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Petrine Era (Russia, 1689 - 1725)

Petrine Era (Russia, 1689 - 1725)

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  • Petrine Era Timeline Timeline Description: The reign of Peter the Great (1682 - 1725) had such a great impact on Russia's history that it became known as the Petrine era.(More...)

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  • POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Peters reforms made an impact on Russia and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign.(More...)
  • Anna left most of her authority to be exercised by her Baltic German favourite, Ernst Johann Biron, who acquired a reputation for corruption, cruelty, tyranny, and exploitation and who was felt to have set up a police terror that benefited the Germans in Russia at the expense of all loyal and patriotic Russians.(More...)
  • The novelty of Cracraft's interpretation readily emerges when compared with another of the best, L. Jay Oliva's insightful Russia in the Era of Peter the Great (1969).(More...)



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Petrine Era Timeline Timeline Description: The reign of Peter the Great (1682 - 1725) had such a great impact on Russia's history that it became known as the Petrine era. [1] The museum's displays give an idea of the traditions of bread consumption in Russia, recounting the history of the baking and flour confectionery business and trade in the country in general and in St. Petersburg in particular, from the Petrine era to the present day. [1] Although recent scholarship has modified this view somewhat, pointing out the antecedents of his reforms and the unchanged reality of Russia as a state built on the pillars of agriculture, elite service, and servile labor, few would challenge the defining character of the Petrine era for Russia's subsequent sense of its own modernity. [1]

Bushkovitch 2001 frames the author’s discussion of Peter himself and of Petrine reforms with an understanding of the clan-based functioning of the Russian courts before and during the Petrine era. [1] GENERAL INFO PROKOPOVICH, FEOFAN (1681 – 1736), was the most influential ecclesiastical official of Russia's Petrine era, who rose to the position of archbishop of Novgorod and vice president of the new Holy Synod, from which he exercised immense authority on behalf of Peter the Great's reforms. [1]

One is hard pushed to find more than fleeting reference to his achievements in modern accounts of Petrine Russia (both Russian and Western). [1] This paper assesses the frequency and character of urban poverty in Petrine Russia on the basis of twelve population inventories carried out in ten central Russian cities between 1710 and 1720. [1]

Although we can only guess at population dynamics in Russia of this era, there is little evidence for rapid population gains like those which elsewhere helped inaugurate more conservative definitions of poverty to spare the public purse.(12) But if Petrine Russia endured no great dearth in this decade, there was more or less constant war until the Peace of Nystadt was signed in 1721. [1] Previously Russia celebrated the New Year on September 1 with the Gregorian calendar, but now the nation celebrates on January 1." ("Petrine Era Timeline." [1]

All Russian children of the nobility, government clerks, and officials must learn basic mathematics and geometry." ("Petrine Era Timeline." [1]

During the reign of Peter the Great, from 1689 until his decease in 1725, the manner in which Russians perceived themselves changed drastically. [1]

The shift to educated monks occurred during Peter the Great's reign, when the Church began to require above all skilled administrators to accomplish the new tasks it had been assigned during the Petrine era. [1] James Cracraft extends the definition of literature beyond belles lettres and private writings, in which the Petrine era is relatively poor, to 'verbal culture,' in which it is rich, thereby offering a much wider range of material from a crucial age of reform and allowing exploration of such phenomena as the vocabulary of political power. [1]

The author of seminal works on visual culture in the Petrine era, Cracraft now turns his attention to the changes that occurred in Russian verbal culture." --BOOK JACKET. [2] The reign of Peter I of Russia (between the years 1682 and 1689 and continuing until 1725) and its impact on Russian development are among the most studied and most controversial topics in early modern Russian history. [3]

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POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Peters reforms made an impact on Russia and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign. [1] Coxe recognized, as Perry had not, that European influences had been at work in Russia long before the reign of Peter the Great, and he also realized how limited had been the scope of their operation upon the mass of the Russian people. [1] Tula - Town in central European Russia, and site of an arms factory built by Peter in 1712 and always a center of the Russian metallurgical industry. [1] When his mother Annas younger sister, Elizabeth, became Empress of Russia, she brought Peter from Germany to Russia, previously in 1742, the 14-year-old Peter was proclaimed King of Finland during the Russo-Swedish War, when Russian troops held Finland. [1] He takes power by himself at 17, prior to this he was sharing control with his half sister/half brother or mother b) Why was he "The Great" ⇒ he was a westernizer and modernizer i) Peter brought change to Russia, liked new stuff, made a huge navy when there wasn’t one before, changed the traditional Russian dress to a more western look, he changed buildings, and made men shave their beards. [1] Мany Hussars appeared in Russia under Peter I. And there were in the Russian army until the twentieth century. [1] Domenico was born in Astano, near Lugano, in the Italian-speaking Ticino, subsequently, as he was working in Denmark, he was offered by Peter I of Russia, among other architects, to design buildings in the new Russian capital city, St. Petersburg. [1] Peter I, who was formally known as Peter the Great after defeating Sweden in the Great Northern War in 1721, has long defined the transition from old to modern Russia in Russian historical consciousness. [1] When Peter attacks the Turks again in May 1696, Russia wins, and Peter officially founds the Russian navy in October 1696. [1] The Naryshkin family was persecuted under the regency of Tsarevna Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia, but were then highly favoured by Peter and his descendants and played a major part in Russian life. [1] We will also discuss in class which of the European powers really had the most in common with Russia (I will argue that Russian shared most in common with the countries that it later fought against in the First World War, particularly with Germany.) [1] Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret initially held the real power, however, Michaels descendents would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. [1] Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia - Through her father, Elizabeth was a granddaughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia, and a niece of both Russian emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I. She grew up with her siblings in the Mikhailovsky Palace in Saint Petersburg. [1] Rasputin: Dark Servant of Destiny is a biographical 1996 TV film which chronicles the last four years (1912-16) of Grigori Rasputins stint as a healer to Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia; the heir apparent to the Russian throne as well as the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna; who suffered from Hemophilia. [1] She was the elder daughter among the six children of Alexander III of Russia, after the assassination of her paternal grandfather Tsar Alexander II of Russia, when Xenia was six years old, her father Alexander III ascended to the Russian throne in 1881. [1] Tsarevna Xenia Borisovna of Russia - Xenia Borisovna Godunova was a Russian Tsarevna, daughter of Tsar Boris Godunov, and sister of Tsar Feodor II of Russia. [1] Tsarevna Praskovya Ivanovna of Russia - Praskovya Ivanovna was a Russian tsarevna, daughter of Tsar Ivan V of Russia and Praskovia Saltykova. [1] This Muscovite period of the great Boyar families and Patriarchs, in which a constant element is the resistence of an Old Russia party to the friends of Western Culture, is followed, from the founding of Petersburg in 1703, by the pseudomorphosis which forced the primitive Russian soul into the alien mould, first of Baroque, then of the Enlightenment, and then of the nineteenth century. [1] Richardson, Harris, and Coxe, within four years of the same age, were all visitors to Catherine's Russia during the first flowering of European culture among the Russian nobility and the new maturity of Russian diplomatic influence in the European balance. [1] What, then, can these texts tell us about the limits of literate medicine in Russia? The prefaces give us the history of an assumption—the assumption, made by the compilers of these texts, that there were literate Russians without medical training who could and would acquire, keep, read, and use Western European medical texts. [1] Across the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries various so-called satirical leechbooks appeared in Russia, 77 texts that used the format and language of medical recipe books to mock the content and worth of their serious counterparts ( leechbook being a term for a kind of medical recipe book). 78 The satirical leechbooks have commonly been viewed as a part of Russian xenophobia in their overtly negative attitude toward Western Europeans and Western European medicine. [1] Rhubarb had been traded using land routes across Eurasia--originating in the Chinese territories, and moved by Bukharan merchants to Russia, whence it was then sent on to Western Europe--since at least the middle of the sixteenth century. 43 Due to the high demand for rhubarb in Western Europe, the Russian state had a stake in finding a domestic source for it. [1] Medical texts were imported into Russia from Western Europe, and a number were translated into Russian, in particular for the use of the Russian students of the Apothecary Chancery. [1] Ker Porter and Wilson began life during Harris's critical embassy to the Court of Catherine and, in their sojourns to Russia, witnessed Alexan der's manipulation of Russian military might in deciding the fate of Europe. [1] During Catherines short reign, Menshikov was practically the absolute ruler of Russia and he promoted himself to the unprecedented rank of Generalissimus, and was the only Russian to bear a ducal title. [1] Many of the trends of the 18th century Russia reached their height in the reign of Catherine the Great: the degradation of the serfs to virtual slavery, the triumph of the nobility in the "golden age of the Russian aristocracy" thanks to Catherine's 1785 Charter of Nobility, the expansion of Russian territory to include the Crimean Peninsula and access to the Straits. [1] He has long been venerated in Russia as a symbol of Russian creative genuis. (Y)Emelian Pugachëv - Cossack leader of a revolt during Catherine II's reign. [1] Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign. [1] The end of his reign saw Russia descend into the Time of Troubles, Boris Godunov was the most noted member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, which came from the Horde to Kostroma in the early 14th century. [1] He visited Russia for the first time shortly thereafter to attend the funeral of his grandfather and his claim to the throne is contested, for reasons detailed in the article on the line of succession to the Russian throne. [1] As Minister of War, Sukhomlinov was never trusted by the Army Committee of the Duma, led by Alexander Guchkov, Sukhomlinov was resented by Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia, Commander-in-chief of the Russian forces in the first phase of World War I. Sukhomlinov was not allowed to interfere with Sergey Sazonov, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Stavka, Grand Duke Nicholas, all the briefing with through the hands of Nikolai Yanushkevich, his assistant. [1] Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia (Russian: Михаил Михайлович; 16 October 1861 - 26 April 1929) was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. [1] In 1996, when he, his mother, and his grandmother Leonida returned to Russia after living in Madrid and he was also set to study at a Russian Naval college but these plans were dropped out of concern that he would be bullied. 13 March 1981 - present, His Imperial and Royal Highness Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia, however this title and his claim as heir to the Romanov Imperial House of Russia is disputed. [1] In 1924, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, the senior, surviving male-line descendant of Alexander II of Russia by primogeniture, since 1991, the succession to the former Russian throne has been in dispute, largely due to disagreements over the validity of dynasts marriages. [1] Catherine II of Russia - Catherine II of Russia, also known as Catherine the Great, was a Russian monarch. [1] In the west, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherines former lover, king Stanisław August Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, in the east, Russia started to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America. [1] At the time of her birth, her grandfather, Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, was on the throne, in 1855, when Maria Alexandrovna was seventeen months old, Nicholas I died and her father became the new Russian Emperor. [1] Lovisa von Burghausen (1698 - 20 January 1733) was a Swedish memoirist who became famous for her story about her time in captivity as a slave in Russia after being taken prisoner by the Russians during the Great Northern War. [1] Charles XII - Ruled Sweden 1697 to 1718, led the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War with Russia, beginning with a major Russian defeat at Narva in 1700, and ending with the Russian victory at Poltava in 1709. [1] Khalturin helped found the first political labor labor organization in Russia, the "Northern Russian Workers' Union". [1] As Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Karamzin, Lev Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky and Nikolai Gogol all rightly mentioned in their works, Moscow is not only the political capital of Russia, but the capital of art and the capital of Russian culture. [1] The State Tretyakov Gallery (Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. [1] The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus (Святейший Патриарх Московский и всея Руси.), also known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church. [1] Especially in the national narrative of the nineteenth century, the old romantic ideal of native soil placed Moscow at the centre of the image of "pure Russia with real Russian virtues." [1] Saint Petersburg - Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. [1] Moscow, however, retained its unique place as the "heart of Russia," the focus of the Russian spirit and the symbol of Russian statehood. [1] He was appointed Assistant Minister of War of Russia in 1898 under Aleksey Kuropatkin, served as Russian Minister of War from 1905 through 1909 serving in the Witte, Goremykin and Stolypin governments. [1] For Hanway, therefore, to term the request for this petition an "extraor dinary demand" is a sterling example of sublime self-assurance. 48 Captain Thomas Woodroofe, the British commander of the Empress of Russia, which he and Elton had built at Kazan with the permission of the Russian government in the spring of 1741. 60 Hanway's Persian adventures have already been sketched for the reader. [1] Maria Feodorovna, Empress Consort of Russia Maria Feodorovna, was wife to Emperor Alexander III, Empress Consort of Russia - and mother of the last Russian monarch. [1] His younger brother, Prince Dimitri Romanov, said of Marias assumption of titles, including de jure Empress of all the Russias and they can only go and pray at the grave, as can any other Russian, who so wishes. [1] The same dissatisfaction was operative in Alex ander's revocation of the Continental Blockade, extended to Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, and the history of Anglo- Russian relations in this period was climaxed in 1812 by the union which sealed the doom of Napoleon and decided the fate of Europe. [1] He also wrote a history of Russia and altered the character of Russian prosody by adopting tonic versification in his poetry. [1] He established the first chemical laboratory in Russia and wrote the first Russian grammar. [1] The first volume of his travels, published in 1810, had depicted Russia and the Russians in an extremely unfavorable light. 372 Sir Robert Thomas Wilson: Extracts son and much esteemed, for in that quarter the great flax purchases are made. [1] Despite such almost military repressions, Russia experienced a flowering of literature and art - the works of Aleksander Pushkin, Nikolay Gogol, Ivan Turgenev and other men of letters made Russian literature gain international stature and recognition throughout the world. [1] It was reported that her son Ivan Lopukhin, being drunk in a tavern, denounced Elizaveta's taste for English beer and mumbled several phrases which were interpreted calling for restoration of Ivan VI of Russia, the inquiry that followed established that the Lopukhin house used to be frequented by the Austrian agent Marquis Botta d'Adorno, who allegedly promised his support for restoration of Ivan VI on the Russian throne. [1] Whether his humanitarianism recoiled before the picture of human degradation which Russia appeared to present, or whether the problems of emancipation recalled him to the remembrance of the historical process which had produced the political system he loved, he always retreated from the subject of a potential Russian reformation to a eulogy of the wonderful realities of English government. [1] List of heads of government of Russia - Approximately 98 people have been head of the Russian government since its establishment in 1726. [1] Women of eighteenth-century Russia were luckier than their European counterparts in some ways; in others, the life of a Russian woman was more difficult. [1] Russia and Persia signed an agreement Petersburg treatyt, under which Persia gives Russia for an everlasting possession: Dagestan, Shirvan, Mazandaran and Astrabad (Essentially, this Russian acquisition encompassed all Caspian littoral traditionally populated by Türkic nomads, Scythians, Huns, Masgut/Alans/Ases, Gilyans, Yirks, etc.) [1] It was not until 1784, five years after his return to England, that Coxe finally brought out the Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark In the interim, he had already enjoyed considerable success with several other publications: a revised and enlarged edition of his Swiss travels in 1779, An Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America in 1780, and An Account of the Prisons and Hos pitals in Russia, Sweden, and Denmark^ in 1781. [1] If England lost,200,000 annually in the direct trade with Russia, the 14 In a report to the Board of Trade, December 30, 1800, Stephen Shairp, Consul-General at St. Petersburg, remarked that in the hemp trade, at least, British advances of credit to Russian merchants extended by means of traveling middle men as far down in the economic scale as to the peasant, in order "to engage his stock and to enable him to pay his yearly rent to his land lord. [1] If foreign merchants chose to naturalize in Russia that is what increasing numbers of them were doing starting in the late seventeenth century or if Russian-born merchants took over from the foreigners, would that automatically make Russian foreign trade "supply-driven"? Of course not. [1] Very few customs records, so important to trade studies, are extant for Russia; not a single seventeenth-century custom book for the vital early modern Russian port of Arkhangelsk survives. 5 Such documentary problems shift the study of the Russian medical drug trade in a specific direction, towards the records of the court medical department, the Apothecary Chancery. [1] Medical drugs in Russia tell us about the relationship between official and unofficial medicine, and revise our ideas of the relationship of Russian medicine with medicine elsewhere in Europe, and indeed the world. [1] Returning to Russia in late 1875, he was assigned to the Turkestan Military District and he was awarded the Order of St. George for his role in the Russian conquest of Kokand. [1] This is most evident in the case of the devotional works: these texts were themselves a new phenomenon for late seventeenth-century Russia, but some of the earliest examples use the medical format, implying that by that time literate Russians were likely to have been fairly familiar with the medical works they emulate. [1] Many cosmonauts, however, were born in Soviet territories outside the boundaries of Russia, all claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights. [1] Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (Михаи́л Па́влович; Mikhail Pavlovich) (8 February 1798 - 9 September 1849) was a Russian nobleman, the tenth child and fourth son of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. [1] I will not undertake, from an impulse of my good wishes, to determine what articles Russia should be cautious of importing; but those of the produce of Great Britain are either essentially necessary to her, or such as she can never suffer by: I speak not of the major part of them, for I think not one article, EVEN OUR ALE, but tends to the good of the Russians; not to mention the great advantages to Russia of the Riga and Narva trade with Great Britain and Ireland. [1] During this liminal period, pharmacy texts—medical books instructing the reader on how to create complex medicines using distillation and similar technical processes—appeared in Russia (and in Russian), which were addressed to various sections of Russian society. [1] Tsarevna Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia - Tsarevna Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia was a Russian playwright. [1] The popularity of card games in Russia was portrayed by some famous Russian writers, particularly Alexandre Pushkin who wrote The Queen of Spades. [1] Pushkin is considered by many as the greatest poet of Russia and the founder of Russian literature. [1] Whatever their aims, it may be said of them in common that they contributed little to Russia aside from their per sonal presence in the already cosmopolitan society of the capital Their significance was rather as an index, than as an aid to Russian progress. [1] Kudo learned about Russia from Russian adventurers he met on Hokkaido, plus Netherlands associates and books, EG Oude en nieuwe staat van't Russische of Moskovsische Keizerryk; behelzende eene uitvoerige historie van Rusland en deszelfs Groot-Vorsten, 2v (Utrecht:1744). [1] These efforts inaugurated a steady traffic of experts and students between Britain and Russia in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries that helped transform Russian navigation practices into a form resembling, and sometimes advancing on, those of Britain. [1] Music of Russia denotes music produced in Russia and/or by the Russians. [1] When the French invasion of Russia began in 1812, Barclay de Tolly was commander of the 1st Army of the West, Barclay was appointed Commander-in-Chief and initiated a scorched earth policy from the beginning of the campaign, though this made him unpopular among Russians. [1] The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin. [1] The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. [1] The Varangians may have come to Russia initially not as rulers but to protect the principle trade route from Scandinavia to Byzantium, which passed through Russian territory. [1] The most significant event since the beginning of bibliography in Russia was V. S. Sopikov's Essay on Russian Bibliography (parts 1-5, 1813-21; republished in 1904-08 by V. N. Rogozhin with notes, supplements, and auxiliary indexes). [1] Today Russia is a major destination for Turkish tourists with the decision of the Russian authorities to abolish the visa requirement. [1] Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Russian Far East. [1] Torzhok (Торжо́к) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Tvertsa River along the federal highway M10 and a branch of the Oktyabrskaya Railway division of the Russian Railways. [1] Primorsk (Примо́рск; Koivisto; Björkö) is a coastal town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia and the largest Russian port on the Baltic. [1] Hanway shared with Perry a common middle class origin and an early experience of foreign travel but his position as a member of the favored Russia Company of British merchants placed him in a widely divergent relationship to Russian society. [1] British merchants in Russia were and remained largely exporters of Russian goods. [1] "Oh no," replied Beningsen, "not in Russia; the Russians are a ter rible people, and would kill any man instantly who even talked of negotiation." [1] The government reforms of Peter I were aimed at modernizing the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models. [1] The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство or, in Hellenized form, Российское царство), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 until Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. [1] After the death of his aunt, Elizabeth of Russia, he ruled over the Russian Empire as Peter III, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and was the husband of Catherine the Great of Russia. [1] Collegium of Little Russia (Малороссийская коллегия) was an administrative body of the Russian Empire in the Hetmanate created for the first time by the ukase of Peter the Great on May 27, 1722 in place of the Little Russia Prikase. [1] Peter I of Russia - Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a larger empire that became a major European power. [1] Pyotr I, IPA: ) or Peter Alexeyevich ( Russian : Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: ; 9 June 1672- 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Have each group read the pertinent primary passages on Ivan, Peter, and Catherine in G. Vernadsky and R. Fisher, A Source Book of Russian History from Early Times to 1917, 3 vols. (1972). [1] Pyotr I, IPA: ) or Peter Alexeyevich ( Russian : Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: ; 9 June 1672- 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. After his death, Russians soon came to realize that Peter had been the country's greatest ruler and that his reign had indeed been a high point in their history. [1] Pyotr I, IPA: ) or Peter Alexeyevich ( Russian : Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: ; 9 June 1672- 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. The judicial system of the Russian Empire was established as part of the system of government reforms of Peter the Great. [1] Pyotr I, IPA: ) or Peter Alexeyevich ( Russian : Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: ; 9 June 1672- 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Inspired by his trip abroad, Peter plans to make Russia a powerful member of Europe. [1] Pyotr I, IPA: ) or Peter Alexeyevich ( Russian : Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: ; 9 June 1672- 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Since his youth, Peter has hated the conservative Muscovite clergy, and when the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church dies, Peter refuses to appoint another prelate. [1]

The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Russian: Нерчинский договор) was the first treaty between Russia and China. [1] As the head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914, which marked the first fatal step into World War I. "Aiming to align Russia with the European nations using the Julian calendar, Peter changes the date of the New Year. [1] Russo-Persian War, 1722-1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between Russia and Persia (Safavid Iran), triggered by the tsars attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran. [1] Azov campaigns of 1695-96 (Азо́вские похо́ды), two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000 men), which had been blocking Russias access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea. [1] In 1846 the Russian historian Nikolai Pogodin wrote: "The Russia of today, that is to say, European Russia, diplomatic, political, military, commercial, industrial, scholastic, literary — is the creation of Peter the Great. [1] Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas, and many new cities, an admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. [1] The cathedral houses the remains of almost all the Russian emperors and empresses from Peter the Great to Nicholas II and his family, among the emperors and empresses buried here was Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia for 34 years. [1] Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (-) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. [1]

Tikhon Nikitich Streshnev (Тихон Никитич Стрешнев; 1649 - 15 January 1719, St Petersburg) was a Russian boyar and statesman during the reign of Peter I of Russia, one of the first members of the Governing Senate and the first governor of Moscow after the post was reformed by Peter. [1] Peter was the first Russian monarch to receive an education both in Russia and abroad. [1] Heavily influenced by his advisors from Western Europe, Peter reorganized the Russian army along modern lines and dreamed of making Russia a maritime power. [4] An epic, gigantic figure, Peter the Great strode across Russia and Russian history making an impact as vast as that of Ivan IV. Western, Russian, and Soviet historians continue to grapple with his goals, policies, and achievements. [1] To secure the dynasty, she chose her sister's son Peter, i.e. her nephew, whom she brought to Russia from Holstein in about 1743 or 1744 to train in the responsibilities of governing the vast Russian Empire (Peter was, after all, a grandson of Peter.) [1] Matija Zmajević (also Matej Zmajević, in Russia Matvei Khristoforovich Zmayevich Матвей Христофорович Змаевич) (January 6, 1680, Perast, Bay of Kotor - August 23, 1735, Tavrov, Russia) was admiral of the Baltic Fleet and the shipbuilder of the Russian Tsar Peter the Great, building a fleet in Voronezh. [1] Count Peter von Lacy, or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy (Пётр Петро́вич Ла́сси), as he was known in Russia (26 September 1678 - bef. 11 May 1751), was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov. [1]

Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, &ndash) was a joint Tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. [1] After his death, Russians soon came to realize that Peter had been the country's greatest ruler and that his reign had indeed been a high point in their history During his reign the Russian military increased from around 30,000 men in 1695, to nearly 300,000 men in 1725, and that included the newly formed navy. [1] To illustrate Peter the Great's penchant for non-Great Russian bishops, 61.4 percent of the 44 prelates consecrated between the death of the last patriarch in 1700 and Peter's own death in 1725 were non-Great Russian. [1] Peter sent many Russians to be schooled in the West and was responsible for the foundation (1725) of the Academy of Sciences. [1]

Peter unintentionally caused "Ukrainization" of the Russian Church, inviting Ukrainian and Belorussian clergy (mostly graduates of the Kiev-Mohyla Academy) from the buffer regions of the Empire into Russia. [1] Peter the Great (whom the Russians generally call Peter I - Pyotr Pervy) is beloved in Russia, and all the more so in St. Petersburg, where he is rightfully lauded as the Founder of the City, and honored with numerous memorials. [1] This mid 19th-century Russian author of satirical stories often developed the theme of St. Petersburg in his writings, using the city as a metaphor for what Peter did and what Russia had become. [1] This is a favourite residence with almost all the Russian nobility who have not employments at court or in the government. 29 29 Catherine Wilmot contrasted the idyllic atmosphere of Moscow with the power and brilliance of St. Petersburg in a beautiful description with a somewhat different emphasis: "Moscow is the imperial terrestrial political Elysium of Russia. [1] Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. [1] As the head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914, which marked the first fatal step into World War I. Catherine’s main political goal was to strengthen autocracy in Russia, while at the same time decreasing the influence of the aristocracy and the guardsmen to its absolute minimum. [1] During the first two years of Harris's residence, France first mediated a Russian dispute with Turkey in favor of the former and then assisted Russia to arbitrate the Bavarian Succession between Prussia and Austria, both increasing her European prestige and establishing a precedent for inter ference in German affairs, but Harris continued to deny the advantage of the French connection. [1] In 1613, following years of interregnum, the zemsky sobor offered the Russian crown to Mikhail Romanov and he acceded to the throne as Michael I, becoming the first Tsar of Russia from the House of Romanov. [1] Nicholas II, the elder son of Emperor Alexander III, became the new Tsar of Russia and, as it became clear years later, the last ever Tsar of the Russian Empire. [1] Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) refers to a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire. [1] Olga Nikolaevna of Russia - Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia, later Queen Olga of Württemberg, was a member of the Russian imperial family who became Queen consort of Württemberg. [1] List of Grand Duchesses of Russia - This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial House who bore the title Velikaia Kniaginia or Velikaia Knazhna. [1]

Kadriorg Palace - Kadriorg Palace is a Petrine Baroque palace built for Catherine I of Russia by Peter the Great in Tallinn, Estonia. [1] It was this epoch of the first world war which witnessed a major stride towards the organization of the power state and in this sense, the re forms of Petrine Russia represented only one facet of a European wide development. [1] Petrine Russia 1689-1725 Image #1-Elizabeth Petrovna-The dress she is wearing is green,like are design.Known as Yelesaret she was the empress of Russia,during 1741. [5]

Michael of Russia - Michael I of Russia became the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia. [1] Count Sergei Vasilievich Saltykov (Серге́й Василиевич Салтыков) (c. 1726 - 1765) was a Russian officer (chamberlain) who became the first lover of Empress Catherine the Great after her arrival to Russia. [1] With greater energy, but with equal lack of system, Ker Porter's Irish ac quaintance, Catherine Wilmot, remarked the same anachronism of Russian culture in the life of Europe: "Russia is but in the i2th century. [1]

Starting with Peter, for the next two centuries, one of the duties of Russian ambassadors serving abroad was to recruit foreign specialists to work in Russia. [1] While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus and the Russian land, in the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev also mentions the sceptre of Russian lordship. [1] I. A. Roldugina, "Kalinkinskaia komissiia i Kalinkinskii dom: Opyt bor΄by s sotsial΄nymi deviatsiami v Peterburge v seredine XVIII veka" (Undergraduate Thesis, Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, 2006); I. A. Roldugina, "An Attempt at Social Disciplining in Eighteenth-Century Russia: The Kalinkinskii House. [1] In 1782 at age 60 the Russian infantryman Kozma Rezvikov received a discharge from the army because of "old age and illness," but it was not until 1798, when he was 76, that he requested a place in a state poorhouse because of "extreme old age" (Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, "Social Misfits: Veterans and Soldiers' Families in Servile Russia," The Journal of Military History 59 : 225-26; my thanks to Elise Wirtschafter for pointing this case out to me). 54. [1] Perry, a member of the middle class, heart ily approved this step, but his enthusiasm led him to exaggerate the actual benefits accruing to the state, for, in truth, the Russian merchants proved to be quite as corrupt as their noble brethren. 24 In general, 28 James Mavor, An Economic History of Russia, London, 1914, i, 141. 24 V. O. Kliuchevsky, A History of Russia, New York, 1931, iv, 155; Schuyler, op. cit., i, 344. [1] After the fall of Kiev, Russian architectural history continued in the principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, Novgorod, the states of the Tsardom of Russia. [1] His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, on the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres. [1] Russians have described this reign as the Bironovshchina and the "German yoke, during the latter years of Annas reign in Russia, Biron increased enormously in power and riches. [1] Count Jean Armand de LEstocq (German: Johann Hermann Lestocq, Russian: Иван Иванович Лесток, 29 April 1692 in Lüneburg - 12 June 1767 in Saint Petersburg) was a French adventurer who wielded immense influence on the foreign policy of Russia during the early reign of Empress Elizabeth. [1] The Russian consul in Persia reported, and Hanway's experience later confirmed, that one of these, the Empress of Russia, the very ship in which Hanway sailed to Persia, had been employed in the n6 Jonas Hanway: Extracts cause may be given to create the least obstruction of the British trade thro' the empire o Russia. [1] After claiming the Russian throne in exile in 1924 Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia designated his son, Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich of Russia, until the end of the empire most people in Russia and abroad, verbally and in writing continued to refer to the Sovereign as tsar. [1] The English word stems from a spelling-pronunciation of a French transliteration of the Russian word кнут, some claim it was a Tatar invention and was introduced into Russia in the 15th century, perhaps by Grand Duke Ivan III the Great. [1] Praskovya Ivanovna (1694-1731) was a Russian tsarevna, daughter of Tsar Ivan V of Russia and Praskovia Saltykova. [1] Although castigated by the Russian government for the defeat of Russia in that war, Avelan was born in Loviisa in the Grand Duchy of Finland. [1] Based on concrete examples from Russian cultural history, the paper tries to confirm the central place of Moscow in Russian cultural life by attempting to correct the frequently made mistake of referring to St Petersburg as the "cultural capital" of Russia. [1] THE COMMUNITY OF INTERESTS The ordinary computation of the Russian general export, from St. Petersburg, is three millions, of which the British subjects in Russia take off two, consisting chiefly in hemp, flax, iron, hog's bristles, hare skins, hempen and flaxen manufactures, Russia leather, and other articles. [1] This consisted in the abetting of a Russian naval expedition against the Turks in the Mediterranean, and it appears extraordinary today that British diplomacy which, for the past century and a half, has been occupied in keeping Russia out of the Mediterranean by supporting the Ottoman Empire should have so materially contributed to the contrary issue in 1770. [1] MODE OF THE ANGLO-RUSSIAN COMMERCE AUGUST 1 80 1 By the kind communication of a friend, well versed in the Russian commerce, I am enabled to subjoin a statement of the mode in which the British trade is principally conducted A foreigner who imports goods into Russia, must sell them to Russians only, and at the port where they arrive, none but natives being allowed to send merchandize into the interior of the empire for sale. [1]

The Russian court’s interest in recording its purchases reveals the state of medical drugs both within Russia, and across Europe, as being consistently geographically diverse. [1] In the year 1672 the birth of a Russian prince went more or less unnoticed in the rest of Europe, of which Russia was at best a fringe member. [1] Rumiantsev was a strong advocate of Russian expansion in the Near East; and whereas Napoleon had recommended a wholesale partition of Ottoman terri tories, Wilson was empowered to offer only British recognition of the Russian annexation of Moldavia and Wallachia, and even this was to be "/#, 11,365. 13 A. A. Lobanov-Rostovsky, Russia and Europe, 1789-1825, Durham, North Carolina, 1947, pp. i6ofT. u Nikolai Petrovich Rumiantsev (1754-1826). [1] Three regions in particular developed relations with the Russian State: England, the German lands and the Netherlands. 12 Partly this group of nations was determined by geography: all three groups had access to the North Sea and the Baltic, through which they could reach the Russian ports of St Nicholas, and later Arkhangelsk, in the White Sea, and the Baltic ports of Reval and Narva, through which goods and travellers could also reach Russia. [1] Speaking on the subject of this prize, a concrete evidence of the oriental dreams which may have clouded Napoleon's vision of the stark realities of the Russian campaign, Alexander later had a remarkable conversation with Sir Robert, clearly foreshadowing a source of uneasiness between England and Russia in the century to come. [1] It awarded to the British merchants privileges and immunities even beyond those allowed to the Russians themselves and, in this sense, made of the Russia Com pany a sort of state within a state. [1] Alexis I of Russia - Aleksey Mikhailovich was the Russian Tsar during some of Russias most eventful decades in the mid-17th century. [1] Lake Pleshcheyevo (Плеще́ево о́зеро), a lake in Russia, and formerly a resort for Russian tsars, is located in Yaroslavl Oblast. [1] Implicit in it was the belief that Russia was destined to rule the world and that the Russian tsar was the ruler of all humanity. [1] Lefortovo Prison (Лефортовская тюрьма) is a prison in Moscow, Russia, which, since 2005, has been under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. [1] Azerbaijanis in Russia or Russian Azerbaijanis (Rusiya azərbaycanlıları; Азербайджанцы в России) are Azerbaijani people in the Russian Federation, and are Russian citizens or permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background. [1] Russia - Russia, also officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. [1] The Arctic policy of Russia is the domestic and foreign policy of the Russian Federation with respect to the Russian region of the Arctic. [1] It was succeeded in the new Russia by the rank of Marshal of the Russian Federation, which has held by only one person, Marshal Igor Sergeyev. [1] List of presidents of Russia - This is a list of Presidents of the Russian Federation formed in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. [1] Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia. [1]

Taking advantage of the profitable situation, Peter launched the Russo-Persian War of 1722-1723, otherwise known as "The Persian Expedition of Peter the Great", which drastically increased Russian influence for the first time in the Caucasus and Caspian Sea region, and prevented the Ottoman Empire from making territorial gains in the region. [4] Peter made a temporary peace with the Ottoman Empire that allowed him to keep the captured fort of Azov, and turned his attention to Russian maritime supremacy. [4]

The Boyar Duma (a council of Russian nobles) chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent. [4] On 12 September 1698, Peter officially founded the first Russian Navy base, Taganrog. [4] For leadership in the church, Peter turned increasingly to Ukrainians, who were more open to reform, but were not well loved by the Russian clergy. [4]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(17 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (188) Petrine Era (Russia, 1689 - 1725)

2. (24) Peter the Great - Wikipedia

3. (17) "Law, Succession, and the 18th Century Refounding of the Romanov Dynasty" by Russell E. Martin -- The Russian Legitimist

4. (15) Russia | Geography, History, Map, & Facts - The Petrine state | Britannica.com

5. (9) Biography of Peter the Great of Russia

6. (8) Petrine Era Timeline

7. (6) The Revolution of Peter the Great

8. (5) Sex in the City that Peter Built: The Demimonde and Sociability in Mid-Eighteenth Century St. Petersburg | Slavic Review | Cambridge Core

9. (5) The Petrine revolution in Russian culture (Book, 2004) [WorldCat.org]

10. (5) Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia - Renaissance and Reformation - Oxford Bibliographies

11. (4) Russia | Geography, History, Map, & Facts - Peter I’s successors (1725-62) | Britannica.com

12. (3) Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia

13. (2) Project MUSE - The Petrine Instauration: Religion, Esotericism and Science at the Court of Peter the Great, 1689-1725 (review)

14. (2) Petrine Russia 1689-1725 by Deanna Garcia on Prezi

15. (2) The Petrine Instauration: Religion, Esotericism and Science at the Court of Peter the Great, 1689-1725 by Robert Collis

16. (1) The Petrine instauration : religion, esotericism and science at the court of Peter the Great, 1689-1725 / by Robert Collis. - Princeton University Library Catalog

17. (1) The Petrine Instauration: Religion, Esotericism and Science at the Court of Peter the Great, 1689-1725


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