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Ming Dynasty (China)

Ming Dynasty (China)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • In 1912, after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, some advocated that a Han Chinese be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, who was the Duke Yansheng, or the Ming dynasty Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace.(More...)
  • Wanli Emperor : The 13th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China; his reign of forty-eight years (1572-1620) was the longest of the Ming dynasty, and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty.(More...)
  • It was the fourth longest Chinese dynasty, lasting for 276 years.(More...)
  • The Song Dynasty was a very prosperous time in Chinese history.(More...)
  • Ming emperors exerted more direct control over the Chinese government, and its organization became more stratified, with all major decisions funneling down from above.(More...)
  • Ming (mĬng), dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The Forbidden City, the official imperial household of the Ming and Qing dynasties from 1420 until 1924, when the Republic of China evicted Puyi from the Inner Court.(More...)
  • In the same year, the Ming army captured Dadu (currently Beijing), the capital city of Yuan, and rid China of most of the remaining Mongols, ultimately ending Yuan.(More...)
  • Ming power would hold out in what is now southern China for years, but eventually would be overtaken by the Manchus.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
In 1912, after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, some advocated that a Han Chinese be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, who was the Duke Yansheng, or the Ming dynasty Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace. [1] During the Ming dynasty, the Neo-Confucian doctrines of the Song scholar Zhu Xi were embraced by the court and the Chinese literati at large, although the direct line of his school was destroyed by the Yongle Emperor's extermination of the ten degrees of kinship of Fang Xiaoru in 1402. [1] Chinese glazed stoneware statue of a Daoist deity, from the Ming dynasty, 16th century. [1]

The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. [1] There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms. [1] By the end of the Ming the Dominicans had begun the Chinese Rites controversy in Rome that would eventually lead to a full ban of Christianity under the Qing dynasty. [1]

The Ming dynasty ( / m ɪ ŋ / ) was the ruling dynasty of China - then known as the Great Ming Empire - for 276 years (1368-1644) following the collapse of the Mongol -led Yuan dynasty. [1] He grew strong in the northeast, with forces large enough (numbering hundreds of thousands) to threaten invasion of the newly founded Ming dynasty in order to restore the Mongols to power in China. [1]

The last Yuan emperor fled north to the upper capital Shangdu, and Zhu declared the founding of the Ming dynasty after razing the Yuan palaces in Dadu to the ground; the city was renamed Beiping in the same year. [1] In 1725 the Qing Yongzheng Emperor bestowed the hereditary title of Marquis on a descendant of the Ming dynasty Imperial family, Zhu Zhilian (朱之璉), who received a salary from the Qing government and whose duty was to perform rituals at the Ming tombs. [1] By the late Ming dynasty, there were central government officials delegated to two or more provinces as supreme commanders and viceroys, a system which reined in the power and influence of the military by the civil establishment. [1] Fairbank estimates that the population was perhaps 160 million in the late Ming dynasty, while Brook estimates 175 million, and Ebrey states perhaps as large as 200 million. [1] In 1381, the Ming dynasty annexed the areas of the southwest that had once been part of the Kingdom of Dali following the successful effort by Hui Muslim Ming armies to defeat Yuan -loyalist Mongol and Hui Muslim troops holding out in Yunnan province. [1] After the overthrow of the Mongol Yuan dynasty by the Ming dynasty in 1368, Manchuria remained under control of the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia. [1] The Mongol -led Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty. [1]

Ming dynasty Xuande mark and period (1426-35) imperial blue and white vase. [1] Zhu Di assumed the throne as the Yongle Emperor (1402-1424); his reign is universally viewed by scholars as a "second founding" of the Ming dynasty since he reversed many of his father's policies. [1] In 1409, the Ming dynasty under Yongle Emperor established the Nurgan Regional Military Commission on the banks of the Amur River, and Yishiha, a eunuch of Haixi Jurchen derivation, was ordered to lead an expedition to the mouth of the Amur to pacify the Wild Jurchens. [1] Eunuchs gained unprecedented power over state affairs during the Ming dynasty. [1] Recognizing the weakness of Ming authority north of their border, he united all of the adjacent northern tribes and consolidated power in the region surrounding his homeland as the Jurchen Jin dynasty had done previously. [1]

On 7 August 1461, the Chinese general Cao Qin and his Ming troops of Mongol descent staged a coup against the Tianshun Emperor out of fear of being next on his purge-list of those who aided him in the Wresting the Gate Incident. [1] Key advances in Chinese science in the late Ming were spurred by contact with Europe. [1]

While the Yongle Emperor had staged five major offensives north of the Great Wall against the Mongols and the Oirats, the constant threat of Oirat incursions prompted the Ming authorities to fortify the Great Wall from the late 15th century to the 16th century; nevertheless, John Fairbank notes that "it proved to be a futile military gesture but vividly expressed China's siege mentality." [1] When the Ming founder Hongwu came upon the mechanical devices housed in the Yuan dynasty's palace at Khanbaliq - such as fountains with balls dancing on their jets, self-operating tiger automata, dragon-headed devices that spouted mists of perfume, and mechanical clocks in the tradition of Yi Xing (683-727) and Su Song (1020-101) - he associated all of them with the decadence of Mongol rule and had them destroyed. [1] Later the Qianlong Emperor bestowed the title Marquis of Extended Grace posthumously on Zhu Zhilian in 1750, and the title passed on through twelve generations of Ming descendants until the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912. [1] Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu -led Qing dynasty ), regimes loyal to the Ming throne - collectively called the Southern Ming - survived until 1683. [1]

In 1638 the Manchu defeated and conquered Ming China's traditional ally Joseon with an army of 100,000 troops in the Second Manchu invasion of Korea. [1]

The Portuguese first established trade with China in 1516, trading Japanese silver for Chinese silk, and after some initial hostilities gained consent from the Ming court in 1557 to settle Macau as their permanent trade base in China. [1] The Chinese had sent diplomatic missions over land since the Han dynasty (202 BCE - 220 CE) and engaged in private overseas trade, but these missions were unprecedented in grandeur and scale. [1] In The Ceramic Trade in Asia, Chuimei Ho estimates that about 16% of late Ming era Chinese ceramic exports were sent to Europe, while the rest were destined for Japan and South East Asia. [1] Li Shizhen (1518-93) - one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history - belonged to the late Ming period. [1]

Ming dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Ming, Chinese dynasty that lasted from 1368 to 1644 and provided an interval of native Chinese rule between eras of Mongol and Manchu dominance, respectively. [2] Re-establishing Chinese rule after the defeat of the Mongols, the Ming dynasty took an isolationist and authoritarian approach to leadership. [3] The Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) was the last ethnic Chinese dynasty, sandwiched between two foreign ones: the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty and the Manchurian Qing Dynasty. [4] The fall of the Ming Dynasty was the sixth time in Chinese history that a long-standing empire was brought down by peasant rebellion following famine. [5] This has been a constant in Chinese history, but the Ming were particularly concerned because they had only just won China back from Mongol rule under the Yuan Dynasty. [5] Early Ming decorative arts inherited the richly eclectic legacy of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, which included both regional Chinese traditions and foreign influences. [6]

Under the Ming Dynasty, Chinese "Blue and White patterned" Porcelain became China’s greatest export to the world, allowing it to maintain a huge positive trade balance, geometrically if not exponentially increasing the wealth of China. [7] Forbidden City : The Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty--the years 1420 to 1912--in Beijing. [8] Journey to the West, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, was published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty. [9] Cite this page: Carr, K.E. Ming Dynasty China - Chinese History. [10] Of course, the Ming Dynasty is my favourite time in Chinese history. [7]

Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty: Zhu Yuanzhang, later Hongwu Emperor, was the founder and first emperor of China's Ming dynasty. [8]

When the rebellion succeeded, Zhu Yuanzhang declared the beginning of the Ming dynasty and renamed himself the Hongwu Emperor, becoming the second commoner to rise to the highest position of power at the time in China. [3] The Ming Dynasty ruled over the Empire of the Great Ming (Dà M'ng Guó), as China was then known. [11] These historians, who include Kenneth Pomeranz, and Joanna Waley-Cohen deny that China "turned inward" at all and point out that this view of the Ming Dynasty is inconsistent with the growing volume of trade and commerce that was occurring between China and southeast Asia. [11] Trade with Ming dynasty China began after the bakufu agreed to suppress Japanese piracy. [2] Historians have thus been trying to understand why China did not "progress" in the manner of Europe during the last century of the Ming Dynasty. [11] Phoenix crown of the empress dowager Xiaojing, 17th century, Ming dynasty, China. [2] Prior to the Ming Dynasty, China had been ruled by the Yuan Dynasty. [12] The Great Wall of China : Most of the existing sections of the wall were built during the Ming Dynasty. [4] Zhu Di was the fourth son of Hongwu and he became the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty — Emperor Yongle. [4] After the Yongle Emperor's death, the succeeding emperor ordered He to cease his voyages, and the Ming dynasty retreated to its shell once again. [3] As the fifth emperor of the Ming Dynasty, he ruled over a peaceful and prosperous period. [4] In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang officially proclaimed himself emperor in Yingtian and founded the Ming Dynasty. [13] The Ming dynasty, which succeeded the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1206-1368), was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang. [2] Work on the wall largely superseded military expeditions against the Mongols for the last 80 years of the Ming dynasty and continued up until 1644, when the dynasty collapsed. [11] The Mongol -led Yuan Dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. [11] The Mongol emperor Shundi (Togon-temür) was defeated in a popular uprising, and the Hongwu emperor, founder of the Ming dynasty, succeeded him in 1368. [2] Before the 16th century, the scientific development of the Ming Dynasty had been in the forefront of the world.Many scientific books appeared in the early and middle period, namely, medical book Compendium of Materia Medica by Li Shizhen, Song Yingxing's Heavenly Creations about handicraft industry, Xu Guangqi's Complete Treatise on Agriculture and Xu Xiake's Travels of Xu Xiake. [13] Neo-feudal land-tenure developments of Late Song times were expropriated with the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. [11] The severely weakened Ming Dynasty was desperately trying to hold on to power, while a rebel leader called Li Zicheng declared his own new dynasty after capturing the capital city of Beijing. [5] The beginning of the Ming Dynasty was marked by Ming Dynasty military conquests as they sought to cement their hold on power. [11]

His reign was said to be the most prosperous period of the Ming Dynasty. [13] This is the only surviving example in the world of a major piece of lacquer furniture from the "Orchard Factory" (the Imperial Lacquer Workshop) set up in Beijing during the early Ming Dynasty. [11] This question is even more of an anomaly considering that during the last century of the Ming Dynasty a genuine money economy emerged along with relatively large-scale mercantile and industrial enterprises under private as well as state ownership, such as the great textile centers of the southeast. [11] There were strong feelings amongst the Han ethnic group against the rule by non-Han ethnic groups during the subsequent Qing Dynasty, and the restoration of the Ming dynasty was used as a rallying cry up until the modern era. [11] The end of 1637 saw the defeat and conquest of Ming's traditional ally Korea by a 100,000 strong Manchu army, and the Korean renunciation of the Ming Dynasty. [11]

Chinese traditional drama originating in the Song dynasty had been banned by the Mongols but survived underground in the South, and in the Ming era it was restored. [2] In order to further strengthen the Ming Economy which his father, the Hongwu Emperor had attempted to reinvigorate, Yongle thought it was a great idea to reconstruct a decaying ancient piece of Chinese infrastructure which had first been introduced almost 814 years prior during the Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD): the Grand Canal, an artificial man-made inland passage of water. [7] Nurhaci of the Manchu: Nurhaci's conquest of Ming China's northeastern Liaoning province laid the groundwork for the conquest of the rest of China by his descendants, who founded the Qing dynasty in 1644. [8]

A tribe descended from Jin dynasty rapidly extended its power as far south as Shanhai Pass, i.e. directly opposite the Great Wall, and would have taken over China quickly if not for the brilliant Ming commander, Yuan Chonghuan. [11] Seizing their chance, the Manchus crossed the Great Wall after Ming border general Wu Sangui opened the gates at Shanhai Pass, and quickly overthrew Li's short-lived Shun Dynasty. [11] The basic governmental structure established by the Ming was continued by the subsequent Qing (Manchu) dynasty and lasted until the imperial institution was abolished in 1911/12. [2] In an ironic turn of events, the protectionist and xenophobic Ming was conquered by the Manchus, and the dynasty, which was preceded by a foreign dynasty, was succeeded by a foreign dynasty as well. [3] During the first decades of the dynasty, the Mongols were driven north to Outer Mongolia (present-day Mongolia ), but the Ming could not claim a decisive victory. [2] Under the Ming it enjoyed great popularity, indeed outlasting the dynasty by a century or more. [2] From then onward the Ming were generally able to maintain their northern border, though by the later stages of the dynasty it in effect only reached the line of the Great Wall. [2]

On the northeast, the Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen), who rose in the northeast around the end of the 16th century, pressed the Ming army to withdraw successively southward, and eventually the Ming made the east end of the Great Wall their last line of defense. [2] Ming pretenders to the throne continued to try to rally Chinese support for a restoration for several decades after the fall of Beijing, but none gained much support. [5] The Ming became one of the most stable but also one of the most autocratic of all Chinese dynasties. [2]

Basically, the Ming incorporated the Song dynasty ’s policy of relying on the literati in managing state affairs. [2] Thanks to the dynasty's fear of foreign invasion, the Great Wall was significantly lengthened and Beijing's famous Forbidden City built under direction of the Ming. [3]


Wanli Emperor : The 13th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China; his reign of forty-eight years (1572-1620) was the longest of the Ming dynasty, and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty. [8] The Ming dynasty (January 23, 1368-April 25, 1644), officially the Great Ming, was an imperial dynasty of China founded by the peasant rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang (known posthumously as Emperor Taizu). [8] The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368-1644) following the collapse of the Mongol -led Yuan dynasty. [8] Considering that a man from such humble origins managed to not only halt the Mongol destruction of China, but also eventually reverse it armed only with his brain, sheer determination and courage, we can certainly say that the Ming Dynasty was not a failure in this regard. [7] The Qing conquest of the Ming was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the ruling Ming dynasty of China. [8] The span in which the Ming dynasty ruled China (1368–1644) was a period of incredible political and cultural growth for the nation. [14] The economy of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) of China was the largest in the world during that period, but suffered many inflations and contractions of currency. [8] Ming Dynasty reigned over China for 276 years from 1368 to 1644. [9] Other prominent structures built during the reign of Ming dynasty include the Golden Hall in the Wudang Mountains, one of the biggest gilded copper temples in China; and Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, the tomb of the Hongwu Emperor in Nanjing. [9] A map of Ming dynasty China, showing the surrounding kingdoms and peoples. [15] That was not all, unknown to many people (perhaps even in China today), a 4th Great Novel was produced during the Ming Dynasty, bringing the total amount of Great Classical Novels to a tally of 5 Novels. [7] This was how 3 of the 4 Great Classical Novels of China (which you can still buy today, translated into English) were first published all under the Civil Society of the Ming Dynasty. [7] Although images of autarkic farmers who had no connection to the rest of China may have some merit for the earlier Han and Tang dynasties, this was certainly not the case for the Ming dynasty. [8] The last Yuan emperor fled north into Mongolia and Zhu declared the founding of the Ming dynasty after razing the Yuan palaces in Dadu (present-day Beijing) to the ground. [8] Zhu Yuanzhang meanwhile became the First Emperor of the newly proclaimed Ming Dynasty under the ruling name of "Hongwu" (meaning "Overwhelming Force"), a title which was well deserved. [7] After the Hungwu Emperor threw the Mongols out in 1368 AD, he established the Ming Dynasty. [10] The new Emperor was able to implement additional Economic reforms and even opened up China’s borders to International Trade once more, and also even reversed his father’s orders, and encouraged the Privatisation of the Economy, bringing about an early version of Adam Smith’s Capitalism, a feat which was further emphasised in the mid and late Ming Dynasty. [7] The creation of the bristle toothbrush was said to occur around 1498, during the reign of the Hongzhi Emperor of the Ming Dynasty. [7] A leading historian of the Ming dynasty, Brook supplements his expertise in commerce, trade, transportation, and administrative structures with attention to climate change and its consequences to illustrate patterns of underlying continuity between the Yuan and Ming periods. [16] Born a poor peasant, he later rose through the ranks of a rebel army and eventually overthrew the Yuan leaders and established the Ming dynasty. [8] Zhu Yuanzhang : A poor peasant who rose through the ranks of a rebel army and later founded the Ming dynasty. [8] Weighing 52.7 million tonnes as a result of the 3.9 billion bricks which it was composed of, the entire renovation is estimated to have cost a total of $360 billion in today’s money to have carried out, a self-evidently impressive number which could only have been afforded by an empire as affluent as the Ming Dynasty, of which there were very few at this point in time if not none. [7] At its height, the Ming dynasty had a population of at least 160 million people, but some assert that the population could actually have been as large as 200 million. [8] The fall of the Ming dynasty was caused by a combination of factors, including an economic disaster due to lack of silver, a series of natural disasters, peasant uprisings, and finally attacks by the Manchu people. [8] Ming pottery: Ming dynasty Xuande mark and period (1426-35) imperial blue and white vase. [8] The Ming dynasty is, for many reasons, generally known as a period of stable, effective government. [8] This was a development which begun with the Song Empire, but vastly accelerated upon during the Ming Dynasty. [7] The Yongle Emperor of Ming dynasty made Beiping (present-day Beijing) the new imperial capital. [9] From the Great Wall to the Forbidden City, the Ming dynasty constructed some of China’s most significant landmarks. [14]

The Chinese characters on the crumpled banknote show that it was issued in the third year of the reign of Zhu Yuanzhang, the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty -- or 1371 in the Western calendar. [17] The Chinese Ming Dynasty lasted for 276 years (1368 - 1644 AD), and has been described as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history." [18] The rare Ming Dynasty paper banknote was hidden in the wooden sculpture of a Chinese religious figure more than 600 years ago. [17]

In this lesson, you'll get a look at life in China in one particular period of Chinese history that is also longer than the entire history of the United States: the rule of the Ming Dynasty. [19] Internal trade was heavily sanctioned during the Ming Dynasty to curtail speculation and price gouging, practices which Hongwu emperors felt fell disproportionately on the poorest Chinese. [19] The founder of the Ming Dynasty was The Hongwu Emperor, and he is considered to be one of the most influential and important Chinese Emperors. [18] One more development of note during the Ming Dynasty was the creation of the Ming shih, or 'Ming Code.' The Ming shih was the legal code ordered by Hongwu that modernized Chinese legal code. [19]


It was the fourth longest Chinese dynasty, lasting for 276 years. [4] Some historians believe the Mongols' discrimination against Han Chinese during the Yuan dynasty is the primary cause for the end of that dynasty. [11]

The blissful friendship between the two had been so highly regarded in fact, that when the Mongols successfully conquered all of China in 1279 AD, thousands upon thousands of Song Chinese fled to Vietnam where the Emperor of the Trần Dynasty (1225-1400 AD) allowed them to take refuge in the Trần Empire. [7] During the Hồ Dynasty, Vietnam was in a time of great upheaval and chaos, it was the perfect time for the Ming to invade, under the justification of restoring the Trần Emperor to his rightful place. [7] Instead of following the traditional way of naming a dynasty after the first ruler's home district, Zhu Yuanzhang's choice of "Ming," or "Brilliant," for his dynasty followed a Mongol precedent of choosing an uplifting title. [8] On April 24, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt and then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. [8] Such was not to be the case, in 1400 AD Hồ Quý Ly, an official of the Trần Empire seized his chance for power and overthrew the Trần Empire, establishing his own Hồ Dynasty (1400-07 AD), under it he refused to maintain the brotherly relationship with Ming that had been the case under the Trần. [7] For a brief period during the dynasty northern Vietnam was included in Ming territory. [8]

Today, the Ming is considered a failure by many Chinese and non-Chinese alike as it was a very technologically stagnant time in comparison to the earlier great empires of Han, Tang and Song, yet its hate is not completely deserved, the Ming still had some noteworthy progress in the realm of Military Technologies and Civil Advances. [7] Was the existence of the powerful Ming Military which allowed the Isolationist Empire of the Ming to still successfully intervene overseas to assert Chinese might. [7] The Vase quickly became the most sought after Chinese product in the International Market, prompting the Ming to produce the Vase in the thousands in an attempt to satisfy popular International demand for the product, allowing the Celestial Empire to maintain an extremely huge positive trade balance. [7] The Ming managed to prevail, and thus became 1 of only 3 major Chinese Empires to hold control of Vietnam. [7]

Because of the Ming, the Mongols were forever expelled from Chinese territory, the Economy stabilised and grew to such an extent as to account for 30% of the world’s wealth, with Industrial and Agricultural Production efficient enough, the Ming was able to expand its population to 160 million people by its end in 1644 AD. [7] By way of unfortunate coincidence also, the Hồ Imperial Army had accidentally slaughtered a Ming Envoy which they had mistaken for a Trần delegation further deteriorating relations between the Chinese and Vietnamese. [7] The Kingdom of Tungning was defeated in the Battle of Penghu by Han Chinese admiral Shi Lang, who had also served under the Ming. [8] Although it cannot be denied that the Ming was a time of great corruption and misery for the individual, the Empire of Light was also a high point in Chinese history. [7]

Throughout Chinese history, it was an informal and unspoken tradition that when one empire collapsed, another Chinese dynasty would immediately be required to replace it, in order to ensure that China would continue to thrive as one of the most important and powerful countries in the world. [7] This was the case with every Chinese dynasty from the Han to Song Dynasties over a period 1,100 years. [7]

Short fiction had been popular in China as far back as the Tang dynasty (618-907), and the works of contemporaneous Ming authors such as Xu Guangqi, Xu Xiake, and Song Yingxing were often technical and encyclopedic, but the most striking literary development during the Ming period was the vernacular novel. [8] In the mid-17th century instability rocked Ming China, and the dynasty came to a violent end when a people from across the frontier (close relatives of the Mongols) breached the empire’s defences and drove the Ming court from power. [20] To make matters worse, the traitorous Vietnamese Emperor went to the Ming Court and begged him to invade the Hồ Dynasty, to restore him to the throne. [7]

Manchu : A Chinese ethnic minority, formerly the Jurchen people, who founded the Qing dynasty. [8] Note how the Gentry Scholar was at the very top of the Societal Order, this loss of traditional prestige thanks to the Mongols had a ripple effect which saw the end of all things good, as had been the case under the preceding Chinese Song Dynasty. [7]

The ceramic trade thrived in Asia; Chuimei Ho estimates that about 16% of late Ming era Chinese ceramic exports were sent to Europe, while the rest were destined for Japan and South East Asia. [8] One major innovation during the Ming period was the vernacular novel, written in a form of Chinese readable to an audience much larger than the elite literati and incorporating themes outside the norms of Confucian court styles. [8]

Along with Han and Song periods, the Ming era is regarded as one of China's three golden ages. [9]

Chen Hongshou painting from the Ming period: Painting of flowers, a butterfly, and rock sculpture by Chen Hongshou (1598-1652); small leaf album paintings like this one first became popular in the Song dynasty. [8]

Credit The Palace Museum, Beijing LONDON -- The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, and it was under its aegis, during the first half of the 15th century, that technological and design advances brought milky white and cobalt-blue porcelain to perfection. [21] This artistic high point was just one of the many achievements of the Ming Dynasty between 1400 and 1450, as shown by "Ming: 50 years that changed China," in the recently opened Sainsbury Exhibitions Gallery at the British Museum. [21] Art experts in Australia have found a rare paper banknote from the Ming Dynasty of Imperial China hidden inside an antique wooden sculpture that was being prepared for auction. [17] In this lesson we explore how life changed for various groups of people during the Ming Dynasty in China. [19] The Ming Dynasty was far more autocratic than the previous Yuan Dynasty of China. [19] The Ming Dynasty, lasting from 1368 to 1644 and founded by rebel general (and peasant) Zhu Yuanzhang, saw China expand both territorially and economically. [19] As soon as Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming Dynasty, assumed the throne, he and his Confucian assistants imposed a system of clothing regulation on the court and society in order to create a hierarchical power structure. [22] The Ming Dynasty fell in 1644 when a Manchu army pushed south to Beijing and overthrew a rebel general who had captured the capital city. [19] While foreign trade expanded during the Ming dynasty, this was mostly done as a result of conquest and through the state. [19] A local official denied this, noting that the tomb was unlikely to contain any valuables since people lived modestly during the Ming dynasty due to a crackdown on corruption during that era. [23] During the Ming Dynasty this relationship changed in important ways that affected how government officials conducted their business. [19]

It occupied the largest territory ever in Chinese history, and there is no need to built walls without harassment from beyond the wall.In 1368, after a series of battles against Yuan, the Ming Dynasty established. [24] Ming Dynasty restored and rebuilt the Great Wall in the largest scale among all the dynasties in China's history. [24]


The Song Dynasty was a very prosperous time in Chinese history. [7] Archaeologists in China are convinced they have found the tomb and remains of Cao Cao, a famous Chinese warlord who rose to great power in the final years of the Eastern Han Dynasty 1,800 years ago. [18] "Yuan Origins of the Wei-so System," in Charles O. Hucker, ed. Chinese Government in Ming Times: Seven Studies. [22] A Ming vase from the Yongle dynasty, when the porcelain reached its most refined form. [21]

The Ming Dynasty lasted 276 years, and is credited with establishing Beijing as the capital of China. [25] The exhibition will explore a Ming dynasty golden age between 1400-1450, a spectacularly dynamic and culturally fertile period when the capital was established in Beijing. [26] The Ming dynasty has been roughly divided into three periods: an era of power consolidation and expansion (1368 ca. 1450), an era of political and economic changes and defense against internal and external upheaval (ca. 1450 ca. 1520), and concluded by a series of political and economic crises (ca. 1520 1644) that led to the downfall of Ming rule. [27] "Ming’ means bright, clear, and enlightened the qualities with which the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398) wanted his dynasty to be associated. [27] One of the revolts was headed by Zhu Yuanzhang became the founder of the Ming dynasty. [27] The imperial porcelain factory was established at Jingdezhen (景德鎮) at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), and from this time the position of Jingdezhen as the center of porcelain production became consolidated. [28] In 1471, Yu zijun, a provincial governor of Ming Dynasty responsible for the border security of Shanbei Province, employed army and residents to build a wall for a short time. [24] In the same year, the Ming Dynasty set up beacons along the wall from now Yanchi of Ningxia. [24]


Ming emperors exerted more direct control over the Chinese government, and its organization became more stratified, with all major decisions funneling down from above. [19] Farmers or other peasants made up the vast majority of the Chinese population in Ming China. [19]


Ming (mĬng), dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. [29] His military campaigns in Southern China soon brought sufficient momentum to challenge the rotting remnants of the Mongol Dynasty in the north and by 1387 had once more returned all of China to Han Chinese rule. [30] The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368-98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper. [29] During the Ming, the government institutionalized Neo-Confucian philosophy as the state ideology which had developed during the Song dynasty (980-1279) prior to the Mongol occupation. [27]

At the time Zhu Yuanzhang could not have anticipated that he had founded the last Chinese dynasty ever to rule from the dragon throne. [27] He had defeated the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) with the intention of re-establishing law and order under a Chinese government based on a value system derived from Chinese traditions. [27] Given such easy access to the Chinese throne, the Manchu entered Beijing and founded the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). [27] The Mongol’s distrust of the Southern Chinese stemmed from the fierce wars they had waged against southern armies loyal to the imperial family of the Song dynasty. [27]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
The Forbidden City, the official imperial household of the Ming and Qing dynasties from 1420 until 1924, when the Republic of China evicted Puyi from the Inner Court. [1] Ironically, some inventions which had their origins in ancient China were reintroduced to China from Europe during the late Ming; for example, the field mill. [1]

After the Jurchen invasion in 1127, the Song court established four semi-autonomous regional command systems based on territorial and military units, with a detached service secretariat that would become the provincial administrations of the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. [1] Copied on the Yuan model, the Ming provincial bureaucracy contained three commissions: one civil, one military, and one for surveillance. [1] The advent of the Ming was initially devastating to Christianity: in his first year, the Hongwu Emperor declared the eighty-year-old Franciscan missions among the Yuan heterodox and illegal. [1] The chief eunuch Wang Zhen encouraged the Zhengtong Emperor (r. 1435-49) to lead a force personally to face the Oirats after a recent Ming defeat; the emperor left the capital and put his half-brother Zhu Qiyu in charge of affairs as temporary regent. [1] Although there were several dictatorial eunuchs throughout the Ming, such as Wang Zhen, Wang Zhi, and Liu Jin, excessive tyrannical eunuch power did not become evident until the 1590s when the Wanli Emperor increased their rights over the civil bureaucracy and granted them power to collect provincial taxes. [1] Despite the loss of Beijing and the death of the emperor, the Ming were not yet totally destroyed. [1]

Tianshun proved to be a troubled time and Mongol forces within the Ming military structure continued to be problematic. [1] Although decentralization of state power within the provinces occurred in the early Ming, the trend of central government officials delegated to the provinces as virtual provincial governors began in the 1420s. [1] The historian Timothy Brook notes that the Ming government census figures are dubious since fiscal obligations prompted many families to underreport the number of people in their households and many county officials to underreport the number of households in their jurisdiction. [1] The Ming administration utilized Grand Secretaries to assist the emperor, handling paperwork under the reign of the Yongle Emperor and later appointed as top officials of agencies and Grand Preceptor, a top-ranking, non-functional civil service post, under the Hongxi Emperor (ruled 1424-25). [1] The History of Ming states that as early as 1364 Zhu Yuanzhang had begun drafting a new Confucian law code, the Da Ming Lü, which was completed by 1397 and repeated certain clauses found in the old Tang Code of 653. [1] Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that it had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since 1368. [1] Departing from the main central administrative system generally known as the Three Departments and Six Ministries system, which was instituted by various dynasties since late Han (202 BCE - 220 CE), the Ming administration had only one Department, the Secretariat, that controlled the Six Ministries. [1] The Ming Tombs located 50km (31mi) north of Beijing ; the site was chosen by Yongle. [1] Although the Ming sharply curtailed this support, there were still several prominent Muslim figures early on, including the Hongwu Emperor's generals Chang Yuqun, Lan Yu, Ding Dexing, and Mu Ying, as well as the Yongle Emperor's powerful eunuch Zheng He. [1]

A peasant soldier named Li Zicheng mutinied with his fellow soldiers in western Shaanxi in the early 1630s after the Ming government failed to ship much-needed supplies there. [1]

Islam was also well-established throughout China, with a history said to have begun with Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas during the Tang dynasty and strong official support during the Yuan. [1] Governmental institutions in China conformed to a similar pattern for some two thousand years, but each dynasty installed special offices and bureaus, reflecting its own particular interests. [1]

After being forced out of Xi'an by the Qing, chased along the Han River to Wuchang, and finally along the northern border of Jiangxi province, Li Zicheng died there in the summer of 1645, thus ending the Shun dynasty. [1] The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368-98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. [1] Hongwu organized a military system known as the weisuo, which was similar to the fubing system of the Tang dynasty (618-907). [1]

Gonzales de Mendoza also mentioned this a year later - noting even the designs of them on Chinese silken robes - while Gerardus Mercator (1512-94) featured them in his atlas, John Milton (1608-74) in one of his famous poems, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739-801) in the writings of his travel diary in China. [1] Both Ricci and Trigault were quick to point out that 16th-century European clockworks were far more advanced than the common time keeping devices in China, which they listed as water clocks, incense clocks, and "other instruments. with wheels rotated by sand as if by water" (Chinese: 沙漏 ). [1] Not only was the blurring of town and country evident, but also of socioeconomic class in the traditional four occupations (Chinese: 士農工商 ), since artisans sometimes worked on farms in peak periods, and farmers often traveled into the city to find work during times of dearth. [1] Roughly half a million more Chinese settlers came in later periods; these migrations caused a major shift in the ethnic make-up of the region, since formerly more than half of the population were non-Han peoples. [1] Huang Taiji also adopted the Chinese imperial title huangdi, declared the Chongde ("Revering Virtue") era, and changed the ethnic name of his people from " Jurchen " to " Manchu ". [1] The Chinese military, caught between fruitless efforts to defeat the Manchu raiders from the north and huge peasant revolts in the provinces, essentially fell apart. [1]

Song, Yingxing (1966), T'ien-Kung K'ai-Wu: Chinese Technology in the Seventeenth Century, translated with preface by E-Tu Zen Sun and Shiou-Chuan Sun, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. [1] These two strands of Confucian thought, hardened by Chinese scholars' notions of obligation towards their mentors, developed into pervasive factionalism among the ministers of state, who used any opportunity to impeach members of the other faction from court. [1] In contrast to Xu Xiake, who focused on technical aspects in his travel literature, the Chinese poet and official Yuan Hongdao (1568-1610) used travel literature to express his desires for individualism as well as autonomy from and frustration with Confucian court politics. [1] Chinese records - namely the Yuan Shi - describe the 'five-wheeled sand clock', a mechanism pioneered by Zhan Xiyuan ( fl. 1360-80) which featured the scoop wheel of Su Song's earlier astronomical clock and a stationary dial face over which a pointer circulated, similar to European models of the time. [1] Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation, and massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. [1]

The growth of Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver. [1]

Perdue, Peter C. (2000), "Culture, History, and Imperial Chinese Strategy: Legacies of the Qing Conquests", in van de Ven, Hans, Warfare in Chinese History, Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, pp.252-287, ISBN 90-04-11774-1. [1]

Spring morning in a Han palace, by Qiu Ying (1494-1552); excessive luxury and decadence marked the late Ming period, spurred by the enormous state bullion of incoming silver and by private transactions involving silver. [1] In 1380 Hongwu had the Chancellor Hu Weiyong executed upon suspicion of a conspiracy plot to overthrow him; after that Hongwu abolished the Chancellery and assumed this role as chief executive and emperor, a precedent mostly followed throughout the Ming period. [1] The financial drain of the Imjin War in Korea against the Japanese was one of the many problems - fiscal or other - facing Ming China during the reign of the Wanli Emperor (1572-1620). [1] Wade, Geoff (2008), "Engaging the South: Ming China and Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 51 (4): 578-638, doi : 10.1163/156852008X354643, JSTOR 25165269. [1] Atwell, William S. (2002), "Time, Money, and the Weather: Ming China and the 'Great Depression' of the Mid-Fifteenth Century", The Journal of Asian Studies, 61 (1): 83-113, doi : 10.2307/2700190. [1]

In addition to taking over the established bureaucratic structure from the Yuan period, the Ming emperors established the new post of the travelling military inspector. [1] Descendants of the first Ming emperor were made princes and given (typically nominal) military commands, annual stipends, and large estates. [1]

Each bastion of resistance was individually defeated by the Qing until 1662, when the last southern Ming Emperor died, the Yongli Emperor, Zhu Youlang. [1] During the turmoil, the last Ming emperor hanged himself on a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City. [1]

The early Ming court could not, and did not, aspire to the control imposed upon the Jurchens in Manchuria by the Mongols, yet it created a norm of organization that would ultimately serve as the principal vehicle for the relations with peoples along the northeast frontiers. [1] After the death of Yongle Emperor, the Nurgan Regional Military Commission was abolished in 1435, and the Ming court ceased to have substantial activities there, although the guards continued to exist in Manchuria. [1]

Even with the Jiajing reforms to document migrant workers and merchants, by the late Ming era the government census still did not accurately reflect the enormous growth in population. [1] Turrell V. Wylie states that censorship in the Mingshi in favor of bolstering the Ming emperor's prestige and reputation at all costs obfuscates the nuanced history of Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming era. [1]

Jonathan Spence writes that the distinction between what was town and country was blurred in Ming China, since suburban areas with farms were located just outside and in some cases within the walls of a city. [1]

The Wanli Emperor (r. 1572-1620) attempted to reestablish Sino-Tibetan relations in the wake of a Mongol-Tibetan alliance initiated in 1578, an alliance which affected the foreign policy of the subsequent Manchu Qing dynasty (1644-1912) in their support for the Dalai Lama of the Yellow Hat sect. [1] The Hongwu Emperor curtailed the cosmopolitan culture of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, and the prolific Prince of Ning Zhu Quan even composed one encyclopedia attacking Buddhism as a foreign "mourning cult", deleterious to the state, and another encyclopedia that subsequently joined the Taoist canon. [1] Naghachu, a former Yuan official and a Uriankhai general of the Northern Yuan dynasty, won hegemony over the Mongol tribes in Manchuria ( Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty). [1]

Painting of flowers, a butterfly, and rock sculpture by Chen Hongshou (1598-1652); small leaf album paintings like this one first became popular in the Song dynasty. [1]


In the same year, the Ming army captured Dadu (currently Beijing), the capital city of Yuan, and rid China of most of the remaining Mongols, ultimately ending Yuan. [13] Before the Ming, China was ruled by the Mongols, under the name Yuan. [3] Recovery in China - Overview Ming ChinaPolitical Development Mongols collapsed in 1368. [31]

Wu Sangui and his Ming army were on their way to Beijing, marching through the Shanhai Pass at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. [5] Almost 100 years earlier (1368) the Ming had started building a new, technically advanced fortification which today is called the Great Wall of China. [11]

In these dire circumstances, a Ming general decided to issue an invitation for the ethnic Manchus of north-eastern China to come to the country's aid, and retake the capital city. [5]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(33 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (85) Ming dynasty - Wikipedia

2. (76) Was the Ming Dynasty of China a total failure? - Quora

3. (51) The Ming Dynasty | Boundless World History

4. (42) Ming Dynasty - New World Encyclopedia

5. (21) Ming dynasty | Dates, Achievements, Culture, & Facts | Britannica.com

6. (20) The Fall of the Ming Dynasty in China

7. (16) Life in China During the Ming Dynasty | Study.com

8. (10) the Ming Dynasty History: Major Events, Rise and Fall

9. (9) Ming Dynasty in China History: Economy, Culture, Science

10. (9) Ming: The Dynasty Behind the Vases - The New York Times

11. (9) 10 Major Achievements of the Ming Dynasty of China | Learnodo Newtonic

12. (8) The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) | Colorful Lanterns at Shangyuan

13. (8) A Brief History of China: Ming Dynasty

14. (6) Ming Dynasty China - Chinese History - Quatr.us Study Guides

15. (5) Dressing for power: Rite, costume, and state authority in Ming Dynasty China | SpringerLink

16. (4) The Ming Dynasty Concubines: A Life of Abuse, Torture and Murder for Thousands of Women | Ancient Origins

17. (4) Great Wall of Ming Dynasty in China, Ming Dynasty Great Wall

18. (3) Ancient China for Kids: Ming Dynasty

19. (3) Stashed Cash: Rare Ming Dynasty Banknote Found Inside Chinese Sculpture

20. (3) Ming Dynasty China - TimeMaps

21. (3) Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

22. (2) 8 Amazing Examples of Ming Dynasty Architecture Photos | Architectural Digest

23. (2) Ming Dynasty - Chinese Studies - Oxford Bibliographies

24. (2) List of books and articles about China, Ming Dynasty | Online Research Library: Questia

25. (2) Ming Dynasty Tombs - Beijing, China - Atlas Obscura

26. (2) Timeline of Chinese History and Dynasties | Asia for Educators | Columbia University

27. (1) Ming Dynasty China

28. (1) 500yo Ming Dynasty mummies unearthed at Chinese construction site -- RT World News

29. (1) Ming Dynasty China: Ceramic Pillow (1368-1644) Classroom Bundle | Art in History | STEMfinity

30. (1) China's Ming dynasty golden age to be star of British Museum blockbuster | Art and design | The Guardian

31. (1) Ming Dynasty | Chinese Ceramics | China Online Museum

32. (1) Ming Dynasty

33. (1) Ming Dynasty China


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