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Pala Empire (India)

Pala Empire (India)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • KEY TOPICS The three noteworthy Indian administrations - the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty and the east Indian Pala Empire - overwhelmed India from the eighth to tenth hundreds of years.(More...)
  • After gaining control of Varendra, Ramapala tried to revive the Pala empire with limited success, he ruled from a new capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the dynasty's end.(More...)
  • The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750-1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pāl), which means protector.(More...)
  • The empire at its peak covered much of the region of the Indian subcontinent.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The emergence of the dynasty, which supplanted the Palas in Bengal towards the close of 11th century A. D. had constituted a significant epoch in the history of ancient India.(More...)
  • The kings Palas dynasty ruled over Bihar, Bengal, and parts of Orissa and Assam with many ups and downs for over four centuries.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
KEY TOPICS The three noteworthy Indian administrations - the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty and the east Indian Pala Empire - overwhelmed India from the eighth to tenth hundreds of years. [1] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE. From the 8th to the 10th century the Rashtrakuta Dynasty of south India the Pratihara Dynasty of northwestern India and the Pala Empire of eastern India dominated South Asia. [1]

Dharmapala (ruled 8th century) was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent. [1] The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bihar and Bengal regions, from the 8th to the 12th century. [1] The Pala Empire that originated from the Bengal region remained an imperial power on the Indian subcontinent during the Late Classical period from 8th to 12th century. [1] The Pala Empire was an empire during classical antiquity in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal (modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal ). [1]

According to Abu al-Fazl, Emperor Akbar's prime minister, Kayasthas were rulers of the Pala Empire, one of the major early medieval Indian kingdoms that originated in Bengal. [1] The rulers of the Sena Dynasty traced their origin to the south Indian region of Karnataka, the dynastys founder was Hemanta Sena, who was part of the Pala Empire until it began to weaken. [1] In 12th century, when the Pala Empire in Bengal was losing its hold in eastern India, a small cantonment in Seraikela (now in Jharkhand) was preparing the grounds for a dance form using the techniques of Indian art of combat. [1] The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian. [1]

KEY TOPICS The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750-1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pāl), which means protector. [1] Can we even talk about an "Indian colonial empire" unless theres a unified Indian state? Isnt this akin to saying "European colonial empire"? Its not difficult to talk about a colonial empire of the Chola or the Pala, but theyre only a small segment of India. [1] The earliest examples of miniature painting in India exist in the form of illustrations to the religious texts on Buddhism executed under the Palas of the eastern India and the Jain texts executed in western India during the 11th-12th centuries A.D. Dharmapala extended the empire into the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. [1] Under the generous patronage of the Pala Emperors in the eastern Indian empire, where the majority of the siddhas lived, the revolution became the establishment. [1]

The Cholas, like the Chalukyas and Pallavas before them, and the Vijaynagar after them, were responsible for some of India's finest monuments, and being located on the south tip of the peninsula, ruled Sri Lanka, and culturally dominated most of South East Asia, where the Hindu Srivijaya and Khmer empires of Indonesia and Cambodia used south Indian temple design. [1]

The area was known as Gauḍa at the time was under the rule of famous Bengali kings such as Shashanka, in the 7th century Gopala by a democratic election in Gauḍa became the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and founded the Pala Empire. [1] During the life time of Devapala the Rashtrakuta and Pratihara kings who came to invade Bengal were defeated but during Narayanpala's rule the Pala Empire had not the strength or determination to ward off the attacks of those two powerful houses. [1]

Gopala II lost control of Bengal, and ruled only from a part of Bihar, the Pala empire disintegrated into smaller kingdoms during the reign of Vigrahapala II. Mahipala recovered parts of Bengal and Bihar, his successors lost Bengal again. [1] The northeastern Pala empire (8 th - 12 th centuries) in what is today Jarkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, and Bangladesh, was one of the last strongholds of Buddhism in India. [1] The Pala Empire originated from 8th to 12th century and was a dynasty which controlled Bihar and Bengal regions of South Asia. [1] Main article: Pala Empire The Pala Empire (750-1120) was the first independent Buddhist dynasty of Bengal. [1] At the time, most of the upper course of the Ganges was unconsolidated, although the lower sections were governed by the Pala Empire, a powerful nation lead by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal. [1] There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt, Bahrain and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC. There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and then the Chaulukyas. [1] There is clear recorded confirmation of exchange and trade ties with Egypt, Bahrain and Sumer in the Persian Gulf amid the era of 1000 to 750 BC. There was a progression of Hindu and Buddhist states, for example, the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana tradition, Gupta Empire, Chalukya line, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, and additionally nearby lines, for example, the Maitrakas and after that the Chaulukyas. [1]

Two of the empires that ruled this region had a particularly strong influence on Buddhist imagery both in India and abroad: the Gupta empire (ca. 4th - 6th century) and the Pala empire (ca. 8th - 12th century). [1] Buddhism flourished under the Pala Empire during the eighth to twelfth centuries, and this northeastern region of India became the last stronghold of the Buddhist faith in the country of its origin. [1] The Buddhist scholars from the Pala empire travelled from Bengal to other regions to propagate Buddhism. [2]

Dharmapala is believed to have conquered Kanauj and extended his sway up to the farthest limits of India in the northwest.The Pala Empire can be considered as the golden era of Bengal in many ways. [1] In North India, he subjugated the might of the rulers of Kannauj, in central India, he defeated the Vatsaraja of the Gurjara Prathihara Empire, and Dharmapala of the Pala Empire of Bengal in a battle in the Ganges - Yamuna doab. [1]

KEY TOPICS At its height in the early 9th century, the Pala Empire was the dominant power in the northern subcontinent, with its territory stretching across parts of modern-day eastern Pakistan, northern and northeastern India, Nepal and Bangladesh. [1] The time period is 8th century AD, when the Pala Empire ruled the east and large parts of northern India. [1] During this time Mahipala I ruled Bengal for nearly half a century and founded a second Pala empire. [1] Gautama Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire The death of Devapala in 850 ended the period of ascendancy of the Pala dynasty and several independent dynasties and kingdoms emerged during this time. [1] Dharmapala's son Devapala also supported Buddhism and extended the Pala empire in the first half of the 9th century by defeating the Utkalas, Assam, Huns, Dravidas, and Gurjaras, while maintaining his domain against three generations of Pratihara rulers. [1] Devapala expanded the Pala empire to the South of India (till Andra) and Assam and Utkala in the East. [1] Pala Empire (750-1174) was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India. [1] The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, ending the reign of the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent, the Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history. [1] History Pala Empire, Pala Dynasty, Pala Dynasty in India 8th 12th century × You are using an outdated browser. [3] Nikhil Ranjan Paul on Twitter: "Pal Samrajya (Pala in Sanskrit ) Pala Empire ruled by the leaders of Pala dynasty of ancient India. [1] Unformatted text preview: 280-550 Pala Empire 750-1174 Chola Empire 848-1070 Islamic Sultanates 1206-1596 Delhi Sultanate 1206-1526 Deccan Sultanates 1490-1596 Hoysala Empire 1040-1346 Kakatiya Empire 1083-1323 Vijayanagara Empire 1336-1565 Maratha Empire 1674-1818 Mughal Empire 1526-1707 Sikh Confederacy 1716-1799 Sikh Empire 1799-1849 British India 1858-1947 Modern States 1947 onwards. [1]

No records are available about the exact boundaries of original kingdom established by Gopala, but it might have included almost all of the Bengal region, the Pala empire extended substantially under Dharmapala's rule. [1] He is rightly considered the founder of the second Pala Empire; his half-century rule still celebrated as a memorable period in the history of Bengal. [1] Inside the Pala empire there was the rise of the Kambajd dynasty in particular sections of North-west Bengal. [1] The claim of such a large Pala empire, that too created by the second king of the dynasty, is supported by the fact that Dharmapala dethroned Indraraja, the king of Panchala ruling from Kanauj and installed Chakrayudha in his place with the assent of neighbouring northern kings. [1] Coin #25: Pala Empire, Dharmapala, Gold dinar, c. 775-810 CE King on horsebak left, brandishing spear at animal at left, Brahmi legend: sriman dharmapalah kailavo / Lakshmi seated facing on lotus in padmasana, holding lotus in each hand, Brahmi sri at top left Weight: 7.59 gm., Diam: 21 mm. [1] According to historians, Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Gupta king Śakrāditya (also known as Kumāragupta, reigned 415-55) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from Buddhist emperors like Harsha as well as later emperors from the Pala Empire. [1] In the Pala Empire, the Buddhist scholars travelled from Bengal to other areas to preach Buddhism. [1] Buddhist scholars from the Pala empire travelled from Bengal to the Far-East and propagated Buddhism. [1]

The Pala empire was founded in 730 AD. They ruled over parts of Bengal and Bihar. [1] Although most of the artistic achievement at home was destroyed by the Muslims, the scripture of the Pala Empire (Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Assam), the ruins of the great academics built by the Pala Emperors, and the temples of Khajuraho, bear witness to the genius of tantric art. [1] The Pala Empire controlled Bihar and Bengal, from the 8th to the 12th century. [1] After a long reign of 42 years Ramapala died after giving cohesion to the disrupted Pala Empire of Bengal. [1] The other rulers acknowledged the military and political supremacy of Dharmapala, one tradition also claims that Nepal was a vassal state of the Pala Empire during his reign. [1] According to Abu al-Fazl, Emperor Akbars prime minister, Kayasthas were rulers of the Pala Empire, after the Muslim conquest of India, Kayasthas mastered Persian, which became the official language of the Mughal courts. [1] Vikramashila - Vikramashila was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda. [1] The Pala Empire had great works likes Vikramshila Vihar, Odantpuri Vihar, Jagaddal Vihar.The language used by Palas was Proto-Bengal Language.The Pala dynasty rulers were very much interested in Buddhist art, literature and learning. [1] Ancient records of early Buddhism, recovered from Tibet, identify five great centres of learning in the Buddhist firmament of the period of the Pala Empire, which might have been at the time, amongst the greatest centres of learning in the world, up to. [1] The subsequent centuries were a time of decline, a period during which the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Pala Empire. [1]

A steady decline of Buddhism in India set in during the later Gupta era and under the Pala Empire. [1] The Pala Empire built many temples in India before coming under the attack of the Hindu Sena Dynasty. [1] At last at the second phase of the twelveth century Bijoy Sena established the rule of Sena dynasty, destroying the existence of Pala empire. [1] The Turkic Invasions persisted and were especially violent towards Buddhists and internal strife and power struggles within the Pala empire caused them to collapse entirely in the late 12th early 13th century. [1] The Pala Empire was a very powerful kingdom during the period between 8th and 10th Century. [1] The period of ascendancy of the Pala Empire ended with the death of Devapala, as many independent kingdoms and dynasties emerged. [1] The next king, Vigrahapala II, had to bear the invasions from the Chandelas and the Kalachuris, during his reign, the Pala empire disintegrated into smaller kingdoms like Gauda, Radha, Anga and Vanga. [1] These kings accepted the installation of Chakrayudha on the Kannauj throne, some historians have speculated that all these kingdoms might have been the vassal states of the Pala empire. [1] After the Pala empire was defeated by the Rashtrakutas and Pratiharas, subordinate chiefs became independent; Assam king Harjara even claimed an imperial title. [1] The long period of eighty years, when these three kings were in throne, was marked by increase in disintegration and decline of the Pala Empire. [1] During the time of these weak kings, the Pala Empire suffered huge losses at the attack of the kings belonging to Chondello and Kalchuri dynasties of northern India. [1] During Bigrahapala III the Pala empire of Bengal got divided in many independent parts. [1] The dynastys founder was Hemanta Sen, who was part of the Pala Empire until it began to weaken. [1] The Pala empire was founded by Gopala in 750 AD and was succeeded by his son Dharampala in 770 AD who ruled till 810 AD. Dhrampala was a considerably powerful ruler and occupied Kannauj, where he held a grand and widely-attended durbar. [1] The founder of Pala Empire was Gopala succeeded by his son Dharmapala who ruled till 810A D. Dharmapala could not hold kanauj for long. [1] With his dominant power he extended his throne in the Kanauj.Devpala was the descendant the throne of Pala Empire after Dharmapala and ruled for about 40years. [1] The Arab merchant Sulaiman gave glimpses of the power of the Pala Empire during the reign of Devapala. [1] After Devapala the power and glory of the Pala empire did not last. [1] Downfall of Pala empire began after the death of Devapala until it was restored back again during the rule of Mahipala. [1] Mahipala I (980-1030 A.D.): After the death of Devapala the Pala empire remained weak for some time. [1] After a short while he was defeated at first by Vatsaraj, the Pratihara king, and then by the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III. These defeats caused the decline of fortune of the Pala Empire for a short time. [1] The first clue indicating there are more than a few holes in the mainstream narrative comes from the Pala Empire which experienced "a period of decline" at the Heinsohn Horizon. [1] Though, no exact examples of paintings have been found of that period yet various illustrations of beautiful paintings of the Buddhist gods and goddesses, appearing in the Vajrayana and Tantrayana Buddhist manuscripts corroborate the subsistence of paintings in the Pala Empire. [1] The Buddhist Viharas in the Pala empire played a significant role in the propagation of Buddhism in the neighbouring countries of Nepal, Tibet and Sri Lanka. [1] The earliest examples of miniature painting in India exist in the form of illustrations to the religious texts on Buddhism executed under the Palas of the eastern India and the Jain texts executed in western India during the 11th-12th centuries A.D. The Pala Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th century weakened by attacks of the Sena dynasty followed by the invasion of Bakhtiyar Khilji's Muslim armies. [1] The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire, and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. [1] It was the Sena dynasty who prevailed, and assumed control of the Pala Empire, dividing the Gurjara Pratiharas into various states. [1]

Some historians have speculated that all these kingdoms might have been the vassal states of the Pala empire. [1] The great Pala Empire was able to put a halt to their expansion downriver, and the Chalukya kingdoms to the south also stopped their expansion. [1] He fought with Pratiharasand extended the Pala empires frontier up to the Himalayan regionin the north, and the Vindhyas in the south. [1] The trade with South East Asia and China was very profitable and added greatly to the prosperity of the Pala Empire. [1] From the northwest the Gurjara-Pratihara empire (550-1036) claimed it, from the northeast the Pala empire (750-1174) and from the south the Rashtrakuta empire (753-982). [1] The most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, and Gurjara Pratihara Empire. [1] Narayanpala was peace-loving and weak-kneed like his father and in fact, during the rule of Vigrahapala and Narayanpala extending for nearly half a century the Pala Empire was broken up into pieces due to internal, disruption and external at­tacks. [1] The rule of these Pala rulers was characterized by increase in the weakening of the Pala Empire. [1] The period that followed the death of Devapala marked the Downfall of Pala Empire and also its disintegration. [1] Proto-Bengali was the language of the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty, during the medieval period, Middle Bengali was characterized by the elision of word-final অ ô, the spread of compound verbs and Arabic and Persian influences. [1] Under his reign, the Pala Empire dismembered into smaller kingdoms like Vanga, Anga, Radha and Gauda. [1] One tradition also claims that Nepal was a vassal state of the Pala Empire during his reign. [1] The University was built under the patronage of Dharmapala (775-812), during the Pala empire and a Pala king, Dharmapala (783 to 820). [1] Depiction of the entire Gurjara-Pratihara and Rashtrakuta territory as part of the Pala empire. [1] Despite some setbacks and temporary losses of territory, the Pala Empire thrived for the better part of the next three centuries until its collapse in the middle of the 12th century. [1] In contrast to the state-propagated Buddhism of the Pala Empire, the Cholas were followers of the Hindu god Shiva, and although Buddhism and other forms of Hinduism were accepted in their territories, the vast wealth of the Cholas was devoted to honouring the Lord. [1] While Chola bronzes bask in the limelight of the global antiquities world, this piece testifies to comparable skills in eastern India, during the Pala empire. [1] His successor Vigrahapala retired to an ascetic life after ruling only three years, and his son Narayanapala was also of a peaceful and religious disposition, allowing the Pala empire to languish. [1]

Ballala Sena conquered Gaur from the Pala, became the ruler of the Bengal Delta, Ballala Sena married Ramadevi a princess of the Western Chalukya Empire which indicates that the Sena rulers maintained close social contact with south India. [1] In India he expanded the empire across the South, to Lanka, and up north to the Pala kingdom. [1] The Buddha triumphing over Mara Place of Origin: India, probably Kurkihar, Bihar state Date: Materials: Basalt Style or Ware: Pala Dimensions: H. Throughout the centuries, many empires and kingdoms in India rose and fell. [1] The Nalanda University which is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history, reached its height under the patronage of the Pala Empire.The empire of pala was considered as the mostly known imperial empire during the times of ancient India. [1] By the 3rd century, their empire in India was disintegrating and their last known great emperor was Vasudeva I. From the 8th to the 10th century, three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa, the Palas of Bengal, and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. The Palas of Bengal in comparison with other contemporary empires such as the Rashtrakutas of Deccan and the Pratiharas of Malwa in the focal point of " Kanauj Triangle." [1] The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE. The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal and Bihar, which included the major cities of Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Gauda, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati ( Varendra ), Tamralipta and Jaggadala. [2] India / Bangladesh: Parvati in penance, Bengal, Pala Dynasty, 11th century CE - Pictures From History The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. [1] The Palas remain one of the most remarkable dynasties to have ruled a large Empire in India being the only royal line other than the Chalukyas to have reigned for nearly five centuries. [1] By the time Madanapala came to power and started to exert himself in an effort to regroup the power of the Palas, the empire and the dynasty were both almost on their death bed. [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. The earliest examples of miniature painting in India exist in the form of illustrations to the religious texts on Buddhism executed under the Palas of the eastern India and the Jain texts executed in western India during the 11th-12th centuries A.D. He greatly expanded the boundaries of the empire, and made the Palas a dominant power in the northern and eastern India. [1] Pala Empireball was an Hindustani Empire that originated in the Bengal. [1] The empire reached its peak under Emperors Dharmapala and Devapala, the Palas also exerted a strong cultural influence under Atisa in Tibet, as well as in Southeast Asia. [1] W. g Mahendra- pala, Magadha formed an integral part of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, which at that time extended from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Beng. [1] At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively, an Arabic text, Silsilat al-Tawarikh, called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world. [1] India’s Maurya Empire established Buddhism in Bengal ( Bangla ) in the 3rd century BC. Te Buddhist Pala Dynasty ruled Bengal and Bihar independently from 750 AD, exporting Buddhism to Tibet. [1] During his reign, Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire frequently invaded Bengal from 1021 to 1023 CE to get Ganges water and in the process, succeeded to humble the rulers, acquiring considerable booty, the rulers of Bengal who were defeated by Rajendra Chola were Dharmapal, Ranasur and Govindachandra, who might have been feudatories under Mahipala I of the Pala Dynasty. [1] Of these, the greatest tangible inheritance is that of Buddhism, dating from the time of Prince Gautama himself; a presence considerably amplified by the Pala Dynasty Empire of 8th to 12th centuries CE, which had its roots in North Bengal. [1] Contemporaneous to the power of the Pala dynasty in the north was the mighty Chola Empire of South India. [1]

First great Indian empire, stretching from Afghanistan to Bengal, to all of India except the deep south. [1] The invasion by the south Indian ruler Vikramaditya VI of the Western Chalukya Empire brought his countrymen from Karnataka into Bengal which explains the southern origin of the Sena Dynasty. [1] The south Indian Chalukya empire under Vikramaditya II, Nagabhata I of the Pratihara dynasty and Bappa Rawal of the Guhilot dynasty repulsed the Arab invaders in the early 8th century. [1] Gurjara-Pratihara - The Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an Indian imperial power that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century. [1] At the height of his power, his Empire covered much of North and Northwestern India, extended East till Kamarupa, and South until Narmada River; and eventually made Kannauj (in present Uttar Pradesh state) his capital, and ruled till 647 CE. The great south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra (mathematician) lived in the Rashtrakuta Empire and his text had a huge impact on the medieval south Indian mathematicians who lived after him. [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade, chiefly involving spices, with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. [1] Southern Indian kingdoms of the time expanded their influence as far as Indonesia, controlling vast overseas empires in south east Asia. [1] How many more kingdoms do you require to form the Empire of India? That will merge all 3 of the Indian empire titles. [1] The Revolt of 1857, also known as First War of Indian Independence, shook the very foundation of the British Empire in India. [1] The Maurya Empire (320-185 B.C.E.) was the first major historical Indian empire, and definitely the largest one created by an Indian dynasty. [1] The South Indian Chola Dynasty even launched military raids into the Sumatran based Srivijaya empire in the 9th Cent. [1] Vijayanagar Dynasty - The Vijayanagar Empire was a South Indian dynasty based in the Deccan i.e. Karnataka. [1] Southern Gujarat was led by the south Indian Rashtrakuta tradition until it was caught by the south Indian ruler Tailapa II of the Western Chalukya Empire. [1] Between 980, and c. 1150, the Chola Empire embraced the entire south Indian peninsula, extending east to west from coast to coast, and bounded to the north by an irregular line along the Tungabhadra river and the Vengi frontier. [1]

During the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took control in 780 and he led successful expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian power where he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and vast booty but not more territory. [1] He led profitable expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian energy the place he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and huge booty but no more territory. [1]

Like every other dynasty in Indian history, and even in world history, the Palas vanished from the scene not in a blaze of glory, but in a rather timid manner, gradually becoming irrelevant to the broader political developments, holding on to an ever-decreasing geographical territory, becoming targets of rising and ambitious kings in the neighbourhood, and finally becoming a memory amongst the people. [1] The Pala school of sculptural art is recognised as a distinct phase of the Indian art, and is noted for the artistic genius of the Bengal sculptors. [2] Their navy performed both mercantile and defensive roles in the Bay of Bengal, the Palas were important promoters of classical Indian philosophy, literature, painting and sculpture. [1] "By the fourteenth century, Tibetan artists had synthesized a unique style from Indian, Nepalese, Chinese, and indigenous sources; however, eleventh- and twelfth-century Tibetan artists often tried to replicate Indian prototypes exactly, which sometimes makes it difficult, even for experts, to distinguish between Pala Indian and early Tibetan art. [1] Abbasid coinage found in Pala archaeological sites, as well as records of Arab historians, point to flourishing mercantile and intellectual contacts, the House of Wisdom in Baghdad absorbed the mathematical and astronomical achievements of Indian civilisation during this period. [1]

After the fall of the Gupta Empire, the Khadga Dynasty ruled Bengal for two centuries till the rise of the Palas. [1] The influence of the Gupta style on the early Pala sculptors is no doubt due to the legacy of that previous power: Bihar and Bengal were wholly encompassed in the Gupta Empire. [1]

Made in the 12th century, the figure is dated to the late Pala period, named after the sprawling empire that once covered the region that is now West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. [1] I did study all the empires in that, except Pala in my history classes. [1] In the early medieval India, the Palas emerged as important empire builders in eastern India. [1] During the later part of Pala rule, Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire frequently invaded Bengal from 1021 to 1023 to get Ganges water and in the process, succeeded in humbling the rulers and acquiring considerable booty. [1] One of the kings of this empire, built a monastery at Nalanda in the ninth century, and at his request the Pala king Devapala of Bengal granted five villages for its upkeep. [1] At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled this region, the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharampala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. [1] Invasions by the Chola dynasty and Western Chalukya Empire led to the decline of the Pala dynasty in Bengal and to the establishment of the Sena dynasty. [1] He was the son and successor of Gopala, the founder of the Pala Dynasty and he greatly expanded the boundaries of the empire, and made the Palas a dominant power in the northern and eastern India. [1] Gopala, the first in the line of Pala rulers, brought stability to the region; it was his grandson Devapala, however, that bequeathed an empire. [1] Emperor Ramapala was the last strong Pala ruler, who gained control of Kamarupa and Kalinga, the empire was considerably weakened by the 11th century, with many areas engulfed in rebellion. [1] This city is also famous for the Tripartite Struggle where three of the strongest empires (Pala empire, Rashtrakuta empire, and Pratihara empire) fought in the 9th century to establish their rule over the city of Kannauj. [1] The most important Empire of the early medieval period was Pala, Pratihara, Rashtrakuta Empire. [1]

Post-Mughal period Main articles: Maratha Empire, Kingdom of Mysore, Hyderabad State, Nawab of Bengal, Sikh Empire, Rajputs, and Durrani Empire Further information: Shivaji, Tipu Sultan, Nizam, Nawab of Oudh, Ranjit Singh, and Ahmad Shah Abdali Political map of Indian subcontinent in 1758. [1] In antiquity, its kingdoms were known as seafaring nations, at times an independent regional empire, or a bastion of larger empires, the historical region was a leading power of the Indian subcontinent and the Islamic East. [1] The interaction between Hellenistic Greece and Buddhism began when Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire, reaching the north west frontiers of the Indian subcontinent in 334 BC. There, he defeated King Puru in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum, Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab. [1] The closest to Grey would be the North Indian state, in which case they entered the Med. first from Arabia and then from a much earlier re-build Suez Canal; the Strait of Gibraltar is controlled by the Christian-Muslim Andalusian Empire. [1] Chandragupta, who ruled from 324 to 301 B.C., was the architect of the first Indian imperial power-the Mauryan Empire (326-184 B.C.) --whose capital was Pataliputra, near modern-day Patna, in Bihar. [1] Kannauj city has a rich history and it was a capital during Harshavardhana's rule in North India, the Indian emperor's empire that ruled most of the north and northwest India. [1] Kayasthas have historically occupied the highest government offices, serving as ministers and advisors during early medieval Indian kingdoms and the Mughal Empire, and holding important administrative positions during the British Rule. [1] The Kushana Kingdom was the crucible of trade among the Indian, Persian, Chinese, and Roman empires and controlled a critical part of the legendary Silk Road. [1] The Satavahana Empire was a royal Indian dynasty based from Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. [1] Both of them were engaged in a long drawn struggle for possession of Maddhyadesa of the north Indian empire and they had achieved success though for a limited period. [1] While the Mughals were a manufacturing behemoth,the Cholas flourished via agriculture and their strategic control of the vast Asian sea trade, the first Indian empire to do so. [1] The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. [1] The area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. [1] Wrote Indian statesman Kautilya in his 4th century Arthashastra, a how-to guide for managing an empire. [1] Rajendra Chola I was one of the most successful monarchs of the South Indian Chola Empire. [1] South Indian mathematics flourished under the protection of the Vijayanagara Empire in Kerala. [1] The many Indianized kingdoms of Southeast Asia might have been possible areas of expansion by a suitably aggressive Indian empire before the Islamic expansion began threatening core Hindu areas. [1] The Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronising Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. [1] For the next few years, sporadic forays into the Hindu-held lands surrounding this base of operations kept the natives at bay, and in the late 650s the Caliphate renewed its efforts to subjugate the Indian continent, having brought in reinforcements from across their empire. [1] In the early 8th century they occupied the westernmost parts of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions of Multan and Sindh became provinces of the mighty Islamic empire (the Caliphate ). [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. Dharmapala extended the empire into the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. The empire at its peak covered much of the region of the Indian subcontinent. [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. Persian ascendency in northern India ended with Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in 327 BCE. By 326 BCE, Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. [1]

The Shunga Empire was the ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. [1] Afterwards, Kharavela, the warrior king of Kalinga, ruled a vast empire and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent. [1] Much of the northwestern Indian Subcontinent (present day Eastern Afghanistan and most of Pakistan) was ruled by the Persian Achaemenid Empire from c. 520 BC during the reign of Darius the Great, up intil its conquest by Alexander the Great. [1] By the time of his grandson, Kanishka the Great, the empire spread to encompass much of Afghanistan, and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares). [1] At its height Dharmapala's empire covered most of northern and central region of the Indian Subcontinent. [1] Capitalizing on the destabilization of northern India by the Persian and Greek incursions, the Mauryan empire under Chandragupta not only conquered most of the Indian subcontinent, but also pushed its boundaries into Persia and Central Asia, conquering the Gandhara region. [1] The empire at its peak covered much of the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. [1] The Chola Empire at its peak covered much of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. [1]

After the Arab-Turkic invasion of India's ancient northern neighbor Persia, various short lived Islamic empires invaded and spread across the subcontinent over a period of 1000 years. [1]

The earliest examples of miniature painting in India exist in the form of illustrations to the religious texts on Buddhism executed under the Palas of the eastern India and the Jain texts executed in western India during the 11th-12th centuries A.D. However, the empire fragmented into many principalities and was replaced in North India by the resurgent Hindu Gupta Empire while its Afghan territories became tributary to the Persian Sassanid Empire. [1] A major empire to support Buddhism, the Pala dynasty, fell in the 12th century, and Muslim invaders destroyed monasteries and monuments. [1] The Kamauli grant mentions very distinctly that 1 Ibid., Vol. IV, p. the Pala dynasty, was the real founder of the greatness of his Hne and the Empire over which his successors ruled. [1] They were called Brahma Kshatriyas.The dynasty s founder was Hemanta Sen, who was part of the Pala Dynasty until their empire began to weaken. [1] The apparent coexistence of contemporary Hindu and Buddhist remains of both the Hindu Gupta Empire of the 4th to 6th century CE and that of the Buddhist Pala Dynasty of the 8th to 12th centuries CE, have reinforced the general belief that, despite the faith of the rulers, religious tolerance was well established in those periods. [1]

The Gurjara-Pratiharas were the last of the great north Indian dynasties, and at their zenith ruled over most of India north of the Vindhyas (the mountains marking the traditional boundary between north and south India), contesting all the while for supremacy with the Pala dynasty. [1] Lot 233, Lokanatha Avalokiteshvara, black stone, Northeastern India, Pala Period, 12th Century, 58 inches high, left; Leiko Coyle of Christie's, right By Carter B. Horsley This auction of Indian, Himalayan and Southeast Asian Art at Christie's New York March 14, 2017 is highlighted by an important and imposing large black stone figure from northeastern India of the Lokanatha Avalokiteshvara from Northeastern India, Pala Period, 12th Century. [1] Though limited to manuscript paintings, the art shows a very developed stage and scholars have held that the paintings of the Pala period definitely influenced the Eastern Indian, Tibetan and Nepali paintings of the 14th century. [1]

The result was the famine of 1769 to 1773 in which 10 million Bengalis died, followed almost a century later by the catastrophic Great Calamity period, resulting in part from an extension of similar policies, in which up to 40 million Indians perished from famine amidst the collapse of India's native industries and skilled workforce. [1]

Classical India refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was united under the Gupta Empire (c. 320-550 CE). [1] Gauda Kingdom By the 6th century, the Gupta Empire, which ruled over the northern Indian subcontinent had largely broken up. [1] Indo-Sassanid Kingdom: The Sassanid empire of Persia, who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire, expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan, where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo-Sassanids. [1] The great south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra lived in the Rashtrakuta Empire and his text had a huge impact on the medieval south Indian mathematicians who lived after him.The Rashtrakuta rulers also patronised men of letters, who wrote in a variety of languages from Sanskrit to the Apabhraṃśas. [1] The time of the Gupta Empire proved an Indian "Golden Age" in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy. [1] Gupta rule - The Classical Age referred to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire. [1]

Gopala I founded the great Pala dynasty of Bengal in ancient Indian subcontinent. [1] The earliest Indian manuscript paintings are Buddhist, of the Pala dynasty; they have a delicate color. [1] The Pala kings in imitation of the Gupta rulers assumed high sounding titles like Parameswara, Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja, etc. Appointment of Prime Minister by the Pala kings was an innovation for here to before no Indian king had appointed Prime Minister. [1]

Widespread empire, organised administrative system, ruling policy focusing on public welfare, excellence in the field of arts and cultivation of knowledge and literature - all these contributed to the glory of the Pala rule. [1] The Gurjara-Pratiharas ruled Avanti (based at Ujjain), which was bounded to the South by the Rashtrakuta Empire, and the Pala dynasty to the East. [1] This wave came from India's northeastern regions, then ruled by the Pala dynasty, where Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism were practiced; it was these two types of Buddhism that were adopted in Tibet. [1] Cultural influences brought in on the trade routes explain why these sculptures follow the same basic iconographic principles and artistic norms that prevailed in India and reflect the impact of India's styles of the Gupta period (ca. 4th - 6th century) and Pala period (ca. 8th - 12th century). [1]

Pala Dynasty was responsible for the spread of Buddhism outside the Indian subcontinent. [1] The expansion once again triggered the struggle for the control of the Indian Subcontinent, known as the Tripartite Struggle, with the Rashtrakuta Empire. [1]


After gaining control of Varendra, Ramapala tried to revive the Pala empire with limited success, he ruled from a new capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the dynasty's end. [4] After the death of Mahipala I the revived Pala empire was hastening to its fall, His son Nayapala (Cir. 1038-1054), his grandson Vigrahapala III (Cir. 1054-1072) and the latter's son Mahipala II had not the ability to defend the revived Pala empire. [5]


The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750-1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pāl), which means protector. [6] The death of Devapala ended the period of ascendancy of the Pala Empire and several independent dynasties and kingdoms emerged during this time. [6]


The empire at its peak covered much of the region of the Indian subcontinent. [4]

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The emergence of the dynasty, which supplanted the Palas in Bengal towards the close of 11th century A. D. had constituted a significant epoch in the history of ancient India. [1] The ethnic origins of the dynasty are unknown, although the later records claim that Gopala was a Kshatriya belonging to the legendary Solar dynasty, the Ballala-Carita states that the Palas were Kshatriyas, a claim reiterated by Taranatha in his History of Buddhism in India as well as Ghanaram Chakrabarty in his Dharmamangala (both written in the 16th century CE). [1]

The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, affirms Govinda Chandra as the ruler of Bengal.A History by John Keay p.220The Cambridge Shorter History of India p.145Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.281 Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah took the title "Shah-e-Bangalah" and united the whole region under one government for the first time. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Maurya Dynasty - The Mauryan Empire was the first major empire in the history of India and ruled the land from 322 BC to 185 BC. Important rulers of this dynasty were Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, and King Ashoka.Almost all of the subcontinent was conquered by the Mauryan Empire. [1] About 475 bce the capital of the Magadha empire was located at Pataliputra (modern Patna ), where it remained under Ashoka (emperor of India from about 273 to 232 bce ) and the Guptas (a dynasty of emperors who ruled India in the 4th and 5th centuries ce ) until the onslaught of the Hephthalites from the north in the middle and late 5th century ce. [1]

The Arab rulers attempted to extend their realm southeast, which finished in the Caliphate crusades in India battled in 730 CE. Be that as it may, the Arab trespassers were crushed and repulsed from the territories east of the Indus waterway by a Hindu cooperation between the north Indian Gurjar Emperor Nagabhata I of the Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya tradition and numerous other neighborhood little Hindu kingdoms. [1] The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Bengal in the 11th century.The early medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced. [1] In the 13th century, states Craig Lockard, Buddhist monks in India escaped to Tibet to escape Islamic persecution; while the monks in western India, states Peter Harvey, escaped persecution by moving to south Indian Hindu kingdoms that were able to resist the Muslim power. [1]

Pala power was maintained under Devapala (reigned c. 810-850), who carried out raids in the north, the Deccan, and the peninsula; but thereafter the dynasty declined in power, and Mahendrapala, the Gurjara-Pratihara emperor of Kannauj in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, penetrated as far as northern Bengal. [7]

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2. (63) Pala Empire - WikiVividly

3. (38) Bengal under the Palas and the Senas

4. (35) Pala Empire - Wikipedia

5. (12) Buddha, 11th-12th Century AD, Pala Dynasty, Eastern India.… | Flickr

6. (10) AsiasWorld : Pala Dynasty India

7. (8) Pala Empire - Jatland Wiki

8. (8) Pala dynasty | Indian dynasty | Britannica.com

9. (7) Pala Dynasty The Golden Days of Medieval Bengal 756 AD 1174 AD

10. (7) History Pala Empire, Pala Dynasty, Pala Dynasty in India 8th 12th century

11. (5) Ancient Indian History Palas of Bengal

12. (3) The Palas

13. (3) Pala Dynasty (Pala Empire) - Important India

14. (2) Pala Empire | South Asia | Religion And Belief

15. (2) Where are the descendants of the Pala Empire rulers of Bengal? - Quora

16. (1) Indian Empires


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