world history education resources
Research numerous resources on the world history topics!

Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC)

Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • Historical periods Main article: History by period Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC) Historical Periods of the Americas Further information: History of the Americas Further information: History of the United States Classic and Postclassic eras.(More...)
  • Archeologists trusted that first urban communities began around 3500 BC in Mesopotamia and, not long after, in Egypt.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The main rivals, neighbors or trading partners to early Assyrian kings between c.2200 BC and c, Assyria became a regionally powerful nation in the Old Assyrian Empire from c.2100 BC to c.1800 BC. The Amorites had overrun the kingdoms of southern Mesopotamia and the Levant between c.2100 BC and c.1900 BC, but had hitherto been successfully repelled by the Assyrian kings during this period.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
Historical periods Main article: History by period Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC) Historical Periods of the Americas Further information: History of the Americas Further information: History of the United States Classic and Postclassic eras. [1] Cylinder seals were invented around 3500 BC in the Near East, at the contemporary sites of Susa in south-western Iran and Uruk in southern Mesopotamia. [1]

The earliest writing developed by the Sumerians (ca. 3500 BC) was in fact not words, but numbers -- accounting records and tokens. [1] The earliest recorded iron artifacts are some beads, dating from about 3500 bc or earlier, found at Jirzah in Egypt. [1] This organization led to the necessity of record keeping and the development of writing (c. 3500 BC). [1]

The Achaemenid Empire and the Conquest of Southwest Asia Cyrus became ruler of the Persians in 559 BC, creating the greatest empire yet, the Achaemenid Persian empire. [1] In 559 BC, Cyrus became the chief of an obscure Persian tribe in the south of Persia. [1] The cylinder is covered with a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script on behalf of the Persian ruler Cyrus II the Great (ruled 559 - 530 BC), founder of the Achaemenid Empire (559 - 330 BC), and dates from Cyrus' conquest of the Neo- (New) Babylonian Empire c. 539 BC. The Achaemenid Empire is traditionally believed to have been founded by Cyrus the Great during the middle of the 6 th century B.C. In 559 B.C., Cyrus became the king of Persis, and 9 years later,. [1] Cyrus II, the Great ( Old Persian : Kūruš, reigned 559 - ca. 530 BC) was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. [1]

It took enormously long time, from 10,000 BC to 3500 BCE, for the world to bestow its first civilizations. [1] Its territorial expansion started during the reign of Cyrus II (559 BC - 530 BC), with the annexation of the Median kingdom. [1]

If the Isaiah quote is used, since there is no such reference in the Jaredite account, the first mention of wheels in the Book of Mormon would be dated c. 559 B.C. The second reference to wheels or the word "chariot" is found in Alma 18:9, which dates c. 90 B.C. Sargon I, Akkadian king, conquers the land, 2350 B.C. First empire of history. [1] If the Isaiah quote is used, since there is no such reference in the Jaredite account, the first mention of wheels in the Book of Mormon would be dated c. 559 B.C. The second reference to wheels or the word "chariot" is found in Alma 18:9, which dates c. 90 B.C. The Achaemenid Empire is traditionally believed to have been founded by Cyrus the Great during the middle of the 6 th century B.C. In 559 B.C., Cyrus became the king of Persis, and 9 years later,. [1]

The Achaemenid Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great and was Iran’s first political government from 559 B.C. to 330 B.C. During this period, the Greeks referred to this civilization as Persians, named after the Achaemenid capital in the southwestern city of Pars. [1]


Archeologists trusted that first urban communities began around 3500 BC in Mesopotamia and, not long after, in Egypt. [2] Egypts early stages (like those of Sumer) date from about 3500 BC. [2]

The cylinder is covered with a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script on behalf of the Persian ruler Cyrus II the Great (ruled 559 - 530 BC), founder of the Achaemenid Empire (559 - 330 BC), and dates from Cyrus' conquest of the Neo- (New) Babylonian Empire c. 539 BC. [3] The Achaemenid Empire is traditionally believed to have been founded by Cyrus the Great during the middle of the 6 th century B.C. In 559 B.C., Cyrus became the king of Persis, and 9 years later,. [4]

Several small cities appeared in the region between 4,500 and 3,500 B. C. [3] Believed to have been created sometime during the 4th millennium BC (between 3500 and 3000 BC), this script. [4]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
The main rivals, neighbors or trading partners to early Assyrian kings between c.2200 BC and c, Assyria became a regionally powerful nation in the Old Assyrian Empire from c.2100 BC to c.1800 BC. The Amorites had overrun the kingdoms of southern Mesopotamia and the Levant between c.2100 BC and c.1900 BC, but had hitherto been successfully repelled by the Assyrian kings during this period. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian population, 2500-2334 BC Akkadian Empire period, c. 2218-2047 BC Ur III period, c, 2047-1940 BC The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. [1] VIII. The Sumerian civilization ended when the Tigris Euphrates valley was overrun by the Hittites C. 1600 BC The Hittites and Phoenicians I. The Hittite civilization dominated Mesopotamia from C. 2000 BC to 1200 BC. Hittites originally migrated from the Anatolia peninsula of present-day Turkey. [1] THE ASSYRIANS AND CHALDEANS I. The Assyrians conquered and overran most of Mesopotamia C. 900-612 BC. Considered the most war-like and cruel people in the Ancient world. [1] The Persian Empire dominated Mesopotamia from 612-330 BC. The Achaemenid Persians of central Iran ruled an empire which comprised Iran, Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, and parts of Asia Minor and India. [1] THE PERSIAN EMPIRE I. Persian Empire dominated Mesopotamia from 612-330 BC. Persians originally located in present-day Iran. [1] By 486 BC, the Persians would control all of Mesopotamia and, in fact, all of the world from Macedon northeast of Greece to Egypt, from Palestine and the Arabian peninsula across Mesopotamia and all the way to India. [1] In 2002 Jan Assmann authored "The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs. (R4,1998)(SSFC, 4/28/02, p.M4) 3.1k BC Cuneiform writing emerged in Mesopotamia. [1] In about 1595 BC, a Hittite army from central Anatolia attacked Babylon at a time when Mesopotamia was weak from years of drought. [1] In 330 BC he entered Babylon after Darius II had fled (eventually to be assassinated) and the infinitely long history of Mesopotamia folded into a new history, that of the Hellenistic period and the Greek and later Roman domination of the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates. [1] Later developments were dominated by the rise of the first large cities in the Uruk period in Mesopotamia (4,000 - 3,1000 BC). [1] The Ubaid Period Simultaneous with Halaf development, Lower Mesopotamia was first settled, aided by 5900 BC by irrigation canals leading from the Euphrates. [1] The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Hammurabi, great Amorite king, conquers Mesopotamia, c. 1800 B.C. This sub-project includes editions of the official inscriptions of the Second Dynasty of the Sealand (ca. 1025-1005 BC), texts published in Frame, RIMB 2 pp. 70-77. [1] 'The earliest Sumerian poems are distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic, dating from circa 2100 BC. The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to c. 2500 BC, and the orange area by 1000 BC. This sub-project includes editions of the official inscriptions of the Second Dynasty of the Sealand (ca. 1025-1005 BC), texts published in Frame, RIMB 2 pp. 70-77. [1] Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 BC), revived Assyrian culture, though Aramaean pastoral nomads were making incursions Ashurnasirpal I (1049-1031 BC), during this time, Assyria was reduced to a small core and written records ceased for about a century from 1050 BC. This sub-project includes editions of the official inscriptions of the Second Dynasty of the Sealand (ca. 1025-1005 BC), texts published in Frame, RIMB 2 pp. 70-77. [1] Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 BC), revived Assyrian culture, though Aramaean pastoral nomads were making incursions Ashurnasirpal I (1049-1031 BC), during this time, Assyria was reduced to a small core and written records ceased for about a century from 1050 BC. Babylonia emerged when Hammurabi (fl. ca. 1696 1654 BC, short chronology) created an empire out of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire. [1] Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 BC), revived Assyrian culture, though Aramaean pastoral nomads were making incursions Ashurnasirpal I (1049-1031 BC), during this time, Assyria was reduced to a small core and written records ceased for about a century from 1050 BC. Robert Adams suggests that during the Early and Middle Uruk periods (4200-3500 BC), large settlements developed on the southern alluvium. [1] Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 BC), revived Assyrian culture, though Aramaean pastoral nomads were making incursions Ashurnasirpal I (1049-1031 BC), during this time, Assyria was reduced to a small core and written records ceased for about a century from 1050 BC. Mass movement of peoples southwards from the Caucasus c. 3000 BC may have helped collapse the Uruk world system. [1] Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 BC), revived Assyrian culture, though Aramaean pastoral nomads were making incursions Ashurnasirpal I (1049-1031 BC), during this time, Assyria was reduced to a small core and written records ceased for about a century from 1050 BC. As elsewhere, Assyria grew more threatening over time, culminating with their destruction of the Israelite Kingdom in 722 BC and the deportation of the Samarians to Babylon. [1]

Together, they illustrate every aspect of the cultures of the Nile Valley (including Nubia ), from the Predynastic Neolithic period (c. 10,000 BC ) through to the Coptic (Christian) times (12th century AD ), a time-span over 11,000 years. [1] Some stayed in Palestine and were assimilated into the Phoenician culture while others settled in Egypt C. 1785 BC. Time of Egyptian settlement corresponds with Hyksos invasion In the Shandong area, it followed the Longshan culture period (c. 26001900 BC), and was later replaced by the Erligang culture. [1] BC) Middle Assyrian (c BC to 1056 BC) Neo-Assyrian (c BC) During this period, overthrew Egypt for a time. [1]

It later became the site of a temple of Aphrodite, the ancient goddess of beauty who, according to mythology, was born in the sea off Paphos. (AP, 3/21/06) 2.772k BC In Egypt the 365 day calendar was introduced. (eawc, p.1) 2.75k BC Gilgamesh, a Sumerian King, ruled the city of Uruk (Babylonia) about this time, which had grown to a population of over 50,000. [1] It was said to belong to Queen Sesheshet, the mother of King Teti. (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(AP, 11/11/08) 2.345k BC - 2.181k BC In Egypt the "Striding Figure of Meryrahashtef," a 22.5 inch nude statue of a minor 6th dynasty official, was made. (WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A14)(Arch, 9/02, p.61) 2.334k BC - 2.279k BC Sargon I (2371BC-2315BC) founded and ruled the city-state of Akkad, after he left the city of Kish where he was an important official. [1] During his reign Naram-Sin campaigned against the region of Magan (Oman). (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f) 2.278k BC - 2.184k BC Pepi II ruled in Egypt as the last king of the 6th dynasty and the last significant king of the Old Kingdom. (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm) 2.254k BC - 2.23k BC Shar-Kali-Sharri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled Akkad. [1] During the Old Hittite Kingdom period prior to 1400 BC, the king of the Hittites was not viewed by the Hittite citizenry as a "living god", like the Pharaohs of Egypt, but rather as a first among equals. [1] End of First Dynasty, start of Second Dynasty,2880 BC, Estimated germination of the Prometheus Tree c.2874 BC, The 365-day calendar year was installed in ancient Egypt, with fixed lunar months of 30 days +5 epagomenal days. 2852 BC, The beginning of the period of the Three August Ones, possibly causing the Burckle crater and Fenambosy Chevron. [1] The first period of 215 years in Egypt (Josephus Antiquities 11 15:2) from 1766 to 1552 BC. The period of 430 years (Exodus 12:41) was from Abraham's covenant and entry into Canaan until the Exodus (Exodus 12:41 ; Galatians 3:17), not just the time in Egypt. [1] A mature culture with writing and art was developed by this time. (eawc, p.4) 1.35k BC - 1336k BC Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) ruled during the 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt. [1] The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations rose and fell over this period. (eawc, p.1) 3.25k BC King Scorpion ruled Upper (southern) Egypt. [1] The subjects are animals, birds, fishes, and geometrical patterns generally, and there can be little doubt that they are crude local imitations of models of Late Minoan ware, directly imported into the country. (R.M. -P.H.C.p.122) 1.798k BC - 1.786k BC Amenemhet IV ruled in the 12th Dynasty. (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm) 1.792k BC - 175k BC Hammurabi, king of Babylon, established a code of laws during this period that became known as the Code of Hammurabi. [1] Artaxerxes III Ochus ( Old Persian : Artaxšaçrā, reigned 358 - 338 BC) was the eleventh king of the Achaemenid Dynasty and the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. [1] Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq Kapruk IV. (www.afghan, 5/25/98) 1.997k BC - 1.991k BC Mentuhotep III, the last king of the 11th Dynasty of Egypt. [1] They demonstrate how the rising Mediterranean broke through a natural dam in the Bosporus Strait and flooded a freshwater lake that expanded into the Black Sea. (NG, Nov. 1985, edit., p.559)(NH, 12/98, p.13) 2.348k BC Nov 25, Biblical scholars have long asserted this to be the day of the Great Deluge, or Flood. (HN, 11/25/98) 2.345k BC - 2.333k BC Teti ruled Egypt as the 1st king of the 6th dynasty. [1] His empire lasted less than 200 years. (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f) 2.333k BC Userkare ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt between Teti and Pepi. [1] In 301 BC Ptolemy I Soter, who four years earlier had crowned himself King of Egypt, the victors at Ipsus, however, had allocated Coele-Syria to Ptolemys former ally Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. [1] A terminus ante quem for the destruction of the Hittite empire has been recognised in an inscription carved at Medinet Habu in Egypt in the eighth year of Ramesses III (1175 BC). [1] It segues into the "Hittite Empire period" proper, which dates from the reign of Tudhaliya I from c. 1430 BC. Only in the later period of the Hittite Empire, from 1400 BC until 1200 BC, did the kingship of the Hittites become more centralized and powerful. [1] It segues into the "Hittite Empire period" proper, which dates from the reign of Tudhaliya I from c. 1430 BC. The Hittite empire collapsed c. 1200-1185 BC, as signs of destruction and abandonment spread across Southwest Asia. [1]

The region of Parsuash was annexed by Sargon of Assyria around 719 BC. Eventually the Medes came to rule an independent Median Empire, and the Persians were subject to them The first record of the Persians comes from an Assyrian inscription from c. 844 BC that calls them the Parsu (Parsuash, Parsumash) and mentions them in the region of Lake Urmia alongside another group, the Madai (Medes). [1] The first written inscriptions by urbanized Assyrian kings appear c.2450 BC, the land of Assyria as a whole then consisted of a number of city-states and small Semitic kingdoms, some of which were initially independent of Assyria. [1] The next king, Ashurnasirpal II, embarked on a vast program of expansion, during his rule, Assyria recovered much of the territory that it had lost around 1100 BC at the end of the Middle Assyrian period. [1] The rebellious movements eventually overthrew pharaoh Mentuhotep II in about 2040BC called this period of upheavals that intervened the Old Kingdom is often referred to as the first intermediate period from 2134 to 2040 BC. The end of the political instability of the first intermediate period brought in the Middle Kingdom in Egypt. [1] He is believed to be a proponent of the group that killed Teti. (www.ancient-egypt.org/kings/0602_userkare/history.html) 2.333k BC Go-Chosun (Kojoson) refers to the Korean Empire founded by Tangun in 2333 BC that succeeded the first kingdoms of Hwan Gook (7,197 BC) and Bae Dal (3,898 BC) (also known as Gu Ri) In 2350 BC, Sargon conquered all the Sumerian city-states, uniting them under his rule, creating the first Mesopotamian Empire. [1] Trivia: "Abraham's home, Ur of the Chaldees, was a prominent city of the Sumerian Empire, and contemporary texts record that Ur was sacked by the king of nearby Elam soon after 2,000 BC. Although the city was rebuilt, the center of power then moved north to Haran in the kingdom of Mari. [1] Assyria, Babylonia and Elam continued from the 2 nd millennium and were joined by the new-comer Urartu, unified by Sarduri I. 714 BC 'The earliest Sumerian poems are distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic, dating from circa 2100 BC. From 2112 to 2004 BC, a dynasty based at the city of Ur revived Sumerian culture to its greatest height, even though the Sumerian language had begun to fall out of use. [1] Assyria, Babylonia and Elam continued from the 2 nd millennium and were joined by the new-comer Urartu, unified by Sarduri I. 714 BC 'The earliest Sumerian poems are distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic, dating from circa 2100 BC. The official inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC) and Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), kings of Assyria, edited by Hayim Tadmor and Shigeo Yamada. [1]

POSSIBLY USEFUL Babylonia was a state Lower Mesopotamia with Babylon as its capital and it was founded as an independent state by an Amorite king named Sumuabum in 1894 BC. During the 3rd millennium BCE, there developed an intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. [1] It was the ascendency of the Akkadian dynasty in around 2,300 BC that positioned Akkadian over Sumerian as the primary language of Mesopotamia. [1] Sumer, or the "land of civilized kings’, flourished in Mesopotamia, now modern-day Iraq, around 4500 BC. Sumerians created an advanced civilization with its own system of elaborate language and. [1] Why would such a long-standing heritage of prominence and renown come to an abrupt end and force Abraham out of Mesopotamia into Canaan? A Sumerian text from 1960 BC could well hold the initial key, for it states, 'The gods have abandoned us like migrating birds. [1] The End of the Late Bronze Age Beginning around 1200 BC, collapse occurred among states in the Levant, Anatolia, Upper and Lower Mesopotamia, Mycenae, Cyprus, and Egypt lost control of Canaan. [1] Evidence of writing was found at the Annau ruins in 2000. (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A12) 2.3k BC Cultural exchange began between the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia. (eawc, p.2) 2.291k BC - 2.254k BC Naram-Sin ruled Akkad. [1] After the collapse of the Third Dynasty of Ur in about 2000 BC, Mesopotamia and Syria were ruled by dynasties that claimed Amorite lineage. [1] In the Early Dynastic period (2900 - 2350 BC), rulers became increasingly independent both in Mesopotamia and Syria. [1] The chapel is in the French Louvre. (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16) 2.4k BC Dagan, a name that appears in early Mesopotamia, and that enters into the composition of proper names in Babylonia about this time. [1] Lower Mesopotamia: Kassite Babylonia After Babylon fell in 1595 BC, the Kassites rose there, and Babylon was capital of a larger region called Babylonia. [1] Sumerians arrived in Mesopotamia ~3,600 BC and settled in city of Uruk. [1] Gilgamesh." (eawc, p.1)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.E4)(ON, 11/07, p.4,6)(Arch, 5/05, p.16) c2.75k BC Queen Paubi lived in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia. (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A24) c2.75k BC In the Orkney Islands a chambered tomb, Maes Howe, near the Stones of Stennes was constructed. [1] About 1700 BC, Semitic tribes known as the Hykos, invaded the Nile Valley, and mountain people infiltrated Mesopotamia. [1] The Iranian peoples had arrived in the region of what is today Iran c. 1000 BC and had for a number of centuries fallen under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-609 BC), based in northern Mesopotamia. [1] ROMAN EMPIRE - 2nd Century - IMPORTANT CITIES.  133 BC  44 BC  AD 14 (death of Augustus)‏  AD 117 (maximum extension)‏ THE EXTENT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Persians had a concept of "One World" and the "Unification of All People" which was taken up by Alexander, the Romans and future world powers. (Toleration for all) The Persian religion, known as Zoroastrianism, was founded C. 600 BC by prophet Zoroaster. [1] The struggle, known in Western history as the Persian Wars, or Greco-Persian Wars, lasted 20 years from 499 to 479 BC. T he early history of man in Iran goes back well beyond the Neolithic period, it begins to get more interesting around 6000 BC, when people began to domesticate animals and plant wheat and barley. [1] The struggle, known in Western history as the Persian Wars, or Greco-Persian Wars, lasted 20 years from 499 to 479 BC. The Persian Wars began when some of these cities revolted against Darius I, Persia's king, in 499 BC. Athens sent 20 ships to aid the Ionians. [1] The struggle, known in Western history as the Persian Wars, or Greco-Persian Wars, lasted 20 years from 499 to 479 BC. Cyrus rallied the Persians together, and in 550 BC defeated the forces of Astyages, who was then captured by his own nobles and turned over to the triumphant Cyrus, now Shah of the Persian kingdom. [1] The struggle, known in Western history as the Persian Wars, or Greco-Persian Wars, lasted 20 years from 499 to 479 BC. A few years later, probably 514 BC, Babylon again revolted under Arakha ; on this occasion, after its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed. [1]

The major civilizations that flourished during the Mesopotamian time were the Sumerians (3500-2300 BC), Akkadians (2180-2340 BC), Babylonians (1792-1750 BC), Hitties (1600-1200 BC), Assyrains (1000-612 BC) and the Persians (559-331 BC). [1] The three separate inscriptions, each in a different languages - Old Persian, Elamite and Late Babylonian Akkadian - were written in cuneiform script and recount the conquests of King Darius I (the Great) of Persia (ruled 522 BC - 486 BC). [1] He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records Narmer united Egypt and hieroglyphic writing developed. (eawc, p.1) 3.1k BC - 2.7k BC In Egypt the limestone "Stele of the Serpent King" has a bas-relief of a falcon in profile above a nearly abstract curving stroke of a snake. [1] Using tree rings to determine its age, they believed the door could have been made in the year 3,063 BC, around the time that construction on Britain's world famous Stonehenge monument began. (AP, 10/20/10) c3.05k BC - 2.89k BC In Egypt Hor-Aha ruled and was followed by Djer, Djet, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qa'a. [1] In Egypt the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties ruled simultaneously. (http://tinyurl.com/avkno) 1.628k BC The palace at Knossos, Crete, is depicted in the opening of the 1996 book: "Europe: A History" by Norman Davies. (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10) c1.6k BC The Nebra disk, a 12-inch bronze and gold disk from this time, was evidence of ancient German astronomy. [1] During the Hellenistic period (Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt 30 BC).the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. [1] This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: theWestern Han or Former Han (206 BC 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25220 AD) The republican period began with the overthrow of the Monarchy in 510 BC and lasted until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Roman Empire. [1] It contained salicylic acid, an ingredient of modern aspirin. (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6) c1.340k BC A bust of Nefertiti was made that later ended up in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin. (SFC, 7/7/96, T5) 1.336k BC - 1.334k BC The period of the 18th Dynasty under Smenkhkare. (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm) 1.334k BC - 1.325k BC Tutankhamen (10), son of Akhenaten, was Pharaoh of Egypt. [1] The 1st dynasty lasted until about 2890BC. (HNQ, 11/2/00) c3.1k BC In the protodynastic period of Egypt "Scorpion" ruled and was followed by Narmer. [1] The Akkadian empire collapsed into a period of regionalization, out of which the Third Dynasty of Ur, or Ur III Empire, emerged, controlling the region from 2112 to 2004 BC, reviving Sumerian culture with a ziggurat, temples, royal tombs, and a large bureaucratic administration. [1] Sargon of Akkad ( Akkadian : Šarru-kinu, "legitimate king", reigned ca. 2270 - 2215 BC ( short chronology )) founded the Dynasty of Akkad, and created the Akkadian Empire after conquering all the Sumerian city-states. [1] In 608 the Sāsānid Khosrow II took Osro"ne, and in 638 it fell to Muslim conquest of Persia, Osroene, or Edessa, acquired independence from the collapsing Seleucid Empire through a dynasty of the nomadic Nabatean tribe called Orrhoei from 136 BC. The name Osroene derives from Osroes of Orhai, a Nabatean malka who in 120 BC wrested control of this region from the Seleucids in Syria, most of the kings of Osroene are called Abgar or Manu who settled in urban centers. [1] A year before Cyrus' death, in 529 BC, he elevated his son Cambyses II in the government, making him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller title of "king of the (other) provinces" of the empire. [1] Gaumata, a pretender who claims to be a son of King Cyrus II named Smerdis who had actually been killed some years earlier, assumes the throne, but is disputed by another prince of the Achaemenid House, who finally defeats Gautama in 522 BC and assumes the throne as King Darius I. Later that year, Astyges is victorious over King Alyattes of Lydia in the Battle of the Eclipse (May 25, 585 BC). [1] ªIn September 520 BC, in the 2nd year of King Darius, the Prophet Haggai began to stir up the people of Judah and Jerusalem to start building on the foundation for the temple which had been laid in 538 BC, and later that month the Jewish governor Zerubbabel and the high priest Jeshua, along with the rank and file of the people, began to rebuild the 2nd temple on the foundation that was laid 16 years before. [1]

Although it was previously thought that the earliest forms of writing in the region do not go back much further than c BC, modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people who spoke the Sumerian language some scholars such as Piotr Michalowski and Gerd Steiner, contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. [1] The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to c. 2500 BC, and the orange area by 1000 BC. The Chalcolithic period ("Copper-Stone Age", circa 5,500 - 4,000 BC) saw the earliest metallurgy. [1] In the Shandong area, it followed the Longshan culture period (c. 26001900 BC), and was later replaced by the Erligang culture. [1] Some stayed in Palestine and were assimilated into the Phoenician culture while others settled in Egypt C. 1785 BC. Time of Egyptian settlement corresponds with Hyksos invasion. [1] They established a kingdom (c. 1800- 1180 BC) centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia and reached its height c. the 14thcentury BC, encompassing a large part of Anatolia and interacting with Assyria, Mitanni and ancient Egypt. [1] By c. 1330 BC, Assyria was treated as an equal by the Hittites, Babylonia, and Egypt. [1] King Telipinus (reigned c. 1525 - c. 1500 BC) is considered to be the last king of the Old Kingdom of the Hittites. [1] Babylonia emerged when Hammurabi ( fl. c. 1728- 1686 BC ( short chronology )) created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad. [1] Ptolemys revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC, Seleucus, who had been Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly It fights wars in Gaul, and against Epirus and Macedon, incorporating these areas into its Empire by the year 100 BC. Greece loses its independence soon after Rome takes Macedon. [1] Texts from the First Babylonian Dynasty (ca. 1700 - 1531 BC ( short chronology )), show the earliest use of mathematics to describe the variation in day length over a year, and the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa is the earliest evidence that planetary phenomena were recognized as periodic. [1] The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC This sub-project includes editions of the official inscriptions of the Second Dynasty of Isin (ca. 1157-1026 BC), texts published in Frame, RIMB 2 pp. 5-69. [1] The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang dynasty (16001046 BC) The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). [1]

Ussher uses this assumption and dates the 430 years from 1921-1491 BC. However, they were not in Egypt until 215 years later. [1] He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records Second, at Soleb the reference to Yahweh dates to 1400 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. In other words Pharaoh Amenhotep III, or his scribes, knew about the Hebrew God Yahweh in 1400 BC. This fact is highly significant when trying to date the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses. [1] As to the text edited here (lines 1^44), the sequence of the narrative is not chronologically oriented, although superficially it might appear so since two dates are mentioned, the accession and first year (859-58 BC) in line 10, and the thirteenth year (846 BC) in line 34. [1] The text includes, out of chronological order, events of various years: first year (858 BC) in lines 24- 26, fourth year (855 BC) in lines 8b-12a, eighth and ninth years (851-850 BC) in lines 42b-48, eleventh year (848 BC) in lines 10b-20, and fifteenth year (844 BC) in lines 30b-34a. [1] Minoan "Linear B" script is created and used until about 1200 BC. In 1953 Michael Ventris and John Chadwick decipher the text and read the first inscription in 3,000 years. [1]

The foundation of the first major temple in the city of Aššur was traditionally ascribed to king Ushpia who reigned c.2050 BC, possibly a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra of Isin, between c.2500 BC and c.2400 BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. [1] Mycenae, the great city of the Peloponnesus, was another earthquake victim about this time. (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8) 1.7k BC A Larsa king ruled Ur about this time. (ON, 8/20/11, p.8) 1.7k BC - 1.25k BC Troy VI, the bronze age settlement of the site of the Trojan War. [1] In 2006 archeologists working at the Buena Vista site believed that fisherman from the coast had moved to the site to grow cotton for making fishing nets. (SFC, 5/15/06, p.A2) 2.2k BC A statue of the Sumerian king Entemena of Lagash was made about this time. [1] The land bridge from England to France submerged to form the English channel at 5000 BC, and the Minoan civilization appears in Crete at 2500 BC. These dates are not dead accurate, but they are reasonably close, and by creating a ladder of several of them, one can then place other events within rememberable time periods, and this aids memory. [1] III. Hittite civilization ended suddenly, C. 1200 BC, probably at the hands of the Assyrians. [1] The Hittite empire collapsed c. 1200-1185 BC, as signs of destruction and abandonment spread across Southwest Asia [1] IV. Sargon's empire was taken over by the Amorites (Babylonians) C. 2000 BC. Hammurabi, also known as Amraphel in the O.T., (C. 1792-1750 BC) was the greatest of the Amorite kings. [1] Hammurabi, great Amorite king, conquers Mesopotamia, c. 1800 B.C. Trivia: "Plato (c. 427c. 347 BC), whose real name is believed to have been Aristocles, was an immensely influential ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens where Aristotle studied Hippocrates of Cos (c. 460 BCc. 377 BC) was an ancient Greek physician. [1] The first trace of human life in Mesopotamia is the ~65,000 BC Shanidar Man, a Middle Paleolithic Neanderthal buried in Shanidar Cave. [1] Even though the ruler of Persia, ironically named Darius II, had a much superior force, Alexader manage to win battle after battle against the Persians until, in 331 BC, he crossed the Euphrates into Mesopotamia. [1] In Around 3200 BC, Uruk emerged as a city in Southern Mesopotamia, surrounded by a massive wall, built by King Gilgamesh. [5]

Darius the Great (521-486 BC); The greatest of all the Persian kings. he extended the empires borders into India and Europe. [1] This was in practice since 509 BC when the monarchy was put to an end with the expulsion of the last king, Lucio Tarquino the arrogant, until 27 AD, the date in which Rome became an empire. [1] Several communities starting to spring up and in 2950 BC, Egypt had it’s first king (Narmer) which unified Egypt under his rule. [1] C.3500 BC, Pictographic proto-writing starts developing towards writing proper in Sumer, C.3500 BC, The first monument of which there is still a trace is built on the Hill of Tara, the ancient seat of the High King of Ireland. [1] One such event destroyed the first temple of Ishtar, which was then rebuilt in 2260 BC by the Akkadian king Manishtusu. [1] PERSIAN PERIOD 539-334 BC. YHD Coin 333 BC First Coin from Jerusalem Material: Silver Silver: ¼ inch in Diameter. [1] The Medes, people of the Mada,. appear in history first in 836 BC. Earliest records show that Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser III received tribute from the "Amadai" in connection with wars against the tribes of the Zagros. [1] Adad-narari III A.0.104 Adad-narari (810-783 BC) inherited an empire that was already suffering serious problems and by the end of his reign the Assyrian state was on the decline. [1] Under the Third Dynasty of Ur (2100 - 2000 BC) founded by Ur-Nammu in the city of Ur, a regional empire was reestablished, and Mesopotamian bureaucracy reached a height of complexity. [6] Although the Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty, surnamed Ji (Chinese: ), lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou. [1] It flourished on the banks of the Yellow River from about 1400BC-1027BC. The period is known for its use of bronze containers, oracle bones and human sacrifice, which ended shortly after the collapse of the dynasty. (eawc, p.3) 1.763k BC Hammurabi, the Amorite King, conquered all of Sumer. [1]

The early dynastic period ended C. 2600 BC when a destructive flood destroyed the Sumerian city-states. [1] Baked brick was developed c.3100 BC. Ziggurats were heavily developed during the Early Dynastic Period, c. 2500 BC (though prototypes can be found as far back as the Late Uruk phase, c.3200 BC). [1] The emergence of the Mitanni Empire in c.1600 BC did eventually lead to a period of sporadic Mitannian-Hurrian domination in c.1500 BC. The Indo-European language-speaking Mitannians are thought to have conquered and formed the class over the indigenous Hurrians of eastern Anatolia. [1] Alexander the Great, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the empire by 330 BC. Upon his death, most of the empire's former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time. [1] The second part of the 400 years was 185 years of the Assyrian/Babylonian captivity from the fall fo Samaria in 722 to Cyrus' decree of release in 538 BC. The Northern Kingdom of Israel had received the "firstborn" rights through Ephraim (1 Chronicles 5:1; Genesis 48:17-20; 1 Kings 11:31-32), and thus represented Abraham's descendants. [1] The royal history given on the cylinder is as follows: The founder of the dynasty was King Achaemenes (ca. 700 BC) who was succeeded by his son Teispes of Anshan. [1] The official inscriptions of the Assyrian kings Ashurbanipal (668-ca. 631 BC), Aššur-etel-ilāni (ca. 631-627/626 BC), and S"n-šarra-iškun (627/626-612 BC), edited by Jamie Novotny, Grant Frame, and Joshua Jeffers. [1] Ashurbanipal (Asnapper), C. 669-626 BC, was the last great Assyrian king and is noted for his cruelty and ferocity. [1] The first date that was found that I could correlate to a biblical event was the Assyrian invasion in 721 BC. This date became an anchor point. [1] The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses, also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city. [1] No archeological evidence has confirmed this. (eawc, p.2) 2.2k BC In what is now Bahrain settlements and temples of the city state of Dilmun, known as the city of the gods in ancient Sumerian literature, were found by Danish archaeologists in the 1950s. [1] On this platform, Darius built the first palace, which was completed in 515 BC. In addition, the construction of the Grand Stairway (known also as the "Stairs of All Nations’) was concluded that year. [1] This refers to the period of Greek history from the Dark Age (1100 BC) and the Doric Invasion until the year 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the battle of Corinth. [1] In the Neolithic period ("New Stone Age", circa 10,000 - 5,500 BC) nomads (perhaps under conditions of food scarcity) began to cultivate grains and domesticate dogs, sheep, and goats. [6] The Chalcolithic period ("Copper-Stone Age", circa 5,500 - 4,000 BC) saw the earliest metallurgy. [6] The region of Parsuash was annexed by Sargon of Assyria around 719 BC. Eventually the Medes came to rule an independent Median Empire, and the Persians were subject to them. [1] During the First Babylonian Dynasty (ca. 1700 - 1531 BC ( short chronology )), Babylonian mathematicians were able to make great advances for two reasons -- firstly, the number 60 is a highly composite number, facilitating calculations with fractions, and second, unlike the Egyptians and Romans, the Babylonians had a true place-value system, where digits written in the left column represented larger values (much as in our modern base-ten system). [1] The present text must date to late in 850 BC or shortly after that year since the last military narrative is of the second Babylonian campaign in the eponymy of Bel-bunaiia. [1] Interesting Facts: By the year 5,000 BC, the people were transiting from the Stone Age to a more civilized world. [5]

Her name translates as 'The Foremost of Noble Ladies'." 1,505 B.C. - Thutmose III / Egypt - " Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BC to 1425 BC according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt. [1] The collapse of the Akkadian empire came about in 2150 BC, due in part to incursions of nomads known as Guti from the Zagros Mountains in Iran. [6] Hammurabi, great Amorite king, conquers Mesopotamia, c. 1800 B.C. Excavations have shown that the Hittites were an Indo-European group who ruled a significant empire between ca. 1900 and 1200 B.C. The period of the divided kingdom began in 931 B.C. when the ten northern tribes of Israel split apart from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Archaeological discoveries have solved what appeared to be discrepancies in the chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah. [1] Hammurabi, great Amorite king, conquers Mesopotamia, c. 1800 B.C. Sargon I, Akkadian king, conquers the land, 2350 B.C. First empire of history. [1]

Ancient Afghanistan was a crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations. (www.afghan, 5/25/98) 3k BC - 2k BC Early Minoan civilization, centering around Crete, named after the legendary Cretan king. [1] They are now in the French Louvre. (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16) 2k BC - 1.6k BC In Mesopotamia the Old Babylonian period began after the collapse of Sumer, probably due to an increase in the salt content of the soil that made farming difficult. [1] The Asriyan was an independent city state of Ancient Mesopotamia that was existed from 25th century BC to 612 BC. The Assyrian Period was divided into the three periods Old Assyrian period, Middle Assyrian Period, and The Neo-Assyrian Empire. [5] POSSIBLY USEFUL Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 BC), revived Assyrian culture, though Aramaean pastoral nomads were making incursions Ashurnasirpal I (1049-1031 BC), during this time, Assyria was reduced to a small core and written records ceased for about a century from 1050 BC. The Kushites were dark-complexioned Negroids. (eawc, p.4) 1.5k BC In Guam the pre-latte period dates to about this time when the first wave of migration is believed to have taken place. [1] It was named after the leading Greek city of this period. (eawc, p.2) 1.6k BC - 1k BC In India the Early Vedic period of Indian civilization unfolded. (eawc, p.3) 1.6k BC - 1.046k BC Chinese inscribed bronzes and oracle bones of the Shang dynasty date from about this time. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shang_Dynasty) 1.595k BC The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. [1]

Assyria finally succumbed to the rise of the Median Empire and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, with the Fall of Nineveh in 612 BC. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean between the period of 1550 BC to 300 BC. The Phoenicians often traded by means of a galley, a man-powered sailing vessel and are credited with the invention of the bireme. [1] Assyria finally succumbed to the rise of the Median Empire and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, with the Fall of Nineveh in 612 BC. The collapsed c. 1180 BC, during the upheavals of the Bronze Age collapse ; a number of independent " Syro-Hittite " city-states then emerged, some surviving until as late as the 8thcentury BC. Mass movement of peoples southwards from the Caucasus c. 3000 BC may have helped collapse the Uruk world system. [1] The Battle of Nineveh in 612 BC eventually left Assyria destroyed for years to come, the Assyrians continued to fight on, with the aid of another of their former vassals, Egypt who feared the rise of these new powers By c. 1330 BC, Assyria was treated as an equal by the Hittites, Babylonia, and Egypt. [1] Assyria, Babylonia and Elam continued from the 2 nd millennium and were joined by the new-comer Urartu, unified by Sarduri I. 714 BC 'The earliest Sumerian poems are distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic, dating from circa 2100 BC. In 614 BC, Cyaxares of Media captures and sacks Ashur, the original capital and spiritual center of Assyria, and two years later, in 612 BC, the Babylonians and Medes capture and sack Nineveh. [1] It was the largest city in the world for some fifty years until, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria itself, it was sacked by an unusual coalition of former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Chaldeans, Scythians and Cimmerians in 612 BC. Nineveh’s ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate of Iraq. [1] Assyria finally succumbed to the rise of the Median Empire and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, with the Fall of Nineveh in 612 BC. As elsewhere, Assyria grew more threatening over time, culminating with their destruction of the Israelite Kingdom in 722 BC and the deportation of the Samarians to Babylon. [1] BC Thutmose III led his army from Egypt to Megiddo and outflanked the chariots of the Canaanite forces that had revolted against him. (WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm) 1.5k BC The Basketmaker culture of the Ancient Pueblo People began about this time and continued until about AD 500 with the beginning of the Pueblo I Era. [1] '95, p.76) 3k BC The fishing village of Daixi at the eastern end of the Qutang Gorge in China is the site of a Neolithic culture from this time. (NH, 7/96, p.58) 3k BC Ships transported timber from Byblos to Egypt. (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156) 3k BC Thoth developed the Egyptian calendar about this time whose year begins with the autumn equinox. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(12 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (167) Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC)

2. (64) Timeline 3300 to 1300 BCE

3. (29) Portal:Ancient Near East/Selected article - Wikipedia

4. (26) Hittites - Wikipedia

5. (18) Mesopotamia

6. (12) Complete Guide about Ancient Mesopotamia

7. (11) Oracc Project List

8. (3) 4. Fertile Crescent

9. (2) What is the oldest civilization on Earth? - Quora

10. (2) Persepolis | Ancient Origins

11. (1) Mesopotamia & Persia - Mrs Holmes AP Art history

12. (1) Free Unfinished Flashcards about World History Ch. 2


Privacy Policy  | Terms & Conditions  | Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources.

© Copyright 2017, Power Text Solutions, All Rights Reserved.