wars. [3] The Meiji period was when Japan, under Western influence, took the first steps toward developing a modern literature. [3] The principal foreign policy goals of the Meiji period (1868-1912) were to protect the integrity and independence of Japan against Western domination, including gaining international respect through the modernization and expansion of the military. [12] The principal foreign policy goals of the Meiji period (1868-1912) were to protect the integrity and independence of Japan against Western domination and win equal status with the leading nations of the West by reversing the unequal treaties. [12] The Meiji period leaders inaugurated a new Western-based education system for all young people, sent thousands of students to the United States and Europe, and hired more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages in Japan. [12] During the Meiji period, the emperor had been transformed into a leader for the entire nation of Japan. [3] The Industrial Revolution in Japan began about 1870 as Meiji period leaders decided to catch up with the West. [12] The rapid industrialization of Japan during the Meiji period resulted from a carefully engineered transfer of Western technology, modernization trends, and education led by the government in partnership with the private sector. [12] While based on traditions over a thousand years old, the term was coined in the Meiji period of the Imperial Japan to distinguish such works from Western style paintings, or Yōga. [3] Throughout the Meiji period, conflicts arose over how much Japan should emulate or borrow from the Western powers. [3] MORE: Made in Japan during the Meiji period (1868-1912), the sculpture represents a time when Japan moved from an isolated society to embracing Western themes in visual arts. [3] Oil painting was introduced to Japan in the Meiji Period and practiced by Kawakami Togai and Takahashi Yuichi, ironically at a time when Western appreciation of traditional art was very high. [3]

The Meiji period (1868-1912) was an era of dynamic political, economic, and social change that paved the way for the modernization of Japan. [3] Meiji Japan represents a reassessment of the political, economic and social history of Japan during the Meiji period (1868-1911). [3] During the Meiji period, Japan underwent a tremendous political and social change in the course of the Europeanization and modernization campaign organized by the Meiji government. [3] Black tea was first produced in Japan about 150 years ago, during the Meiji period (1868-1912), when Japan was opened up to international trade. [3] Although 1863 newspaper advertisements suggest British photographer William Saunders may have been the first to hand color photographs in Japan, Beato’s hand-colored landscape views, genre works, and studio portraits establish a precedent that influences many photographers during the Meiji period (1868-1912). [3] The Western ideal of individualism had a pervasive influence on the culture of the Meiji period in Japan (1868-1912), as well as on the development of the novel, a form imported from Europe. [3] Throughout the Tokugawa and Meiji periods, Japan alternated between periods of Westernization and Nationalism. [3] Japan enjoyed solid economic growth during the Meiji period and most people lived longer and healthier lives. [12] For those interested in the Meiji period, and how it formed the basis for modern Japan, we recommend visiting the Meiji Village in Inuyama, Aichi prefecture. [3] Was nineteenth century Japan an example of finance-led growth? Using a new panel dataset of firms from the Meiji Period (1868-1912), this paper tests whether financial sector development influenced extensive firm activity across industries and locations During the Meiji period, the T-shaped kosode became known as the kimono, and it is now recognized as the national dress of Japan. [3] During the early years of the Meiji period, feudal domains were abolished, the samurai class was phased out, a national education program was implemented, and major institutions (military, banking, industrial production, taxation, etc.) were transformed along Western models. [3] After the first twenty years of the Meiji period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments. [12]

The Meiji Period began with a political revolution that brought about the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and returned the nation to the direct rule of the emperor Meiji. [3] The Meiji period was a time of political and social revolution. [11]

Classical literature ( koten bungaku ), meaning literature from the earliest times up to the Meiji Restoration of 1868, is customarily divided by literary scholars into four major periods: jōdai (antiquity), chūko (middle antiquity), chūsei (the middle ages), and kinsei (the recent past). [3] History Meiji Restoration The Meiji Restoration, in Japanese called meiji ishin (明治維新), denotes events that started during the bakumatsu in the late Edo period and lasted. [3] An antique Japanese comic demon mask, Edo Period (1603 - 1868) c. 19th Century. [3] By the mid-17th century, Neo-Confucianism was Japan's dominant legal philosophy and contributed directly to the development of the kokugaku, a school of Japanese philology and philosophy that originated during the Tokugawa period. [12]

Lasting until 1912, the Meiji Restoration, heavily influenced by Japan's opening to Europe and the United States, saw the decline of the samurai warrior class and Japan's emergence into the modern era. [3] Charter Oath : The 1868 oath that outlined the main aims and the course of action to be followed during Emperor Meiji's reign, setting the legal stage for Japan's modernization. [12] According to Columbia University’s Asia for Educators: "The Charter Oath was a short but very important public document issued in April 1868, just months after the Meiji Restoration brought an end to the Tokugawa shogunate and installed a new Japanese government. [3] The Tokugawa shogunate did not officially share this point of view and not until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 did the Japanese government begin to modernize the military. [12] It wasn't until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 that the Japanese government began taking modernization seriously. [3]

The Meiji Restoration of 1868 was a pivotal event in Japanese history. [3] The nineteenth century was a turning point in Japanese history, commonly associated with the transition from pre-modern feudal society of the Edo period (1615-1868) to the Western-style modernity of the Meiji Era (1868-1912). [3] By the end of the Meiji period, to the cancellation of liberal political stirrings, on one side, as reforming intellectuals were absorbed into the ideology of a militarized state, corresponded on the other side the distress of lonely individuals, unanchored in the new society, as a central experience in the arts. [3] Some of the major changes that happened to the political system during the Meiji period was the introduction of the Imperial Charter Oath and the Meiji Constitution. [11] As for eating habits, the Meiji period saw a wider diffusion of changes begun in Tokugawa times with increases in the consumption of polished rice, tea, fruit, sugar and soy sauce. [3] Many Meiji export objects were elaborately crafted and ornately decorated in styles that harmonized with the Victorian and Edwardian tastes dominant in Western culture at that time. 3 This sculpture is not signed or dated, but is attributable to the Meiji period on the basis of its size and style. [3] The principal foreign policy goals of the Meiji period (1868-1912) were to protect the integrity and independence of the nation against Western domination and to win equality of status with the leading nations of the West by reversing the unequal treaties. [3] The Meiji Period also resulted in the revival of traditional Imperial art forms such as waka and haiku poetry and nurtured an interest in Western painting and sculpture. [3] Western style painting of the Meiji Period: Kuroda Seiki and the White Horse Society Nihon no Bijutsu 351. [3] Western style painting of the Meiji Period: Kanokogi Takeshiro and the Pacific Painting Society Nihon no Bijutsu 352. [3]

Before the Meiji period had ended, the beginnings of an empire were evident in the acquisition of Taiwan in 1895, following the Sino-Japanese War, and the annexation of Korea in 1910, a consequence of the Russo-Japanese War. [3] The Meiji period occurred during the later years of the Tokugawa Shogunate, from 1868-1912, and to many scholars, is considered to have been the result of Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy and his armada of black ships firing on, and forcing Edo Bay (Tokyo Bay) to open to the rest of the world. [3] After the Meiji period, I just use Gregorian dates because imperial years are fucking めんどくさい mendokusai a royal pain in the ass. [3] The Meiji Period saw the end of the samurai and their daimyo lords, and the establishment of a modern conscript army. [3] Cite this chapter as: Henshall K.G. (2012) Building a Modern Nation: the Meiji Period (1868-1912). [3] Not only did the economic infrastructure, such as markets, banking, and transportation, develop rapidly during the Tokugawa period, the people also developed basic skills to allow them to support the rapid economic growth of the Meiji period. [3] Farmers experienced a difficult life in the Meiji period, with heavy land taxes, conscription of their sons into the national army, and growing dissatisfaction when they observed the economic growth and prosperity of other classes such as merchants. [3] Most of my articles range from the Sengoku Period to the Early Meiji Period, but from time to time other eras do come up. [3]

This period started in September 1868 and ended in July 1912. [3]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day, bringing to an end the era known as sakoku (the foreign relations policy, lasting about 250 years, prescribing the death penalty for foreigners entering or Japanese nationals leaving the country). [2] The Meiji Restoration, and the resultant modernization of Japan, also influenced Japanese self-identity with respect to its Asian neighbours, as Japan became the first Asian state to modernize based on the Western model, replacing the traditional Confucian hierarchical order that had persisted previously under a dominant China with one based on modernity. [2]

This period also saw Japan change from being a feudal society to having a market economy and left the Japanese with a lingering Western influence. [2] A key foreign observer of the remarkable and rapid changes in Japanese society during this period was Ernest Mason Satow, resident in Japan from 1862 to 1883 and 1895 to 1900. [1] This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to its modern form. [1]

Under the leadership of Mori Arinori, a group of prominent Japanese intellectuals went on to form the Meiji Six Society in 1873 to continue to "promote civilization and enlightenment" through modern ethics and ideas. [2] Undeterred by opposition, the Meiji leaders continued to modernize the nation through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major Japanese cities and the Asian mainland and construction of railroads, shipyards, munitions factories, mines, textile manufacturing facilities, factories, and experimental agriculture stations. [1]

The first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. [1] The Meiji Emperor announced in his 1868 Charter Oath that "Knowledge shall be sought all over the world, and thereby the foundations of imperial rule shall be strengthened." [2] The Meiji Restoration ( 明治維新, Meiji Ishin ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. [2]

Emperor Meiji receives the second French Military Mission to Japan (1872). [1] The Meiji oligarchy that formed the government under the rule of the Emperor first introduced measures to consolidate their power against the remnants of the Edo period government, the shogunate, daimyōs, and the samurai class. [2] The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, and a new era, Meiji, was proclaimed. [1]

Observing Japan's response to the Western powers, Chinese general Li Hongzhang considered Japan to be China's "principal security threat" as early as 1863, five years before the Meiji Restoration. [2] The Meiji Restoration accelerated industrialization in Japan, which led to its rise as a military power by the year 1905, under the slogan of "Enrich the country, strengthen the military" ( 富国強兵, fukoku kyōhei ). [2]

In 1885, the Meiji government sponsored a telegraph system, throughout Japan, situating the telegraphs in all major Japanese cities at the time. [1] The Japanese knew that they were behind the Western world when American Commodore Matthew C. Perry came to Japan in large warships with armament and technology that far outclassed those of Japan, to try to conclude a treaty that would open up Japanese ports to trade. [2] In 1854, after Admiral Matthew C. Perry forced the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa, Japanese elites took the position that they needed to modernize the state's military capacities, or risk further coercion from Western powers. [1]

Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers, especially French ones, were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent abroad to Europe and the United States to attend military and naval schools. [1]

Najita Tetsuo, The Intellectual Foundations of Modern Japanese Politics (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press), chapter 3: "Restorationism in Late Tokugawa", pp 43 - 68. [2]

Following Japan's victory over China in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Japan broke through as an international power with a victory against Russia in Manchuria (north-eastern China) in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. [1] One of the Meiji oligarchy, Itō Hirobumi (1841-1909), a Chōshū native long involved in government affairs, was charged with drafting Japan's constitution. [1]

Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan. [2] In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto -oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. [1]

These parts of Meiji homes were displayed in popular magazines of the time, such as Ladies' Graphic, which portrayed the often empty rooms of the homes of the aristocracy of all levels, including the imperial palaces. [1]

Japan emerged from the Tokugawa - Tennō ( Keiō -Meiji) transition in 1868 as the first Asian industrialized nation. [1] For Japan to emerge from the feudal period, it had to avoid the colonial fate of other Asian countries by establishing genuine national independence and equality. [1] Throughout the period, however, political problems usually were solved through compromise, and political parties gradually increased their power over the government and held an ever larger role in the political process as a result. [1] The government initially was involved in economic modernization, providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition to the modern period. [1]

When the United States Navy ended Japan's sakoku policy, and thus its isolation, the latter found itself defenseless against military pressures and economic exploitation by the Western powers. [1] The same year, Ōmura Masujirō established Japan's first military academy in Kyoto. [1]

This law required every able-bodied male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two additional years with the second reserves. [1] Japanese competition made great inroads into hitherto-European-dominated markets in Asia, not only in China, but even in European colonies such as India and Indonesia, reflecting the development of the Meiji era. [1]

To further strengthen the authority of the State, the Supreme War Council was established under the leadership of Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922), a Chōshū native who has been credited with the founding of the modern Japanese army and was to become the first constitutional Prime Minister. [1] This rebellion was, however, put down swiftly by the newly formed Imperial Japanese Army, trained in Western tactics and weapons, even though the core of the new army was the Tokyo police force, which was largely composed of former samurai. [2] The national army's victory validated the current course of the modernization of the Japanese army as well as ended the era of the samurai. [1]

In 1868, the Japanese government established the Tokyo Arsenal. [1]

Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. [1] Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War (War of the Year of the Dragon) started with the Battle of Toba-Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex- shōgun ' s army. [2]

In the early years of constitutional government, the strengths and weaknesses of the Meiji Constitution were revealed. [1] All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under "imperial control", thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government. [2] The Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law. [1] These two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei (Emperor Meiji's father) and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate ( bakufu ) and restoring the Emperor to power. [2]

In conjunction with the new conscription law, the Japanese government began modeling their ground forces after the French military. [1] To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. [1]

From the day the teen-aged Mutsuhito claimed power on January 3, 1868 in a relatively tranquil coup called the "Meiji Restoration" (after his reign name) until his death forty-five years later, Japan experienced an evolution so rapid that one Tokyo expatriate said he felt as if he had been alive for 400 years. [13]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(17 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (145) Meiji Period (Japan, 1868 - 1912)

2. (108) From the Edo Period to Meiji Restoration in Japan | Boundless World History

3. (56) Meiji Revolution - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History

4. (36) Meiji period - Wikipedia

5. (22) Meiji Period Japan History | JapanVisitor Japan Travel Guide

6. (21) The Meiji Restoration and Modernization | Asia for Educators | Columbia University

7. (18) About Japan: A Teacher's Resource | The Meiji Restoration Era, 1868-1889 | Japan Society

8. (17) A Chronology of Japanese History

9. (17) Meiji Restoration - Wikipedia

10. (13) Meiji Period in Japan | Facing History and Ourselves

11. (13) Meiji Restoration | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica.com

12. (10) Modernization of Japan: The Meiji Restoration Essay | Bartleby

13. (3) The Meiji Restoration (1868 - 1912) - Unique Japan Tours

14. (3) Additional Meiji Period Prints (1868-1912) | Davidson Galleries | Antique Modern Contemporary Works On Paper

15. (2) Becoming Modern, Becoming Global: Japanese Prints from the Meiji Period (1868-1912) | Princeton University Art Museum

16. (1) Meiji Japan, 1868-1912 by School of Foreign Service - Georgetown University - issuu

17. (1) ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa: Competing painting ideologies in the Meiji period, 1868-1912


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