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Ngô Dynasty (Vietnam)

Ngô Dynasty (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • There is still a debate about the legitimacy of Triệu dynasty (Zhao dynasty): some Vietnamese historians confirm Triệu dynasty is one of the Vietnamese dynasties but others claim that Triệu dynasty is a Chinese dynasty.(More...)
  • In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Th" Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs.(More...)
  • The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Early Lý dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The turmoil of succession of Dinh Tien Hoang in their southern border gave the Chinese Song a pretext to meddle and interfere into the matters of the Vietnamese, to invade the country and subjugate it again to their rule.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
There is still a debate about the legitimacy of Triệu dynasty (Zhao dynasty): some Vietnamese historians confirm Triệu dynasty is one of the Vietnamese dynasties but others claim that Triệu dynasty is a Chinese dynasty. [1] Most Vietnamese monarchs are known through their posthumous names or temple names, while the Nguyễn dynasty, the last reigning house is known through their era names. [1]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [2] The rest of Ming armies, Chinese rebels, and Manchu Qing Dynasty quickly followed suit, and Vietnamese matchlock became the most common handheld firearm during Ming-Qing transition period. [3] Known as Zua Wa Chong (爪哇銃, Java arquebus), Vietnamese matchlock entered Chinese arsenal during the last years of the Ming Dynasty through border conflicts between the dying Later Mạc dynasty and local Tu Si (土司, government-sanctioned native chieftain) of Guangxi and Yunnan provinces. [3] Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Later Lê dynasty early period (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Later Lê dynasty warlord period (1533 to 1788) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords. [2] The first dynasty that many consider to be the start of the Vietnamese state was the Hong Bang Dynasty which was ruled by the legendary Hung kings. [4] Generally speaking, the worldview and life outlook of the Nguyn Dynasty, especially of the high stratum of king, officials, and intellectuals were those of Confucianism, which were applied, improvised, and localized in the Vietnamese society in the first half of the 19th Century. [5]

When the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) invaded in 1407, they destroyed the country, burnt all Vietnamese books on history and culture. [3] Nguyen Dynasty, (1802-1945), the last Vietnamese dynasty, which was founded and dominated by the powerful Nguyen family. [6] Lê Li then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái T and establishing the Lê dynasty (1428-1788). [2] The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. [2]

In 938 CE (all dates after this are Current Era), Ngô Quyền took advantage of a Chinese rule weakened by domestic power struggles and founded the Ngô Dynasty. [7] The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Li's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sn brothers took over. [2]


In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Th" Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs. [8] Ngô Th" Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to question the relations between Zhao Tuo's Nanyue Kingdom in Guangdong and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red River Delta was a mere vassal to Nanyue and not an integral part of it in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty. [8]

The Hồ dynasty's rule and Vietnamese who worked with the Ming were attacked in the "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" by Lê Lợi. [8]


The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Early Lý dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. [9] In 930 AD, Ngo Quyen defeated the Han in the famous Battle of Bach Dang River, after which time the land came under rule of the Ngô Dynasty. [10] In 939 Ngô Quyền proclaimed himself king but not emperor, established the Ngô Dynasty and his capital at Cổ Loa (previously a capital in the 3rd century BC) and set up a centralized government. [9]

Ngô Đ"nh Diệm (3 January 1901 - 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician. [11]

Professor Liam Kelley (Le Minh Khai) suggested that the "north" in B"nh Ngô đại cáo referred to the Ming collaborationist Hanoi scholars while the south referred to Thanh Hóa, the base of Lê Lợi since the text referred to "Dai Viet" and did not introduce China before mentioning north. cited John Whitmore and challenged the claim that "Ngô " referred to Ming dynasty China but instead referred to the Chinese settled Red River Delta area of Vietnam. [8] Modern Vietnamese historians inserted word changes and altered the meanings of texts written by ancient Vietnamese historians on how battles between rebels in Vietnam and the Chinese states such as the Chen dynasty and Southern Han were viewed. [8] The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese. [8] DIEN BIEN PHU & FIRST MASS EXODUS FROM NORTH TO SOUTH The Vietminh retreated into the hills to build up their forces while the French formed a rival Vietnamese government under Emperor Bao Dai, the last ruler of the Nguyen dynasty, in populated areas along the coast. [12] Within French Indochina, Cochin China had the status of a French Colony, Annam was a Protectorate where the Nguyen Dynasty still ruled in name, and Tonkin had a French Governor yet local governments were run by Vietnamese officials. [13] Both Chinese and Vietnamese sovereigns were honored at a temple constructed by the Nguyen dynasty. [8] For two decades, the Ming dynasty attempted to reintegrate Viet Nam into the empire, but in 1428, resistance forces under the rebel leader Le Loi dealt the Chinese a decisive defeat and restored Vietnamese independence. [12] Except the Hồng Bàng and T y Sơn dynasties, all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the king's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are dictated by the dynasty founders and often used as the country's name. [8] The period of the Fourth Hng dynasty (c. 2252-1913 BC) saw the evidence for early Vietnamese calendar system recorded on stone tools and the population from the mountainous areas moved out and began to settle in the open along the rivers to join the agricultural activities. [8] The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). [13] Noted Trần dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [8] He befriended a pretender to the Vietnamese throne, Nguyen Anh, who founded the Nguyen dynasty. [12] Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. [14] Japan's defeat by World War II Allies created a power vacuum for Vietnamese nationalists of all parties to seize power in August 1945, forcing Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate and ending the Nguyễn dynasty. [8] Actually, the early Nguyễn Dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Vietnamese dynasties did (like building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos, etc), except those feats were not enough in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics. [13] Within French Indochina, Cochinchina had the status of a colony, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and Tonkin had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials. [8] LE DYNASTY The Vietnamese advance to the south coincided with new challenges in the north. [12]

Ngô and Trần Dynasty 939 ~1400 14th Century from that time on, from the Ngô to Trần Dynasty, vietnam art and ceramics flourished. the ceramics were thought to have been largely influenced by ancient native styles and the tang, song dynasties. [15] It saidthat Song dynasty clothing was worn by the Tran and Ming while it slammed and criticized Mongol Yuan customs followed by the Ngô. [8] The Lê dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt's history up to the time of Lê Lợi. [8]

On November 1 1963, with secret blessing from the U.S., South Vietnamese generals led by Dương Văn Minh overthrew Ngô Đ"nh Diệm and killed both him and his brother, Ngô Đ"nh Nhu, who was also his official advisor. [13]

According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn Hống and Nghĩa Lĩnh. [8]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
The turmoil of succession of Dinh Tien Hoang in their southern border gave the Chinese Song a pretext to meddle and interfere into the matters of the Vietnamese, to invade the country and subjugate it again to their rule. [16] The Song Dynasty had reunified the country for the first time since the fall of the Tang. [16] Đào Lang Vương is not officially considered as king of Early Lý Dynasty as he was a self-claimed king. [1]

During this time, emperors of the Lê dynasty only ruled in name, it was the Trịnh lords in Northern Vietnam and Nguyễn lords in Southern Vietnam who held the real power. [1]

It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bo i abdicated the throne and transferred power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [2] The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Lý Nam who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [2] While for much of its history, Vietnam remained a tributary state to the much larger neighbor China, it repelled repeated attempts by China to make it once again part of the Middle Kingdom empire, including the three invasions by the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, when China was under Mongolian rule. [17] Weakened by war, Vietnam was soon conquered by the Ming Dynasty from China and overthrew the Ho Dynasty. [18] Some people believe that the control of Triu Dynasty was the beginning of China's domination in Vietnam, as Triu à used to be a commander under dynastic China. [2] Others claim that this is still an independent period of Vietnam because of during this period, the people of Triu Dynasty were assimilated into the culture of Âu Lc. [2] Only 90 years later, Vietnam was faced with the South-North Dynasty war, followed by the divisive civil war of the Trnh and Nguyn feudal loards. [5] The dynasty was capped when Lý Chiêu Hoàng took the throne at 6 years old, becoming the only reigning empress in the history of Vietnam. [7] The Lê dynasty was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six year interruption of the Mc dynasty usurpers (1527-1533). [2] As these developmental processes were about to take place, the Ch'in Dynasty, followed by the Hn Dynasty, invaded Vietnam and placed it under their subjugation and domination for over 1,000 years. [5] In 1407, Vietnam fell under Ming dynasty domination, which lasted until 1427, they renamed the area " Giao Ch ". [2] The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Li after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. [2] Modeling their administration after that of the Chinese Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911), the Nguyen, particularly after Gia Long’s death in 1820, followed a conservative policy that opposed foreign missionary activity in Vietnam. [6] A young prince, Nguyen Anh, survived to lead an eventual recovery of Nguyen territory and finally to become the emperor Gia Long ( q.v. ), who ruled over the whole of Vietnam from 1802 and was the founder of the Nguyen dynasty. [6] The Nguyen Dynasty was still allowed to rule over Vietnam but had to follow French requests. [18] …Long of the newly established Nguyen dynasty, which included Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and had its capital at Hue. [6]

In 111 BC, the Han Dynasty from China absorbed Vietnam into their empire. [4] In the official history of Vietnam, the Mc Dynasty was not considered an official imperial court. [5] Ly and Tran are considered as the most powerful dynasty in Vietnam history. [3] He founded the Hng Bàng Dynasty, whose members ruled Vietnam until 258 BC. So much of the vestiges from this time is now lost to the ages. [2] By the time the Triệu Dynasty came around in 207 BCE, Vietnam - then known as Nam Việt and comprising basically what is now northern Vietnam - was thoroughly intertwined with the powerful Han Chinese. [7] Much of northern Vietnam (from the Red River delta down to about the region of modern Thanh Hóa province) was incorporated into the Chinese prefecture/commandery of Jiaozhi, or Giao Chỉ, through much of the Han dynasty and the period of the Three Kingdoms. [17] Others consider it an era of independence, because the Trieu family ruled Nam Viet were assimilated with the locals, and they ruled independently of what then constituted as China (Han dynasty) until 111 BC, when the Han troops invaded Nam Viet, and incorporated its territory into the Han empire, including what is now part of Northern Vietnam turned into Giao Chi (Giao Chỉ/Jiaozhi) commandary. [17]

In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [2] The modern name of Vietnam is known officially came under the Emperor Gia Long's reign, but recently historians have found that this name has been existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country name Vietnam. [17] After millions of Vietnamese deaths, and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the capture of Saigon by the North in April 1975. [17] Only France and the North Vietnamese government (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) had signed the document. [17] History Vietnam, according to Vietnamese legends, dates back more than 4,000 years. [17] South Vietnamese who opposed Diệm's rule and desired the reunification of Vietnam under the Hanoi government of Hồ Ch' Minh organized the National Liberation Front, better known as the Việt Cộng. [17] The Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam and a groups ethnic minority Protestant people in the northern and central highlands (T y Nguyên) who want to secede are also suppressed, the Vietnamese government claims this is a result of their political involvement rather than their religious beliefs. [17] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [17] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, populations of Cham nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now comprise one of the minority peoples of modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [17]

Throughout this time period, Europeans missionaries introduced Christianity to Vietnam and were successful in converting many Vietnamese. [18] Despite France modernizing Vietnam with railroads and other technology, many Vietnamese resisted French authority and rebelled. [18] Similar to the defeat of Champa, Vietnamese military victories in these territories initiated the large-scale colonization of what is now southern Vietnam by Kinh settlers in an area previously populated mainly by Khmers. [17] Under the "Vietnamese Hammurabi", the Hindu Kingdom of Cham (picture below in Blue) was conquered and "Confucianized", as were parts of Modern day Laos, and Central Vietnam. [3] Many young Vietnamese were sent to Japan and other Westernized countries around the world in order to bring knowledge back in hope to gain independence for Vietnam. [18]

Throughout this 1000 years of rule, the Vietnamese people managed to retain their identity yet at the same time integrated a lot of Chinese culture. [18] During the Northern domination, in order to find balance against the Chinese culture represented by Confucianism, the Vietnamese in the ancient time exalted the Indian culture represented by Buddhism. [5] Although Âu Lc people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over the next 1000 years. [2] After Mac Dang Dung usurped the Vietnamese throne in 1527, Nguyen Kim fought to restore a Le emperor in 1533, leaving the Mac family in power in the northern section of the country. [6] Members of the Nguyen family acted as mayors of the palace to the weak Le rulers, but by the mid-16th century this role passed to the Trinh family ( q.v. ), and Nguyen power became associated with the southernmost sections of the Vietnamese state. [6]

Vietnamese matchlock gun enjoyed a very high reputation during seventeenth century among not just the Chinese, but also European observers (witnessing the ongoing Trịnh-Nguyễn War ) as well. [3] Almost all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the ruler's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are an attribute chosen by the first emperors. [17] Sorry about inundating everyone with this deluge of Chinese and Vietnamese names. [19] If western philosophy is usually associated with scientific achievement, especially in the natural sciences, Indian philosophy with religion, Chinese philosophy with politics and ethics, Vietnamese philosophy is associated with the building and defense of the country. [5] For those familiar with Chinese history, he can be regarded as the Vietnamese version of Sima Qian. [3] Chinese forced Vietnamese people to follow Chinese rites and customs. [2] Ming Chinese considered Vietnamese matchlock to be "the finest gun in the world", surpassing even the Turkish matchlock. [3] It also saw massive changes to Vietnamese society: the previously Buddhist state became Confucian after 20 years of Ming rule. [2] Some Vietnamese considered this period under Trieu's rule a Chinese domination, because Trieu Da was a former Qin general who defeated An Duong Vuong to established his rule over the territory that is now Northern Vietnam. [17] It began with Kinh Dng Vng as the first Hùng King ( Hùng Vng ), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. [2] The descendants took the title of Hùng Vng after the first king, and many Vietnamese folktales include mention of them. [2] Lac Long Quan and Au Co had 100 sons before they split (50 went with their father to the mountains and 50 with their mother down to the sea) and the eldest one became the first in the lines of early Vietnamese kings, collectively known as Hung kings (Hung Vuong: Hng Vương). [17] First of all, as analyzed above, the Vietnamese people always had a community consciousness and patriotism, at time simmering inside, at times overflowing, but intensifying over time. [5] This is an important historic period proving the patriotism of the Vietnamese people through revolts of the Trung Sisters, Ly Nam De, Khuc Thua Du, and Ngô Quyn to regain autonomy. [2] Nguyn ng Thc (1908-1999), among his works are included Trit hc ng phng nhp mn "Introduction to Oriental philosophy" (1958), Lch s trit hc ng phng "History of Oriental philosophy" (5 volumes, 1956-1962), T tng Vit Nam "Vietnamese thought" (1964), Lch s t tng Vit Nam "History of Vietnamese thought" (4 volumes, 1967-1970), Thin hc Vit Nam "Vietnamese Zen Buddhism" (1967),. [5] Trn Vn Giu (1921-2006), his works include Trit hc ph thng "General philosophy," Bin chng php "On dialectics," V tr quan "On cosmology," Duy vt lch s "On historical materialism," S pht trin ca t tng Vit Nam th k 19 n Cch mng Thng Tm "The development of Vietnamese thought from the 19th Century to the August Revolution,". [5] In the 10th century the Vietnamese kingdom of i Vit began to exert pressure on Champa, forcing it to relinquish Quang Nam in 1000 and Bình nh in 1069. [2] During his rule, he started to expand Vietnamese territory south by invading the Champa Kingdom. [18]

III. The development of Vietnamese philosophical thinking through the period of struggles against Northern domination. [5] The commingling of the three teachings and the local beliefs, the core of which was patriotism, formed the world outlook and the outlook on human life of the Vietnamese during the Northern domination period. [5]

In general, study of the history of Vietnamese philosophical thinking has been on the rise; and many historical periods and issues have been studied rather profoundly. [5] This was the period when different tendencies of Vietnamese philosophical thought took shape and developed, side by side with feats of arms in the defense and building of the country. [5] From an overview, Vietnamese philosophy of the pre-historic or early periods was rather simple, rustic and primitive. [5] Unfortunately, however, there has yet to be published a book on Vietnamese philosophy or a history of Vietnamese philosophical thought. [5] The history of Vietnamese philosophy, as a scientific discipline, did not emerge until recently. [5] Today, it is presented here and there in books on the history of Vietnamese philosophical thinking, for example, by Nguyn ng Thc (7 volumes), by the Institute of Philosophy (2 volumes), and by Prof. Trn Vn Giu (3 volumes). [5] The only reliable sources, however, indicate the Vietnamese or their country's history roughly dates to 2700 years ago. [17] At the end of the Neolithic age (3,000 years B.C.) with rice cultivation, the Vietnamese had the notion of circles, rotations, were conscious of rhythm and symmetry, and had the concepts of time and universe (the round suns, the S-shape and half of number 8 on Bc Sn ceramics). [5]

The Vietnamese finally regained their independence after Ngo Quyen defeated a Chinese invasion fleet at the battle of Bach Dang. [18] The French continued to dominate the throne until 1945, when the last emperor, Bao Dai ( q.v. ), abdicated, following the Vietnamese Nationalist forces’ proclamation of independence. [6] World War I slowed things down though, as 140,000 Vietnamese were drafted into the French war effort. [7]

The Vietnamese forces, under the command of Trn Hng o (1228-1300), lay in wait for the invasion fleet, comprising 18,000 men and 400 vessels commanded by the Mongol general Omar Batur, knowing that they would have to return to China through the estuary at the mouth of the Bach Dang River. [2] When Liu Hongcao arrived in Vietnamese waters with the Southern Han expedition, his plan was to ascend the Bch ng River and to place his army in the heart of Giacannoto Chau before disembarking; the Bch ng was the major river route into the Red River plain from the north. [2] The limitations of Vietnamese philosophical thinking up until the first half of the 19th Century were those of Vietnamese traditional ideology. [5] In this paper, first, we will present, in broad strokes, the formative and developmental process of Vietnamese philosophical thought before 1858, before the introduction of western philosophy. [5]

Sooner or later the Vietnamese people would surely take back their independence. [5] The later Vietnamese Buddhist tendencies, i.e. Zen, folk Buddhism,. grew out of ideas from this early period (the 2nd-3rd Centuries). [5] IV. Vietnamese philosophical thinking during the period of the restoration of independence and nation building (10th 14th Centuries). [5]

This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [2] The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. [2]

Heroes from Vietnam history making an appearance in this episode include Ngô Quyền, Lê Hoàn, Lý Thái Tổ, Lý Thường Kiệt and Trần Thái Tông. [19] By winning the Battle of Bach Dang River (938), Ngo Quyen (Ngô Quyền) effectively ended Chinese influence in Vietnam. [17]

Ruled over by a direct heredity line, it saw the founding of the still-standing Temple of Literature (Vietnam’s first university), a reorganization of the government bureaucracy, defeat of an aggressive invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty, and moves south into what was then the territory of the Champa civilization. [7] The thunderous victories of our military and people over the Northern aggressive armies (Ng Quyn smashed the Nam Hn army, L Hon defeated the Sung army, the Lý dynasty actively fought the Sung army on their own territory when they were preparing to invade our country, and especially three times the Trn Dynasty defeated the Yuan army) breathed new life into the patriotic consciousness, and heralded a new emergence of community consciousness and national pride. [5] The Northern domination period stretched from the dependence on the Hn Dynasty (110 B.C.) (some scholars believe that it began with the occupation of the state of u Lc under An Dng Vng by Triu in 207 B.C.), until 939 when Ng Quyn won independence. [5] The independence of Vietnam was just secured for 60 years until in 602 AD when Sui Dynasty reestablished control over northern Vietnam, starting the third domination. [2] The Nguyen dynasty was, however, retained in Hue with nominal control over central Vietnam, called Annam ( q.v. ) by the French, and over northern Vietnam, called Tonkin ( q.v. ). [6]

In 907, the Later Liang dynasty emerged and China separated into smaller kingdoms in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. [3] Champa was formed in ad 192, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China, when the Han official in charge of the region established his own kingdom around the area of the present city of Hu. [2] After a while tempers flared, and in 111 BCE the Han Dynasty conquered the Triệu, leading to a period called the First Chinese Domination. [7] Tran Tan wrote Viet Chi, a monograph which the great historian Le Van Huu often referred to in 1272 when he compiled the Dai Viet Su Ky (History of Dai Viet) in 30 chapters covering the period from Trieu Da to the end of the Ly dynasty. [3] At the close of the Tran Dynasty, the Dai Viet Su Luoc (Short History) was written by an anonymous author. [3] The Tran Dynasty was forced to resign where Ho Quy Ly became the next ruler and changed the name of the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. [18] Dinh Bo Linh would eventually be successful to unify the country once again, beacme Emperor Dinh Tien Hoang, and founded the Dinh Dynasty where he renamed the country from Tinh Hai Quan to Dai Co Viet. [18] Dinh founded the Dinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself Emperor of Dai Co Viet (Đại Cồ Việt), with his capital located in Hoa Lu (Hoa Lư, modern day Ninh B"nh). [17]

He killed the Lê emperor and set himself as king, starting the Mạc dynasty. [17] When the Lê emperor Lê Long Đĩnh died in his twenties, a court general named Lý Công Uẩn took the chance to take over the throne and founded the Lý dynasty. [17]

Not long after, the young emperor was assassinated and leaders of the Nguyễn and Trịnh factions were executed, which is when Mạc Đăng Dung decided to make his play, declaring the Mạc Dynasty open for business in 1527. [7] This episode will take the history all the way up to the Tran Dynasty on the eve of the Mongol invasions from Yuan Dynasty China. [19] Under a new dynasty in the 6th century, Champa threw off its allegiance to China and entered into an era of great independent prosperity and artistic achievements. [2]

Much of the settlement of Cham and Cambodian lands, however, was done by Chinese refugees fleeing the collapse of the Ming dynasty. [6] During these 20 years, the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty administrators. [2] His o of being human was developed from that of Confucianism, but it differs from the latter in that his loyalty was not a loyalty to one dynasty, to one king, but loyalty to the country, and his humanity was not a universal love but the love directed to the poor and the suffering, the love of the people, and the salvation of the people. [5] This attention was manifested in the building and administration of water control works (the C X dyke during the Lý Dynasty), accelerated cultivation of barren land for agriculture, in the official field plowing ceremonies by the king in each first lunar month, and in the policy of "housing the army in the agriculture". [5] In 207 BC, Triu Dynasty (Zhao Dynasty) invaded the kingdom of Âu Lc, and Triu à (Trieu King) defeated An Dng Vng. [2]

Under the Le dynasty the kingdom of Vietnam reached its peak, expanding to the south and conquering a portion of the Khmer Empire. [4] Resistance against Ming rule continued where Le Loi led a successful uprising and pushed foreign soldiers out of Vietnam, thus forming the Le Dynasty. [18] Later Le Dynasty, (1428-1788), the greatest and longest lasting dynasty of traditional Vietnam. [6]

Since Im biased for fashion, Lê Dynasty costume was Vietnams first national clothing, and it was beautiful. [3] After 20 years of Chinese rule a noble by the name of Lê Lợi raised an army and booted them out, founding the Later Lê Dynasty in 1428. [7] The Yuan (name of the Mongol dynasty) annals relate: "The Chiao Chih (Dai Viet) population hid their rice and fled". [3] Of this period two works of religious tendency remain: Viet Dien U Linh, a collection of texts on genii, divinities, and deified famous men, which was attributed to Ly Te Xuyen, and Thien Uyen Tap Anh, a collection of texts and biographies of bonzes up to the Tran Dynasty. [3] Today, Tran Temple in Nam Dinh is a famous destination, where kings of the Tran Dynasty and their mandarins are worshiped. [3] On class formation, there was a stratum of aristocrats and officials, and heading the state was the king, a stratum of monks, peasants, farm serfs and servants in farm manors and feudal estates; there were handicraftsmen and traders; land owners and Confucianist mandarins increasing in number at the end of the Trn Dynasty. [5]

Some are not considered official, such as the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the T y Sơn dynasty. [17] The name "i Vit" came to end when the Nguyn dynasty took power. [2] After a long struggle, Trinh and Le both defeated the Mac Dynasty where the Trinh lords held power. [18]

The last Emperor of the Lê dynasty, Lê Chiêu Thống, then went to the Qing Manchu Chinese emperor and asked for troops to put down this pesant rebellion. [17]

As with other dynasties in Vietnamese history, the Lý had many wars with the Chinese, most notably when Lý troops under command of the eunuch-turned-general Lý Thường Kiệt fought against the invasion of the Sung empire,he eventually attacked some southern Chinese citadels to destroy the supplement of the Sung troops,then later defeated this army at the battle by Như Nguyệt river (commonly Cầu river), now in Bắc Ninh province (about 40km from the current capital, Hanoi). [17] By late Ming period, Vietnamese matchlock was considered "the best in the world", surpassing Japanese, European, and even Ottoman matchlocks. [3] In 1284, Toa Do began withdrawing his troops, regrouping them in the northern part of Champa near the Vietnamese frontier, and awaiting further developments. [3] The latter is a story of the Vietnamese and Hn people having the same ancestori.e. Vim with Thn Nng family line, which was not intended to mean that the Hn was low, nor the Viet, barbarians. [5]

In A Course in Vietnamese History, the authors hold that the Vn Lang era of the Hùng Kings (700258B.C.) and of An Dng Vng (257208 B.C.) was the period of transition from a primitive society to a society of early class division of the Asian mode of production. [5]

These are names of Vietnam's greatest national heroes who, over the last 2000 years, have led the country in its repeated expulsion of foreign invaders and whose exploits have inspired subsequent generations of patriots. [17] Lê Li, one of Vietnam's most celebrated heroes, is credited with rescuing the country from Ming domination in 1428. [2]

The U.S. installed Ngô Ð"nh Diệm as Prime Minister of South Vietnam with Bảo Ðại as the king of a constitutional monarchy. [17] In 1838, during the Nguyễn Dynasty, the nation's name was changed temporarily to Đại Nam (大南). [17]

From 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam.This began when the king of Early Lý dynasty ( Lý Nam Đế II ) surrendered to Emperor Wen of Sui in Sui-Former Lý War until Khúc clan seized the capital Đại La and install the autonomous state in Vietnam in 905.At that moment, the Emperor Ai of Tang lost the power to Zhu Wen and stayed as the figurehead. [9] Unfortunately, the Tang were formally ousted, and the dominant Chinese kingdom in the south, the Southern Han dynasty, decided to try and increase its power by invading and recapturing Vietnam in 930 CE. [20] The final Chinese dynasty to firmly rule over Vietnam was the Tang dynasty, who came into power in 618 CE. The Tang ruled for almost 300 years, before falling to internal factions. [20] Nanzhao invaded the area of Jiaozhi modern day Vietnam multiple times in the 9th century until the Cao Bian (Cao Biền) was ordered by the Tang dynasty to defeat Nanzhao and restored Tang rule to Jiaozhou. [9]

The Tang dynasty is remembered for its flourishing cultural achievements, and the poetry, art, and philosophy of China flowed into Vietnam. [20] In 618 CE, the Tang dynasty rose to prominence in China, and exerted their authority over Vietnam. [20] However in 618, Emperor Gaozu overthrew the Sui dynasty and established the Tang dynasty, and Qiū He (丘和) submitted to the new Emperor, causing Vietnam to become a colony of the Tang dynasty. [9]

China was divided into several smaller kingdoms, and one, the Southern Han, decided to increase its power by invading Vietnam in 930 CE. The Vietnamese fought back, but the decisive battle didn't occur until 938 CE. The Vietnamese military commander Ngô Quyen defeated the Chinese forces at the Battle of Bach Dang River and secured independence for Vietnam, or as they called it, Annam. [20] When the Southern Han re-conquered Vietnam in 930, the Vietnamese people were getting organized and starting to set up their own kingdoms, so they were prepared for a fight. [20]

His first action was to put down a Vietnamese rebellion that was working with the Southern Han to restore Chinese control. [20]

If I were talking about Vietnamese independence, a particular war might come to mind. [20] The Vietnamese never lost the desire for independence, and by the 10th century CE, the tides were ready to change. [20] By the 8th century, however, the Vietnamese were fighting again for independence, and the Tang managed to suppress three major revolts between 722 and 728 CE. [20]

The southern half (State of Vietnam) was still under control of the Nguyễn Dynasty and the French. [10] A former mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty, he was named Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by Head of State Bảo Đại in 1954. [11]

After the Tang dynasty was ousted by the Later Liang (Five Dynasties) in northern China, China split in different Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. [9] Khuc Thua Du's son, Khúc Hạo, tried to set up a national administration; in 930 the Southern Han dynasty, which had taken power in southern China, again invaded the country and defeated Khúc Thừa Mỹ. [9]

The Tang Dynasty quelled three revolts in northern Vietnam between 722 and 728, using an army of natives pressed into service under the leadership of Chinese generals. [9]

The Southern Han fleet entered Vietnam via the Bạch Đằng estuary (mouth of the river which flows into Hạ Long Bay ) where iron-tipped stakes had been sunk into the riverbed by Ngô Quyền. [9] In November 1963, after constant Buddhist protests and non-violent resistance, Diệm was assassinated during a CIA-backed coup d'état, along with his brother, Ngô Đ"nh Nhu, by Nguyễn Văn Nhung, the aide of the leader of the Army of Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), General Dương Văn Minh. [11]

Under the Later Lê Dynasty, Hung Yen belonged to Son Nam and then broke into Son Nam Thuong lo and Son Nam Ha lo. [21]

John D. Phan has suggested a new analysis of the linguistic situation in Vietnam under Chinese rule suggesting that a Middle Chinese dialect was spoken by the people of the Red River Delta during the Tang dynasty by drawing on Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary which showed evidence that it was derived from an existing language and that this Middle Chinese dialect was later displaced by a Muong language influenced by Chinese. [8] People from Song dynasty China like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao fled to Tran dynasty ruled Vietnam after the Mongol invasion of the Song. [8] Triệu dynasty Nam Việt 南越 207-111 BC North and north-central of Vietnam (southern border expanded down to the Hoành Sơn Range), Guangdong, and Guangxi. [8] During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam (Giao Ch u), until the early 10th century AD. Giao Chỉ (with its capital around modern Bac Ninh province) became a flourishing trading outpost receiving goods from the southern seas. [13] Ly Dynasty 11th Century Called the golden age of vietnam art Vietnam ceramics became famous across east asia and southeast asia during this time Many landmark structures were made Work Cited "Eloge De L'Art Par Alain Truong." [15] He founded the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, whose members ruled Vietnam until 258 BC. So much of the vestiges from this time is now lost to the ages. [22]

The Lý dynasty is credited for laying down a concrete foundation for the nation of Vietnam. [8] The Lý dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few invasive campaigns against neighboring Champa in the south. [8] All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were those led by Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Early Lý dynasty ruled for almost half a century, from 544 to 602, before Sui China reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xu n.Taylor, Keith Weller. [8] All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xu n. [13]

In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation and the end of the Tang dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phng Hưng. [8] During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). [13] Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly's reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, the investment in building large warships and cannons, and land reform. [13] In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. [8]

China's rulers, however, had not abandoned their historic objective of controlling the Red River delta, and when the Mongol dynasty came to power in the 13th century, the armies of Kublai Khan attacked Viet Nam in an effort to reincorporate it into the Chinese Empire. [12]

The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century, followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. [8] Vietnam was the power center of the colony and the French trained the Vietnamese to help them administer the colony "backwaters" in Laos and Cambodia. [23] Through this process the Vietnamese moved south over time and took over lands which were once part of the Kingdom of Champa (1471) and the area of what is now southern Vietnam was once part of the Khmer Empire. [23] In this conflict, the North and the Viet Cong--with logistical support from the Soviet Union--defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. [8] Copy at www.vietnambiketours.com, After millions of Vietnamese deaths and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. [13] In the north, Chiang Kaishek's army entered Vietnam, also to disarm the Japanese, followed by the forces of the non-Communist Vietnamese parties, such as Việt Nam Quốc D n Đảng and Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội. [13] The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign (but recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country Vietnam). [13] The Art of Vietnam Until 939 A.D. Domination! The vietnamese applied newly learned chinese techniques to art specifically to ceramics. [15] For the most part of its history, the geographical boundary of present-day Vietnam covered 3 ethnically distinct states: a Vietnamese state, a Cham state, and a part of the Khmer Empire. [8] Modern central and southern Vietnam were not originally part of the Vietnamese state. [8] Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the u Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). [8] A Giao Chỉ prefect, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese emperors.Taylor, Keith Weller. [8] In 1426, Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hano In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Viet Nam's independence, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scale assault against Viet Nam. [12] It was also during this period that the Trần emperors waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Vietnamese long history of southern expansion (known as Nam tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence in the 10th century. [8] The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. [13] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Vietnamese settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. [8] Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [8] King Hng ( Chinese : 雄王 ; Vietnamese : Hng Vương (雄王) or vua Hng (𤤰雄); both Vương and vua mean "king") is the title given in many modern discussions to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng period. [22] She highlights the internal debates and external alliances that characterized their diplomatic and military relations in the pre-modern period, showing especially that Vietnamese patronage of East Asian classical culture posed an ideological threat to Chinese states. [24] The Period of Division with many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ng m) by Đặng Trần Côn (Chinese script version) and Đoàn Thị Điểm (Nôm version), and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xu n Hương. [13] Although the rise of the Ly reflected the emergence of a lively sense of Vietnamese nationhood, Ly rulers retained many of the political and social institutions that had been introduced during the period of Chinese rule. [12]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(25 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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24. (1) Hung Yen Province, Northern Vietnam - Offroad Vietnam Adventures

25. (1) Dissertation Defense: Lan Anh Ngo - Georgetown


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