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Post-Modern (Soviet Union and United States, 1973 - Present)

Post-Modern (Soviet Union and United States, 1973 - Present)

C O N T E N T S:

  • Known as the Yom Kippur War in Israel and the Ramadan or October War in Egypt and Syria, the dramatic events of October 1973 profoundly altered the course of Middle East politics, eventually leading to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and Cairo’s realignment away from the Soviet Union and toward the United States.(More...)
  • As rearticulated in "Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence," a secret policy document drafted by a subcommittee in the U.S. Strategic Command in 1995 (four years after the demise of the Soviet Union), the madman theory posits that the essence of effective nuclear deterrence is to induce "fear" and "terror" in the mind of an adversary, to which end "it hurts to portray ourselves as too fully rational and cool-headed."(More...)

  • To the credit of the Soviets, prior to 1973, it must be said this strategy served them well: bypassing the Bagdad pact and breaking the monopoly on arms sales held by the U.S. in the Middle East, the Soviets were able to make themselves indispensable in fueling the warmaking desires of Arab states in the Arab Israeli conflict.(More...)
  • "Khrushchev's original explanation for shipping missiles to Cuba had been fundamentally true: the Soviet leader had never intended these weapons as a threat to the security of the United States, but rather considered their deployment a defensive move to protect his Cuban allies from American attacks and as a desperate effort to give the USSR the appearance of equality in the nuclear balance of power."(More...)


Known as the Yom Kippur War in Israel and the Ramadan or October War in Egypt and Syria, the dramatic events of October 1973 profoundly altered the course of Middle East politics, eventually leading to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and Cairo’s realignment away from the Soviet Union and toward the United States. [1] After the war in 1973, the United States began to consider the possibility of true peace in the Middle East, especially after the weakening of the Soviet Union. [1] In the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War, signed in Washington on June 22, 1973, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to make the removal of the danger of nuclear war and the use of nuclear weapons an "objective of their policies," to practice restraint in their relations toward each other and toward all countries, and to pursue a policy dedicated toward stability and peace. [1] In accordance with the agreement to hold regular US-Soviet meetings at the highest level and at the invitation, extended during the visit of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union L. I. Brezhnev to the USA in June 1973, the President of the United States of America and Mrs. Richard Nixon paid an official visit to the Soviet Union from June 27 to July 3, 1974. [1] October 1973: Force Reduction Meeting in Vienna The United States, the Soviet Union, and other NATO and Warsaw Pact nations met in Vienna in October 1973 to begin Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction (MBFR) negotiations to reduce conventional forces in Europe to equal and lower levels. [1] By the time I left the Soviet Union for the United States in January of 1973, I thought the Soviet totalitarian system was ugly, overbearing, and inefficient. [1] Instead of giving up their reliance on the threat of nuclear war to deter the Soviet Union, American political and military leaders in the 1970s committed the United States to begin a massive nuclear arms build-up. [1] The still frosty relations between the Soviet Union and China prompted many in the United States government under Ronald Reagan to consider China a natural counterbalance against the Soviet Union, resulting in American military aid to the People's Liberation Army. [1] Although the United States embarked on a famine relief program in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s and American businessmen established commercial ties there during the period of the New Economic Policy (1921-29), the two countries did not establish diplomatic relations until 1933. [1] At a time when U.S. - Russian relations continue to deteriorate, it is useful to recall how the United States and the Soviet Union found common ground during the Cold War on one vital national security issue-- nuclear nonproliferation. [1] Khrushchev ’ s efforts to improve relations with the West suffered many setbacks, especially after the Cuban Missile Crisis (a cold war conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union regarding a Soviet buildup of nuclear missiles in Cuba ). [1] If the Americans had a shield that prevented Soviet nuclear missiles from hitting the United States, they could then threaten to destroy the Soviet Union without fearing nuclear destruction themselves. [1]

Joseph M. Schwartz's chapter, titled "Being Postmodern While Late Modernity Burned," opens with the question posed by Jeffrey Isaac in the mid-1990s as to why American political theorists were avoiding addressing the topic of the causes of the breakdown of the Soviet Union ( RI : 163). 7 Schwartz provides no answer of his own, immediately moving on to other matters. [1] As the Cold War developed between the United States and the Soviet Union, the great majority of Latin American governments sided willingly with the former, even though they complained of being neglected by Washington’s preoccupation with the threat of communism in Europe and Asia. [1] The Soviet Union, which participated in Bretton Woods, did not ratify the agreement, in part because it was suspicious of the American motivation, and in part because it did not want to supply the data that was a requirement of membership in the IMF. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. [1] Sadat, faced with the choice of an war unwinnable without its obstinate Soviet ally, and a peace possible only through United States agreement to "push Israel out of the Sinai", chose to disengage himself from the Soviet Union. [1] By the late 1950s, both the United States and the Soviet Union had massive nuclear arsenals, and the Soviet leadership was engaged in a strategy that balanced confrontations over issues such as Berlin with negotiations to avoid an outbreak of war. [1] I also attended both the United States Air Force Air Command and Staff College in Montgomery, Alabama and the United States Navy War College in Newport, Rhode Island, where I continued to study and write about the Soviet Union and the Soviet Navy. [1] During a period characterized by political competition, economic rivalry, and military friction between the United States and the Soviet Union, the United States hoped to replace the European imperial powers as the dominant external force in Africa. [1] NSC-68 cited Soviet consolidation of power in Eastern Europe, Soviet expansionist tendencies, and the need for the West to contain the Soviet Union as the justifications for the United States to pursue a significant buildup of its conventional military and nuclear resources. [1] During the late 1970s, the United States and the Soviet Union adopted a cooperative approach to prevent the South African nuclear test despite fierce East-West competition and conflict in the Horn of Africa, including military intervention by Soviet allies. [1] Although the Soviet Union exploded a fission bomb in 1949 and announced the acquisition of a fusion (or hydrogen) bomb four years later, the United States still continued for a while longer to enjoy an effective monopoly on nuclear retaliation, since the Soviet Union lacked the means of delivering quantities of such bombs against U.S. territory. [1] After U.S. President Richard Nixon forswore biological weapons in 1969, the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union negotiated the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), which entered into force in 1975. [1] May 1989: President Bush's Speech on the Soviet Union In a public address on May 12, 1989, President George H.W. Bush reaffirmed the U.S. desire for Soviet economic reform to succeed, and said that the United States sought the integration of the Soviet Union into the community of nations. [1] In May, 1960, a four-power (USSR, United States, France, and Great Britain) summit conference scheduled for Paris was aborted when a U.S. reconnaissance airplane ( "U-2" ) was shot down in the Soviet Union and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower refused to apologize for the aerial spying. [1] As for the ocean-going navy which the Soviet Union has now acquired, it consists primarily of submarines and ground-based naval air forces, and apparently would have the task of cleaning the seas of U.S. ships of all types and cutting the sea lanes connecting the United States with allied powers and sources of raw materials. [1] With the retreat from the Indochina area of the great Capitalist power of the United States, a power struggle developed between the Soviet Union and Maoist China over the Southeast Asia resources, one of which we label the Cambodian War. [1] In accordance with a previous agreement, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan on Aug. 8, 1945, two days after the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. [1] The most immediate consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union was Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 something the Soviet Union in earlier days would have been able to stop. The United States responded in 1991 with the first Gulf War, which forced the withdrawal by the Iraqis from Kuwait. [1] The Soviet Union was bogged down in a quagmire just a few short years after the United States lost a similar war in Vietnam. [1] During the years of 1917 to 1923, the Soviet Union achieved peace with the Central Powers, their enemies in World War I, but also fought the Russian Civil War against the White Army and foreign armies from United States, United Kingdom, and France, among others. [1] Rejecting MAD, American leaders called for a NUTS--nuclear utilization target selection--strategy, which called for the United States to have so many nuclear weapons that it could not only destroy the Soviet Union but it could destroy enough of the Soviets nuclear weapons so that the United States could fight and win a full-scale nuclear war. [1] Faced with this parity, many American leaders began to worry that the United States could no longer rely on its threat to destroy the Soviet Union in a nuclear war in order to deter Soviet aggression and Soviet challenges to America's global domination. [1] North's "The Long Shadow of History: The Moscow Trials, American Liberalism and the Crisis of Political Thought in the United States," ( UTC : 37-62) shows the importance of the unresolved question of the nature of the Soviet Union in the long-term decay of the progressive character of American pragmatism, evident in the contrast between Rorty and the earlier leading representative of the pragmatist tradition, John Dewey. [1] The political implications were clear: If the Soviet Union was able to out-produce the United States, the "correlation of forces" would shift, and the Communist side would soon have the upper hand in its conflict with the West. [1] The Soviet Union and the United States stayed far apart during the next three decades of superpower conflict and the nuclear and missile arms race. [1] After seven days of guarded and intense debate in the United States administration, during which Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba, President Kennedy, in a televised address on October 22, announced the discovery of the installations and proclaimed that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union and would be responded to accordingly. [1] The central idea of the U.S. strategy of deterrence holds that should the Soviet Union dare to launch a surprise first strike at the United States, the latter would use its surviving missiles to lay waste Soviet cities. [1] The most effective and enduring of these spillover actions has been the 1972 bilateral agreement between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas, or INCSEA. The Geneva Law of the Sea Treaty was lacking in a couple of areas that the INCSEA agreement would eventually fill for the Soviet Union and the United States. [1] By prioritizing Cold War détente rather than genuine stability in the Middle East, Daigle shows, the United States and the Soviet Union fueled regional instability that ultimately undermined the prospects of a lasting peace agreement. [1] The first confrontation of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union occurred in the Middle East in Iran. [1] Reagan and his top advisors believed that if the United States regained nuclear superiority and a first strike capability that we could shape and dominate the global international order, and while doing so bankrupt and defeat the Soviet Union and thus win the Cold War. [1] U.S.-Soviet cooperation found expression in efforts to tighten nuclear export controls and to gain greater adherence to the NPT. For example, at meetings of the London Suppliers Group, the Soviet Union regularly aligned itself with the proponents of stringent nuclear exports, a situation that usually led Moscow and Washington to join forces more frequently than did the United States and a number of its Western allies such as France, West Germany, and Japan. [1] November 1981: Intermediate Range Nuclear Force Negotiations Intermediate Range Nuclear Force (INF) negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union began in Geneva on November 30, 1981. [1] He called for bilateral talks between the United States and the Soviet Union on Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces. [1]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the post-Cold War world was widely considered as unipolar, with the United States the sole remaining superpower. [1] The new doctrine postulated that inasmuch as both the Soviet Union and the United States possessed (or would soon possess) the means of destroying each other, neither country could rationally contemplate resort to war. [1] Sadat's presidency saw many changes in Egypt's direction, reversing some of the economic and political principles of Nasserism by breaking with Soviet Union to make Egypt an ally of the United States, initiating the peace process with Israel, reinstituting the multi-party system, and abandoning socialism by launching the Infitah economic policy. [1] Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economic factors, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often bitter superpower rivalry over the years. [1] Cooperation between the USSR and the Western powersalready shaky during the warceased soon after the armistice, and relations between the Soviet Union and the United States (which emerged from the war as the two chief powers in the world) became increasingly strained, leading to the international tension of the cold war. [1] The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1971, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War. [1] Moderate revisionists, such as Denna Fleming, contended that the United States was responsible, but not all of the blame can be leveraged against the Americans; the Soviet Union did pose a potential threat. [1] When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, many Americans grew concerned that the United States was losing its competitive edge. [1] After a century of friendship, Americans and Russians became archenemies in 1917 when the Communists seized power, established the Soviet Union, and declared ideological war on the capitalist nations of the West. [1] The Soviet Union, which participated in Bretton Woods, did not ratify the agreement, in part because it was suspicious of the American motivation, and in part because it did not want to supply the data that was a requirement of membership in the IMF. During the Korean War, the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea accused the USA of using agents of biological warfare against North Korea ( 1, 18 ). [1] OPEC oil ministers led by Saudi Arabia retaliated with an oil embargo against the U.S. A UN resolution supported by the United States and the Soviet Union called for an end to hostilities and for peace talks to begin. [1] June 1979: New Moscow Embassy After several years of negotiations, the United States and the Soviet Union contracted for a new U.S. Embassy complex in Moscow in June 1979. [1] These tensions continued to exist until the dramatic democratic changes of 1989-91 led to the collapse during this past year of the Communist system and opened the way for an unprecedented new friendship between the United States and Russia, as well as the other new nations of the former Soviet Union. [1] Nor does it provide for war pitting a coalition of capitalist and Communist states against another capitalist state, such as actually occurred during World War II when the United States and the Soviet Union joined forces against Germany. [1] Aug. 23, 2004 As World War II ends, the United States becomes the great outside power in the Middle East, with three main concerns: Persian Gulf oil; support and protection of Israel, founded in 1948; and containment of the Soviet Union. [1] A NUTS strategy and a first strike capability would once again allow the United States to use its global military power to dominate the Soviet Union and intimidate anyone else who would challenge our global dominance. [1] The United States supported the Islamist mujahadeen guerillas against the military forces of the Soviet Union and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. [1] June 1989: U.S.-Soviet Military Agreement In Moscow in June 1989, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement designed to prevent dangerous military activities. [1] They concluded that the Interim Agreement On offensive strategic weapons should be followed by a new agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of strategic arms. [1] Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union resulted in summit meetings and the signing of strategic arms limitation agreements. [1] March 1985: Arms Negotiations Resumed In Geneva, the United States and the Soviet Union began negotiations on space and nuclear arms in March 1985. [1] August 1963: Limited Test Ban Treaty In August 1963, the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty outlawing nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. [1] In 1962, the Soviet Union put medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba aimed at the United States. [1] In the technological race between the Soviet Union and the West (principally the United States), the USSR exploded (1953) a hydrogen bomb; announced (1957) the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles; orbited (1957) the first artificial earth satellite (called Sputnik); and in 1961 sent Yuri Gagarin in the first manned orbital flight. [1] Once the Air Force received the B-36, the world's first intercontinental bomber, the United States acquired the ability to threaten the Soviet Union with devastating punishment without, at the same time, being compelled to maintain a large and costly standing army. [1]

Recent unofficial Soviet calculations stress that the United States dropped on Vietnam the TNT equivalent of 650 Hiroshima-type bombs--also without winning the war: Kommunist Vooruzhonnykh Sil ("The Communist of the Armed Forces"), No. 24, December 1973, p. 27, cited in Gour et al., The Role of Nuclear Forces, p. 104. [1] In 1973, according to Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, during the Egypt-Israeli war when the Russians threatened to intervene to prevent the Israelis from wiping-out their ally, Egypt, Kissinger and Presidential Chief of Staff Al Haig ordered that the American nuclear forces be put on full alert and told the Soviets if they intervened it would mean full-scale nuclear war. [1] Accordingly, the 1973 embargo initially appeared to augur well for the Soviets: it witnessed a united Arab world arrayed against the United States, and its defense of Israel, a policy which, in the long term would have aggravated the American economy and those of its European clients. [1] The Soviets did not have a real desire to partake in the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, as they were reluctant to risk detente with the United States. [1]

Unfortunately for the Soviet Union, the mujahedin fighters had adopted the military tactic of guerrilla warfare (they had also received material support from nations such as the United States). [1] On May 6, just two weeks after cutting most ties with the United States, Ethiopian leader Lt. Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam signed two friendship pacts with the Soviet Union and in publicized Moscow ceremony, and a separate, unpublicized military aid pact estimated at $400 million - more than the United States had provided to Ethiopia in three decades of alliance. [1] Despite deep-seated mistrust and hostility between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 created an instant alliance between the Soviets and the two greatest powers in what the Soviet leaders had long called the "imperialist camp": Britain and the United States. [1] Countries falling within the ambit of the United States or the Soviet Union came under pressure to adopt the same form of economic and social organization as the power under whose security umbrella they sheltered. [1] At the end of the meeting, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the General Agreement on Contacts, Exchanges, and Cooperation in Scientific, Technical, Educational, Cultural, and Other Fields, and announced that the two countries would resume civil air service. [1] In 1963 the United States and the Soviet Union signed some confidence-building agreements, and in 1967 President Lyndon Johnson met with Soviet Prime Minister Aleksei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey. [1] President Reagan hoped that by spending trillions of dollars on nuclear weapons and threatening the Soviets with nuclear war that the Soviet Union would then be forced to spend trillions of dollars just trying to keep up with the United States nuclear weapons build-up. [1] During the 1984 Presidential debates, Reagan actually said that Armageddon could happen tomorrow! In this speech, President Reagan is demonstrating his confusion between his Christian belief in Armageddon and the final days with the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] Following the end of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, there was supposed to have been a "peace dividend" which would have allowed the world to stop wasting money on arms manufacturing and explore roads toward peace and commerce. [1] This war was a part of the Cold War, since in also involved the United States (and to a lesser extent), Great Britain, aiding their ally France, while the Communist rebels (the Viet Minh, Pathet Lao, and Khmer Issarak), enjoyed aid from the Soviet Union and Communist China. [1] The power of fascism--German, Italian, and Japanese versions--led to the uneasy alliance between the communist Soviet Union and the liberal United States, Britain, and France. [1] After 1985 the more liberal policy of the Soviet government under Mikhail Gorbachev allowed anyone to leave the Soviet Union, and thousands more Jewish and non-Jewish Russians immigrated to the United States. [1] The use of the word "containment" originates from this so-called "X Article": "In these circumstances it is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies." [1] The third wave of Russian immigration to the United States (1945-1955) was a direct outcome of World War II. Large portions of the former Soviet Union had been occupied by Germany, and hundreds of thousands of Russians had been captured or deported to work in Germany. [1] Interpretations suggested that the United States pursued a peaceful post-Second World War, but it had to establish itself as a global force to serve as a bulwark against the Soviet Union. [1] Analyzes the Soviet Union, the Cold War "enemy" of the United States, from victory in World War II under Joseph Stalin through collapse in 1991. [1] This was also the case among the post-World War II DPs, many of whom found their way into university teaching, federal government employment, publishing, and other jobs that reflected the Cold War interests of the United States in the Soviet Union. [1] The Middle East was a region of vital importance to both the United States and Soviet Union, and thus the region served as a proxy for many of the events of the Cold War. [1] The Cuban Missile Crisis was basically a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba during the Cold War. [1] On March 16, Brezhnev announced that the Soviet Union was suspending deployment of new nuclear weapons in Russia, and threatened retaliation if the United States installed new medium-range missiles in Western Europe. [1] July 1968: Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty On July 1, 1968, sixty-two nations, including the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, designed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy. [1] Having noted the historic significance of the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water concluded in Moscow in 1963, to which the United States and the Soviet Union are parties, both Sides expressed themselves in favor of making the cessation of nuclear weapon tests comprehensive. [2] December 1959: Antarctic Treaty On December 1, the United States, the Soviet Union, and ten other countries signed a treaty to internationalize and demilitarize the Antarctic continent. [1] From the onset of the SALT negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union, the two countries began the process of reshaping their relations on the basis of peaceful cooperation. [1] Such endeavors facilitated commercial ties between the Soviet Union and the United States, establishing the basis for further cooperation, dialogue, and diplomatic relations between the two countries. [1] In 1975, Poland and almost all other European countries became signatories of the Helsinki Accords and a member of Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the creation of which marked the high point of the period of " détente " between the Soviet Union and the United States. [1] Index of journal articles, books, book chapters, book reviews, dissertations, and selected government publications on East-Central Europe and the former Soviet Union published in the United States and Canada. [1] Not long after the Berlin Wall fell a quarter of a century ago, the Soviet Union collapsed, the United States squandered its peace dividend in an attempt to maintain global dominance and Europe quietly became more prosperous, more integrated and more of a player in international affairs. [1] Strengthening the Role of the United Nations The United States of America and the Soviet Union attach great importance to the United Nations as an instrument for maintaining peace and security and the expansion of international cooperation. [1] After the fighting started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. [1] When the Soviet Union went through a peaceful transition to democracy, the United States was left as the world's one great superpower, able to preside over the creation of numerous new nations with more or less democratic and America-inspired political systems. [1] From a political perspective, it was a third path between weapons manufactured by the United States or the Soviet Union. [1] The traditional version of events has been that the Soviet Union discovered South Africa's nuclear test site in the Kalahari, and informed the United States of its existence a few weeks after a Soviet reconnaissance satellite passed over the site on July 3 and 4, 1977. [1] Some of the specifics of the South African case remain hazy, but a large body of evidence supports the conclusion that the United States and the Soviet Union collaborated in a sustained, multi-faceted, and successful fashion to prevent South Africa from undertaking a nuclear test in the Kalahari Desert in 1977. [1] March 1986: Nuclear Test Moratorium Proposed Gorbachev announced in March 1986 that the Soviet Union would continue its nuclear test moratorium if the United States also refrained from staging tests. [1] Nuclear deterrence can become effective only if it restrains mutually--i.e., if the United States and the Soviet Union each can deter the other from aggression. [1] Judt claims, "it was in these post-war years, between 1947 and 1953, that the line dividing East from West, Left from Right, was carved deep into European cultural and intellectual life." 5 The United States was clearly on one side of this divide, representing Western Democracy, with the Soviet Union and the Soviet Bloc planted squarely on the other side. [1] The Soviet Union was the second nation to develop an atomic bomb, in 1949, four years after the United States. [1] September 1984: Proposal for Future Arms Control Talks At the United Nations, Reagan proposed a broad "umbrella" framework for talks between the United States and the Soviet Union on arms control issues. [1] November 1969: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks The United States and the Soviet Union held preliminary Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) in Helsinki on November 17, 1969. [3] With the Arab world turning almost unilaterally towards the United States in arbitrating the conflict, the Soviet Union found itself strategically emasculated and diplomatically isolated, and thus ultimately unsuccessful in maintaining a preponderance of influence in the Arab world and resolving its strategic insecurities. [4] After Iran condemned the Soviet Union for occupying Afghanistan, they had essentially joined both the United States and the Soviet Union against itself Iran, long believed to be the "strategic prize" (Amirahmadi, 49) of both the United States and the Soviets was taking them both on at once. [5] It was formally limited to Jews, who were allowed to leave the Soviet Union for Israel as part of the agreements reached between the United States and the Soviet Union during the era of détente. [1] They hold the common view that such a new agreement would serve not only the interests of the United States and the Soviet Union but also those of a further relaxation of international tensions and of world peace. [1] The "Hot Line" agreement, the first bilateral agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union that gave concrete recognition to the perils implicit in modern nuclear-weapons systems, was a limited but practical step to bring those perils under rational control. [1] May 1985: New Bilateral Trade Agreements The United States and the Soviet Union announced new bilateral trade agreements and a U.S.-Soviet maritime pact in May 1985. [1] They signed several bilateral agreements concerning land and sea passage between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] In 1933 the United States recognized the USSR, and in 1934 the Soviet Union was admitted into the League of Nations. [1] September 21, 1977 - Fifteen nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign a nuclear-proliferation pact, slowing the spread of nuclear weapons around the world. [1] The Soviets wanted to make the United States feel the same way they did, because America had placed nuclear weapons in countries bordering the Soviet Union. [1] Developmentalism promoted equally, albeit in slightly different verbiages, by the United States and its allies, the Soviet Union and its allies, and the leaders of Third World countries had been based on the theories of inevitable progress and the role of the states in promoting modernity. [1] The leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States decided, during this time, to step up to the plate and make a concerted effort to ease the ever increasing tensions between these two superpowers over the world's oceans. [1] The paper compares the impact of the Cold War on science and technology, both in the Soviet Union and the United States. [1] The onset of the Cold War introduced the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective ideologies into the region as well. [1] Syrian Crisis of 1957 : A period of severe diplomatic confrontations during the Cold War that involved Syria and the Soviet Union on one hand and the United States and its allies, including Turkey and the Baghdad Pact, on the other. [1] Individuals, such as Hans Morganthau and Louis Halle, maintained that the Cold War was neither the fault of the United States nor Soviet Union. [1] Other recent contributions were motivated by the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the expectation of a new world order under the hegemony of the United States. [1] Documents regarding the relationship of the Soviet Union with the United States during the Cold War. [1] Drawing a line at the international border, the United States has warned the Soviet Union, Cuba and Ethiopia against crossing into Somalia when and if the invading forces in the Ogaden are beaten or withdrawn voluntarily. [1] In the years after the "Yom Kippur War’, Egypt turned to the United States and dismissed the Soviet Union as an ally in its fight against Zionist Israel. [1] "The United States could recover form an all-out nuclear war with the Soviet Union in just two to four years. [1] Reagan's joke and the fear and anxiety it created both in the Soviet Union and the United States is a good example of how the United States preparations for fighting and winning nuclear war in the 1980s threatened world peace and made many believe that a nuclear war was inevitable. [1] What Reagan really meant was that in the 1970s the United States had lost its nuclear first strike capability, its ability to threaten to destroy the Soviet Union in a full-scale nuclear war. [1] Now, critics charged, if we threatened to destroy the Soviets in a nuclear war that threat would be hollow because even if we destroyed the Soviet Union in a nuclear attack, they would still have enough nuclear weapons left to destroy the United States. [1] The United States and the Soviet Union agree that an objective of their policies is to remove the danger of nuclear war and of the use of nuclear weapons. [1] In terms of this typology, an industrial strike in the United States, the explosion of a terrorist bomb in Belfast or Jerusalem, the massacre by Rhodesian guerrillas of a black village or a white farmstead, differ from nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the United States only in degree, not in kind. [1] The United States could not afford to threaten the Soviet Union with full-scale nuclear war because doing so would be suicidal. [1] The Geneva Summit of 1955 among Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States, and the Camp David Summit of 1959 between Eisenhower and Khrushchev raised hopes of a more cooperative spirit between East and West. [1] January 1986: Televised Greetings President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev exchanged New Year's greetings to the peoples of the Soviet Union and the United States in two televised 5-minute statements in January 1986. [1] The United States was no more ready to tolerate this unilateral action on their part than the Soviet Union was ready to tolerate attempts by Poland and Hungary to engage in autonomous political activity. [1] After Pasechnik's defection, political and diplomatic pressure on Moscow between 1990 and 1992 resulted in reciprocal visits to suspected BW facilities in the Soviet Union and the United States. [1] The Soviet Constitution directly violated the declaration of Human Rights from the United Nations, and this issue became a prominent point of dissonance between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] Under Brezhnev, the United States and the Soviet Union underwent Détente, which was in essence a relaxation of tensions between the two nations. [1] This was analysis that was being released as relations between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated. [1] In 1958, the United States government responded be creating NASA. Its goals were to jump-start the United States space program and to gain a competitive edge with the Soviet Union. [1] The United States and the Soviet Union were committed to totally different ideas on government, social, and economical issues. [1] June 1963: Establishment of the "Hotline" The United States and the Soviet Union signed a memorandum of understanding in Geneva in June 1963 to establish a direct communications link, or "hotline," between the two governments for use in a crisis. [1] On December 29, the United States issued sanctions against the Polish Government and the Soviet Union for the imposition of martial law. [1] In the 1949 Berlin blockade, the Soviet Union blocked land access to Berlin, prompting the United States to airlift supplies for a year. [1] In the years 1965-67, the English-language CPR weekly, The Peking Review, often attacked the Soviet Union more rabidly than the United States. [1] Gorbachev accepted Reagan's invitation to visit the United States in 1986, and Reagan agreed to visit the Soviet Union the following year. [1] The Vermont weekly newspaper Seven Days reported in 2009 that the sister-city relationship "helped local residents who sought to ease tensions between the United States and Soviet Union by initiating citizen-to-citizen exchanges with a Russian city." [1] The United States and the Soviet Union had presented a draft of the treaty to the UN Committee on Disarmament in Geneva on October 7, 1969. [3] The United States and the Soviet Union are in favor of the broad and fruitful economic cooperation among all states, large and small, on the basis of full equality and mutual benefit. [1] The United States and the Soviet Union were allies at the time of its first performances in America, and the symphony was principally received as a programmatic statement of solidarity against fascism. [1] Sept. 29, 1962: Canada's Alouette 1 launches aboard a NASA Thor-Agena B rocket, becoming the first satellite from a country other than the United States or Soviet Union. [1] After World War II, the open ocean became the arena for many showdowns between the United States and the Soviet Union. [1] For his part, Joseph Stalin deepened the estrangement between the United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World War II was an unavoidable and inevitable consequence of "capitalist imperialism" and implied that such a war might reoccur. [1] World War II brought more uncertainty, as the non-aggression pact with Hitler in August 1939 made the Soviet Union an official wartime adversary of the United States, and then an ally again in June 1941 when Hitler broke the pact and invaded Russia. [1] The Soviet Union developed this doctrine specifically vis-à-vis the United States and reportedly planned for the use of biological weapons parallel to nuclear weapons, whereby "some targets would be struck by nuclear weapons, some by biological weapons, and some by both together." [1] April 1986: Commercial Flights Resumed The United States resumed commercial flights between the United States and the Soviet Union in April 1986. [3] Before September 1941, trade between the United States and the Soviet Union had been conducted primarily through the Soviet Buying Commission in the United States. [6] After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the United States and the international community commenced a range of initiatives aimed at mitigating the WMD proliferation threats emanating from Russia and the former Soviet republics. [1] Three months after the invasion, the United States extended assistance to the Soviet Union through its Lend-Lease Act of March 1941. [6] Lend-Lease was the most visible sign of wartime cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union. [6] Nixon and Kissinger's greatest accomplshment was in bringing about detente, or a relaxation in tensions, between the United States, China, and the Soviet Union. [1] October 1982: Grain Embargo Lifted At bilateral talks in Vienna in October 1982, the United States announced that it would sell 23 metric tons of grain to the Soviet Union. [3] Khrushchev then announced on October 28 that he would dismantle the installations and return them to the Soviet Union, expressing his trust that the United States would not invade Cuba. [6] July 1975: Apollo-Soyuz Mission The United States and the Soviet Union conducted the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a joint space effort culminating with a linking of the two crafts, in July 1975. [3] July 1984: Improvements to the Hotline The United States and the Soviet Union initialed a diplomatic note in Washington on July 17, 1984, agreeing to make technical improvements to the 21-year-old Direct Communications Link, or "hotline," between Washington and Moscow. [3] The United States and the Soviet Union reaffirm their determination to contribute separately and jointly to the achievement Of all these tasks. [2] The Soviet Union detonated a hydrogen bomb in 1953, a mere ten months after the United States. [7] No longer is the United States threatened by a global superpower such as the former Soviet Union. [5]

The U.S. initially refused to recognize the Soviet Union, but President Franklin D. Roosevelt reversed the policy in 1933 in the hope to expand American export markets. [1] The shift of American liberals to support for U.S. Cold War policies followed from their equation of Marxism with Stalin's Soviet Union. [1] They are there not only to have the capacity to launch a surprise land attack against NATO, but also to attack and seize Western Europe with a minimum of damage to its cities and industries after the initial strategic nuclear exchanges have taken place, partly to keep Europe hostage, partly to exploit European productivity as a replacement for that of which the Soviet Union would have been deprived by an American second strike. [1] The central strategic agenda of the Soviet Union, as mentioned, was neutralizing the American strategic advantage in Eurasia, and assuming a position of increased geostrategic strength through establishing naval and military bases throughout the region. [4] American officials have scoffed at the idea that Russia could provide the kind of military support that the Soviet Union once promised, much less replace the supplies, training and maintenance that the Egyptians have come to depend on from Washington. [1] American and British intelligence agencies suspected the Soviet Union of undertaking BW activities prior to the entry into force of the BTWC, but were unable to confirm their suspicions during the post-WWII years. [1] American society during the past 70 years has had a negative opinion of the Soviet Union and, therefore, of Russian Americans. [1] While President Bourguiba of Tunisia and Colonel Gadafy find themselves in the same camp loudly proclaiming a plague on Super-Powers, whether of the Russian or the American variety, Fidel Castro has resoundingly condemned the growing tendency in the nonaligned movement to "forget the extraordinary services which the Soviet Union has rendered to them and the insurmountable gulf that exists between Yankee imperialism and the USSR." [1] Kennan's articulations of the policy of containment had a major influence on American foreign policy toward the Soviet Union. [3]

We will review the history and politics of the relationship, using case studies where appropriate, including the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, when the U.S. and the Soviet Union almost came to blows placing their respective nuclear forces on alert. [1] The 1973 war and Egypt’s subsequent estrangement from the Soviet Union will then be discussed as an ultimately fatal event in securing Soviet interests. [4]

After the war, disputes between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, particularly over the Soviet takeover of East European states, led Winston Churchill to warn in 1946 that an "iron curtain" was descending through the middle of Europe. [1] Following the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, Poland was forced by the Soviet Union to give up its claims to compensation from Germany, which as a result paid no significant compensation for war damages, either to the Polish state or to Polish citizens. [1] The Soviet Union after the war found itself in a position to secure its borders and to advance its own economic and political ideology into neighbouring states. [1] As it turned many Eastern European countries into satellite states and set up the Warsaw Pact and Comecon (economic and military organizations of Central and Eastern European Communist states), the Soviet Union ’ s relations with the West became extremely tense. [1] By the mid-1970s, the Great Leader would observe that "of all the Socialist countries, ours bears the heaviest military burden." 4 Even by comparison with places like the Soviet Union and East Germany, his North Korea was a garrison state. [1]

Isn't it the case that oil is the real reason that the U.S. economy grew so rapidly during the early 20 th century too, and then so slowly after 1973, the year of the first oil shock, as Cleveland et. al. (2000) show? Thus the Soviet Union and the U.S. both had vast resources of oil and both grew powerful because they both exploited oil so much. [1] The Soviet Union was the world ’ s first Communist state, the West ’ s principal adversary during the cold war, and a dominant force in international affairs until its collapse in 1991. [1] On July 16, however, the Soviet Union introduced amendments to its draft that called for (1) a ban on joint maneuvers involving the forces of two or more states and advance notification of substantial military movements, (2) exchange of military missions, and (3) improved communications between heads of government and with the U.N. Secretary General. [1] The treaty called on the member states to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force and it set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union. [1]

The Baltic states were forcibly incorporated in 1940, and in the post-World War II Soviet Union there were fifteen Union Republics. [1] The State Department and others were hesitant to improve relations with China as they believed it was more important to focus on the Soviet Union which, after all, was a nuclear superpower. [1] On 15 September 1962, the Iranian government declared to the Soviet government in a diplomatic note that Iran "shall not grant any foreign state the right to have missile bases of whatever type on the territory of Iran" and "shall never allow Iran to become an instrument of aggression against the territory of the Soviet Union" ( Pravda, 16 September 1962). [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(29 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (195) Post-Modern (Soviet Union and United States, 1973 - Present)

2. (91) Why the Soviet Union Thinks It Could Fight & Win a Nuclear War - Commentary Magazine

3. (88) The Middle East: United States Policy and Relations in the Latter Half of the 20th Century

4. (81) United States Relations with Russia: The Cold War

5. (50) Cold War Politics in the Middle East

6. (43) The History of American Foreign Policy | Boundless Political Science

7. (40) Exploring Chinese History :: Politics :: International Relations :: Sino- Soviet Relations

8. (40) The Soviet Union and the United States - Revelations from the Russian Archives | Exhibitions - Library of Congress

9. (36) RUSSIA ii. IRANIAN-SOVIET RELATIONS 1917-1991 - Encyclopaedia Iranica

10. (36) The Russians Did It: Kremlin Documents Reveal the Soviet Union Is to Blame for Today’s Middle East Mess - Tablet Magazine

11. (30) Nationalist Thought in Contemporary Russia

12. (22) Joint Communique, Moscow, July 3,1974

13. (21) Global Connections . U.S. Foreign Policy | PBS

14. (19) Soviet Science | Guided History

15. (19) 1945 to the Present | Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

16. (13) The U.S. and Iran in Historical Perspective - Foreign Policy Research Institute

17. (11) Constitutionalizing Globalization: The Postmodern Revival of Confederal Arrangements

18. (10) Cuban missile crisis: how the US played Russian roulette with nuclear war | Noam Chomsky | Opinion | The Guardian

19. (9) Timeless Lessons from the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War - Modern War Institute

20. (9) Clarity Press, Inc.

21. (9) Empires Versus States - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

22. (8) How Would Nixon Handle Russia in the 21st Century? Richard Nixon Foundation

23. (4) The United States and Canada, 1900 A.D.-present | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

24. (3) Conflict in Africa: The Historical Roots of Current Problems - American Historical Association

25. (3) Cold War Modern: Raymond Loewy in the US and the USSR | post

26. (3) United Nations and Afghanistan

27. (2) Postmodern Literature Timeline

28. (2) United States Era 9 - Public History Initiative | National Center for History in the Schools

29. (1) Illuminations: Agger

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