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Prior Lê Dynasty (Vietnam)

Prior Lê Dynasty (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • In 1802, the Nguyễn emperor Gia Long defeated a thirty-year uprising that had overthrown both Nguyễn rule in modern-day southern Vietnam as well as the rule of the Trịnh clan in modern day-northern Vietnam: the two dynasties, nominally under the authority of the Lê dynasty, had ruled these regions as separate (and vastly different) Vietnamese empires for two hundred years.(More...)
  • Academically it is always true that the Vietnamese language has evolved alongside the develoment of Vietnam's national history.(More...)

  • To put it another way, if Vietnam were still a prefecture of China all along its history (remember to add 1,200 more years of Chinese rule to the Annamese land), Vietnamese would have been considered as a Sino-Tibetan language like Cantonese of Fukienese or any Chinese dialects nowadays as discussed previously with no question raised.(More...)


In 1802, the Nguyễn emperor Gia Long defeated a thirty-year uprising that had overthrown both Nguyễn rule in modern-day southern Vietnam as well as the rule of the Trịnh clan in modern day-northern Vietnam: the two dynasties, nominally under the authority of the Lê dynasty, had ruled these regions as separate (and vastly different) Vietnamese empires for two hundred years. [1] Following the brief Hồ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was momentarily interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê Dynasty. [2]

Vietnam reached its zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (14601497). [2] What fate would have become of that Maylay nation with those federated states had it fallen under the rule of Vietnam - she actually invaded Malacca in 1471 - what wouls it look like, alternatively, if it had been ruled by China's Ming Dynasty in the 15th century? (S) The Vietnamese are the only ones among the descendants of the ancient Yue from China South who are having an independent nation of their own in the southern land, that is, Vietnam in the Southeast Asia. [3] Like 1802, 1975 was not really the "reunification’ of Vietnam celebrated in nationalist histories: the Vietnamese communist party, like the Nguyễn dynasty, faced the enormous challenge of ruling over lands and peoples that had virtually never been under the rule of a single state (this is even true for the colonial era, when French rule took different forms in different regions and was shared, albeit unequally, with the Nguyễn dynasty). [1]

As late as of China's Ming Dynatsy in the 15th century (Nguyễn Tài Cẩn. 1979) while it ruled Annam from 1407 to 1427, as Chinese carved wooden tablets were unearthed in Vietnam in the late 1970's with loanwords found to be in late SInitic Vietnamese usages, which reveal that a certain evidence of strong Chinese linguistic influence with the Ming Dynasty's Chinese lexicons were still actively adoped. [4] Vietnam's policy toward China hence has been a balanced act which could be found in a reconciliatory tone compromising her national pride especially in recent diplomatic makeovers in 2011, 12, 14 when Vietnam is at her best before the Vietnamese government had brutally suppressed series of anti-China demonstrations by Vietnamese activists for weeks in each of respective event. [3] With respect to the so-called nationalism in our contemporary era that followed a period after the bitter border war with China in 1979, the then Vietnam's authority tried to change the national Lunar New Year Festival by mapping it into the Vietnamese lunar calendar in such a way that it would occur one month ahead of that of China. [4]

History of the formation of the Vietnam's Kinh people is about the process of integration of the Chinese immigrants into the Vietnamese society, past and present. [4] Almost all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the king's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are dictated by the dynasty founders and often used as the country's name. [4] This is evident in Goscha’s account of early Vietnamese history, which shows how what it meant to be Vietnamese emerged over a long period of time from encounters with Chinese empires in the north, from the Qin dynasty (221-206 BCE) to the Qing dynasty (1644-1912 CE); with Cham and Khmer polities and peoples in the south; Portuguese and French Catholic missionaries; highland peoples in the north and the west; and between Vietnamese speakers in the north and the south. [1] When Nguyễn Phúc Ánh founded the last Vietnamese dynasty in 1802, the empire that he ruled was liguistically, ethnically, religiously, and administratively plural. [1] The legendary Hồng Bàng Dynasty of the Hng kings is considered by many Vietnamese as the first Vietnamese state, known as Văn Lang. [2] It was the first Vietnamese dynasty that held onto power for more than several decades. [5] This event, cast in nationalist historiography as the country’s "reunification,’ was in fact an unprecedented experiment in Vietnamese empire-building, as the Nguyễn dynasty attempted to assert its rule over an enormous and diverse territory riven by deep ethnic, religious, and political divisions. [1] The rules governing the fashion of the royal court could change dynasty by dynasty, thus Costumes of the Vietnamese court were quite diverse. [6] Fearing for his life, Nguyen Hoang saw the famous prophet Nguyen Binh-Khiem (also known as Trang Trinh, a doctorate under the L dynasty and was considered Vietnamese equivalent of Nostradamus) for advice. [7] I have come up with a view that, metaphorically, Vietnamese could only be counted as an implanted part on the Sinitic linguistic tree that sprung up from its older trunk of the late Sino-Tibetan stage, which probably corresponds to the Yin Dynasty (殷朝 1900 B.C. to 1066 B.C.). [3]

From the first chapter the author has gone a great length to substantiate a hypothesis that today's Vietnamese Kinh racial stock come out of a mixed stock, so is their language as a result of the proto-Chinese moving in into China South from the southwest hundreds of years prior to the Western Han period (206 B.C.). [4] Prior to this, Vietnamese had used both Chinese characters and a script called Chữ nôm which was based on Chinese but included newly invented characters meant to represent native Vietnamese words. [6]

On a similar rationalization, linguistically, a critical question hence can be raised on the matter of how several Mon-Khmer basic words had crept into the Vietnamese language by the end of the 12th century when the border of Vietnam stopped at Thanhhoá in today's Vietnam's northern central part. [4] Despite nearly dying out in the 20th century, water puppetry has been recognised by the Vietnamese government as an important part of Vietnam's cultural heritage. [6] By now after the long argumentation on Vietnamese political academics and Vietnam's historiography, as partial view of it from Vietnamese scholars are unavoidably biased, the readers might understand by now why they could not definitely get to the root of the Vietnamese etymological matter. [3]

The Le dynasty ruled Vietnam from 1428 to 1788, the longest reign in Vietnam's history. [8]

As the most successful and longest ruling dynasty in Vietnams history, the Le Dynasty (and its successor the Nguyen Dynasty) left undeniable marks in the culture and consciousness of modern Vietnamese. [9] Since the Vietnamese Economy like all of its Sinospheric neighbours (China, Japan and Korea) was still primarily agrarian based, growth increased rapidly as a result, allowing Vietnam as mentioned prior to sustain the largest population in Indochina, a fact which would later allow them to defeat their neighbours in a series of vicious military campaigns in the southlands. [9]

Many Vietnamese today regard Nguyen Trai Vietnam's most significant poet-writer in their history. [10] The centralized state and the Confucian ideas the Le Dynasty brought help the Vietnamese coalesce into a single body, conscious of its history, traditions and unity, which allowed the country to be united even though warlords and invaders sought to rip it apart. [9] Shortly after the Chinese left the country, Le Loi then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Le Thai To and establishing the Le dynasty which lasted for 360 years(1428-1788). [11] The Le Dynasty (1428-1788 AD) was essentially the Vietnamese "Golden Age"; its most prosperous era in a civilization with 5,000 years of history. [9] The Jiaozhi Arquebus ( 交銃 ) was a native Vietnamese designed weapon which first entered service during the course of the Le Dynasty, but was steadily adopted also by the Late Era Ming Dynasty upon discovering its existence from the southern minority tribes who had been skirmishing with the Vietnamese Empire a couple of decades earlier. [9] Vietnamese supremacy, already rapidly on the rise since the very beginning of the dynasty, finally reached its ultimate heights under the "Prosperous Era of Hong Duc" in 1460 AD, when former Crown Prince Le Hao ascended to the throne of Dai Viet at the young age of 18, assuming the title of Le Thanh Tong. [9]

It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407, the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnams history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty, there was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. [12] While Thi has existed before the Lê dynasty, it has been accredited to be the renaissance of Vietnamese identity and modern society. [13] Despite the efforts of French officials and later Vietnamese nationalists alike (and many historians after them) to cast the Nguyễn dynasty as "feudal,’ the dynasty’s new imperial project had profound consequences for modern Vietnamese history. [1]

Native archaeologists born in Sahuỳnh locality - a stretch of land of Champa's territory occupied by the ancient Vietnam's Trần Dynasty since the 13th century - could proudly claim that unearthed cultural objects of Sahỳnh Civilization on location were created by their ancestors whether or not they were originally native indigenous. [4] The racing boat custom to save to drown patriot dated back prior to the Qin Dynasty, which was shared by all other people of the six ancient states that succumbed to the hands of the Qin State. [3]

During the Hong Duc Era, the famous "Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư" ( 大越史記全書 ) for example was written by a Le Historian by the name of Ngo Si Lien, completed and published first by 1479 AD, which was 15 volumes long and covered all of Vietnam’s history from the times of the legendary Hong Bang Dynasty (2879-258 BC), to the immediate years prior to the reign of the Emperor. [9] The Le Dynasty ruled Vietnam from 1428 to 1788, a total of 360 years, making it the longest one in Vietnam's history. [10] …China in 1428, founded the Later Le dynasty, and became the most honoured Vietnamese hero of the medieval period. [14] During the early years of the dynasty, the kindgom grew more powerful than it had ever been, partiCUlarly under Le Thanh-Tong, who is oue of the most celebrated rulers in Vietnamese history. [11]

Academically it is always true that the Vietnamese language has evolved alongside the develoment of Vietnam's national history. [3]

North and South in B"nh Ngô đại cáo might have referred to internal divisions in Vietnam (Hanoi vs Thanh Hoa) rather than China vs Vietnam, the Hồ dynasty's rule and Vietnamese who worked with the Ming were attacked in the "B"nh Ngô đại cáo" by Lê Lợi. [12] Art and architecture during the Lê dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần dynasty, the Lê dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt's history up to the time of Lê Lợi. [12] Noted Trần dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [12] When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009, a palace guard commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty, this event is regarded as the beginning of another golden era in Vietnamese history, with the following dynasties inheriting the Lý dynasty's prosperity and doing much to maintain and expand it. [12]

It is said that a more extreme than-ever process of sinicization was enforced, consequently, much of the art in this period and even after liberation by the Lê Dynasty was heavily influenced by the Ming Dynastys art. [12] Professor Liam Kelley (Le Minh Khai) suggested that the "north" in B"nh Ngô đại cáo referred to the Ming collaborationist Hanoi scholars while the south referred to Thanh Hóa, the base of Lê Lợi since the text referred to "Dai Viet" and did not introduce China before mentioning north. cited John Whitmore and challenged the claim that "Ngô " referred to Ming dynasty China but instead referred to the Chinese settled Red River Delta area of Vietnam. [12]

Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government. [12] Modern Vietnamese historians inserted word changes and altered the meanings of texts written by ancient Vietnamese historians on how battles between rebels in Vietnam and the Chinese states such as the Chen dynasty and Southern Han were viewed, the Nguyễn Dynasty initiated government sponsored ceremonies to the Hng kings. [12] It was up to the 1920s in Vietnams north area in isolated hamlets wear skirts were worn, the Chinese Ming dynasty, Tang dynasty, and Han dynasty clothing was ordered to be adopted by Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by the Nguyen Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát. [12] The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese. [12] After the defeat of the Trung sisters, the Eastern Han dynasty strengthened its control over the region in 43, as the Han dynasty weakened, the prefect of Giao Chỉ, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese Emperors. [12] The Nguyễn Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, saw a renewed interest in ceramics, Imperial courts across Asia imported Vietnamese ceramics. [12] Fashion styles of Le Dynasty Women (Vietnam: 1428 to A timeline to illustrate what Le Dynasty Vietnamese women of different societal backgrounds wore in the centuries. [15]

Chinese style clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn dynasty, trousers have been adopted by White Hmong. [12] Both Chinese and Vietnamese sovereigns were honored at a temple constructed by the Nguyen dynasty. [12] Except the Hồng Bàng and T y Sơn dynasties, all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the king's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are dictated by the dynasty founders and often used as the country's name. [12] Japan's defeat by World War II Allies created a power vacuum for Vietnamese nationalists of all parties to seize power in August 1945, forcing Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate and ending the Nguyễn dynasty. [12] In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Th" Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs. [12] The Lý Dynasty, beginning in the 11th century is viewed specifically as the age of Vietnamese art. [12] The first millennium BC was a period that went from the Twelfth dynasty to the Eighteenth dynasty, it was when the Vietnamese Bronze Age culture further flourished and attained an unprecedented level of realism, finally culminating in the opening stage of the Vietnamese Iron Age. [12] The period of the Fourth Hng dynasty (c. 2252-1913 BC) saw the evidence for early Vietnamese calendar system recorded on stone tools and the population from the mountainous areas moved out and began to settle in the open along the rivers to join the agricultural activities. [12] Currently, many agree that the rise of the Vietnamese began in the Hồng Bàng dynasty with Kinh Dương Vương formally declaring a kingdom and life for the Vietnamese people. [13] Ngô Th" Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to question the relations between Zhao Tuo's Nanyue Kingdom in Guangdong and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red River Delta was a mere vassal to Nanyue and not an integral part of it in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty. [12] Within French Indochina, Cochinchina had the status of a colony, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and Tonkin had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials. [12] Áo dài - the typical Vietnamese formal girls dress Áo giao lĩnh - cross-collared robe worn before the Nguyen dynasty, Áo tứ th n - a four-piece womans dress, áo ngũ th n in 5-piece form. [12]

Le Loi then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái Tổ, non-Han ethnic minorities fought in the Chinese army against the Ho. [12] Overpopulation and land shortages stimulated a Vietnamese expansion south; in 1471, Le troops led by king Lê Thánh Tông invaded Champa and captured its capital Vijaya. [12] In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the U.S. or the Saigon government, confounding Western fears. [12] In 1479, King Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos in the Vietnamese-Lao War and captured its capital Luang Prabang, in which later the city was totally ransacked and destroyed by the Vietnamese. [12] Emperor Lê Đại Hành was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa. [12]

It stated that Lê Lợi, a local god in ancient Vietnam was the liberator of the country from the hands of the Ming Dynasty. [16] Though Vietnam is surrounded by Laos, Cambodia, China and the South China Sea, Vietnam still preserves its great culture and history dating back from the dynastic era, starting from theHồng Bàng Dynasty prior to 257 BC to the last dynasty, the Nguyễn Dynasty that ruled the country from 1802 until 1945 to being a protectorate of France to the Vietnam War and the "Renovation." [16]

Nghệ thuật Phật giáo và Hindu giáo ở Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long trước thế kỉ X (Buddhist and Hindu Art in the Cuu Long river Delta prior to 10th century A.D.), The Gioi Publishing House, Hanoi, 2006 (In Vietnamese). [17] During its prolonged military occupation of Cambodia in 1979-89, Vietnam's international isolation extended to relations with the United States, the United States, in addition to citing Vietnam's minimal cooperation in accounting for Americans who were missing in action (MIAs) as an obstacle to normal relations, barred normal ties as long as Vietnamese troops occupied Cambodia. [12]

According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh Dương Vương himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn Hống and Nghĩa Lĩnh. [12] The way Lý Công Uẩn ascended to the throne was rather uncommon in Vietnamese history, as a high-ranking military commander residing in the capital, he had all opportunities to seize power during the tumultuous years after Emperor Lê Hoàn's death, yet preferring not to do so out of his sense of duty. [12] Emperor Lê Đại Hành's death in 1005 resulted in infighting for the throne amongst his sons, the eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. [12]

To put it another way, if Vietnam were still a prefecture of China all along its history (remember to add 1,200 more years of Chinese rule to the Annamese land), Vietnamese would have been considered as a Sino-Tibetan language like Cantonese of Fukienese or any Chinese dialects nowadays as discussed previously with no question raised. [4] Linguistically speaking, what has emerged out of the history of Vietnam as a vassal state of China is popular usage of massive Chinese loanwords that have found their way into Vietnamese, which is an inevitable consequence after 1000 years of Chinese rule. [3]

In comparison of Vietnamese with other Chinese dialects, variations between Mandarinand Yue (粵) and Minnan languages - that are spoken in 'Canton' and 'Fukien', again, with all the Sinicized elements on top of them after more than two long millenia under the rule of China - could be similar to what makes all differences between Vietnamese and Mandarin languages to the full extent despite of the fact that Vietnam was no longer a part of China for a long time ago. [4] Understandably, it is hard for those Vietnamese youngsters to reconcile their nationalism with the historic role that King Triệu Đà played in laying the foundation of the Kingdom of NamViet, a unified state of the ancient Yue people of present North Vietnam, Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces in China South. [3] It was postulated that in very late period that the Mon-Khmer isoglosses spread out and got in touch with the Middle Vietnamese when the ancient Annam had been still located in the upper north of 16th laditude.In fact, the ancient Vietnam still remained as a vassal state of their China long after her independence and easily succumbed to its power until these days. [4] In his introduction Goscha emphasizes that the history of Vietnam is not just a story of the Vietnamese reacting to the imperial powers and the Cold War antagonists, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States. [1] More than any other history of Vietnam, Goscha’s book takes very seriously the panoply of political and socio-cultural forces-whether religions such as Buddhism and Catholicism, French colonial republicanism, the Vietnamese monarchy, non-communist political groups, and "non-Viet" Vietnamese-whose visions of state and society are as crucial as Communism to understanding Vietnam’s modern history. [1] Keith also points out how this Nguyen imperial state shaped the modern Vietnamese state but also "would rule in partnership, albeit an unequal one, with the French colonial administration in most of Vietnam until the mid-twentieth century. [1] As he argues, the Ming’s rule over Dai Viet is so important because "it provided the Vietnamese with access to some of the most modern gunpowder weapons of the time, a sophisticated bureaucratic model, and a colonial ideology needed for their own thinking and building of a new Vietnam long before the French arrived on the scene" (8). [1] In several earlier publications, Goscha has self-consciously employed this approach to reframe our understanding of Vietnam during the colonial period, by emphasizing the hitherto unexplored connections between Vietnamese, Laos, Khmers, Thais, and Chinese under French colonial rule. [1]

Instead of elaborating on the racial mixture of people in the mainland of China, linguistically, to accomodate the cognateness of those Chinese and Vietnamese basic words, it appears that the Austroasiatic Mon-Khmer theorists came up with clever rationalization that Chinese and Vietnamese basic etyma have been a result of cultural causability, based on the fact that, culturally, for whatever China got Vietnam also has. [4] In fact even the name "Vietnam" comes from the Chinese; "viet" is the Vietnamese version of the word the Chinese used to describe the people southeast of Yunnan Province. [18]

The first histories of the war, the scholarly foundation for studying the American political and military dimensions of the conflict, were deeply bereft of meaningful area studies knowledge about Vietnam, and tended to reflect a prevailing political assumption that Communism represented the national will of the Vietnamese people, and thus that the war was inherently unwinnable for the United States and its Vietnamese allies. [1] The short-lived Empire of Vietnam of 1945, the Associated State of Vietnam that grew out of Franco-Vietnamese alliances in the 1940s, the Republic of Vietnam (better known as "South Vietnam"): Goscha casts all of these non-communist states as legitimate manifestations of a vision of modern Vietnamese nationalism that enjoyed popular support and whose leaders sought foreign support first and foremost as a way of advancing their political and economic goals. [1] As said, as Vietnam just stepped out of the shadow of war for the most part of the 20th century and into the threshold of the current one, the Vietnamese rulers do not want to risk a war with China. [3]

Mark Bradley’s Vietnam at War, published a year later, was the first general history of the war in English that foregrounded its social and cultural dimensions in Vietnam itself, reflecting (if itself not fully realizing) the "Vietnam-centric" turn in the field of Vietnamese studies during the decade or so before the book’s publication. [1] The needs to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, cooperation in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and fight against invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states in 2879 BC. The first truly influential part of history in Vietnam occurred during the Bronze Age, when the Đông Sơn culture was in Vietnam, dramatically advancing their level of civilization. [2] While discussing affiliation of both Vietnamese and Chinese in terms of history, the subject of politics, besides 'political party's lines' (be reminded that Vietnam is still being ruled by her Communist Party), as often being disguised as "nationalism", would unavoidably creep in our talk in a very unpleasant way. [3] Said, as history dictates, it is not expected Vietnam will become a province of China anytime soon despite of a widespreading of a conspiracy theory of the sellout of the nation by the top Vietnamese communists in the politburo holding the power. [3] For instance, third or fourth generation children of Chinese immigrants in Vietnam would consider themselves Vietnamese even though some are still nostalgic but they will be ready to fight against any invaders from China, similar to the national spirit Taiwanese or Singaporeans of Chinese origin behold. [4] One millennium under the Chinese domination proved to be too much for the Vietnamese to endure the fact that China has never loosen its alertness on any stance as it has never stopped pressing Vietnam so as to subdue her into submissiveness. [3] In the case of Vietnamese, the scale leaned on the Chinese side heavily for the same reason that Vietnam had been a prefecture of China. [4] Traditional Vietnamese art is art practiced in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists, from ancient times to post- Chinese domination art which was strongly influenced by Chinese Buddhist art, as well as Taoism and Confucianism. [6] While carrying the CI's assigned mission of siphoning aids to the Vietnamese communist cells, or Vietminh, who led the Indochinese Communist Party by then, the Chinese priority then became broadening with it own plan to put Vietnam under its umbrella to fulfill the Chinese hegemonic ambition. [3] Vietnam: A New History begins in prehistoric times, with the earliest settled agricultural communities in the Red River plains; and it ends in the immediate past, with a critical open letter from prominent army officers, professors, teachers, priests, monks, and Communist Party members to the Vietnamese Communist Party on the eve of its Party Congress in January 2016. [1] While Vietnam: A New History does not replace old teleologies about Vietnamese Communism with new ones, it is hard to view Goscha’s treatment of the history of Vietnamese Communism as entirely separate from the regime’s history after the end of the war, a period that earlier histories of Vietnam could not really treat as history. [1] Vietnam: A New History also offers a different, and often darker, portrait of Vietnamese Communism than most other histories of the war. [1]

Zinoman stresses the importance of Goscha’s contribution in building on previous studies in the past two decades that challenge the dominant view of Ho Chi Minh as the popular leader of a Vietnamese nationalist movement that was destined to win the two wars against the Republic of Vietnam in South Vietnam and its French and U.S. supporters. [1] From the perspective of other fields in Asian history, the tendency in Vietnamese studies to date "modernity’ with the French arrival is wildly anachronistic: few scholars in the fields of Chinese or Japanese studies still abide by the hoary idea that the onset of the Opium War or the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry jolted China and Japan from their feudal doldrums and forced these empires kicking and screaming into the modern world. [1] After 1000 years of under the Chinese rule, by then the influx of the migrants of the Tang's subjects from the China South had already arrived in large numbers into in the ancient Annam's Red River Basin, and altogether they made up the racial composition of the sinicized Yue people and their offsprings as the early ancient Vietnamese population. [3] We can say "what makes Chinese so Vietnamese", instead of the other way around, were the ancient Taic-Yue elements because the majority of the Yue people in China South (CS) made up the overall population of the pre-Qin-Han China since remote ancient times, that is, native people before the Chinese. [3]

For those culturally advanced bronze relics that were unearthed by local Vietnamese archaeologists, the Vietnamese claim the ownership for they belong to those "native Yue ancestors", or indigenous people who had inhabited there such as those in the northern area in Vietnam despite of the fact that the bronze age had existed long before the emergence of the ancient Annamese, that is, racial admixture of Yue and Han. [4] The late Foreign Minister of communist Vietnam Mr Nguyen Co Thach was asked by the Australian media in Canberra 1981 on why his country could not do more to stop the exodus of Vietnamese boat people. [7] The grounds for including them in this book, in my view, are the lasting and arguably strengthening relationship between many overseas Vietnamese or people of Vietnamese origin (mostly Americans) and the country of Vietnam today. [1]

Emphasis on such notable detail is to ring up attention from Vietnamese scholiasts so that when they discuss about history of Vietnam, they could objectively evaluate about the perception that what made up Vietnam today was not only a result of sinicization that the imperial China imposed on the her but also the outcome of the affiliation of both entities, i.e., the Yue and Sintic. [3] The issue at stake is how Vietnamese historians view their respective records about the early Vietnam throughout periods of her having been totally ruled by the imperial China for a full millennium before the 10th century. [3] Starting at the turn of the twentieth century, a host of Vietnamese elites, some of them mandarins, discovered Atlantic Republicanism flowing into the region through East Asian maritime networks running from southern China to Japan by way of Korea and Vietnam. [1] The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century and followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. [2] The making of modern Vietnam was not simply the result of these confrontations with "the West’: it was an historical process rooted in the country’s longstanding relationship to other Asian empires as well as in the colonial projects of pre-colonial Vietnamese states themselves. [1] For the most part of its history, the geographical boundary of present day Vietnam covered 3 ethnically distinct nations: a Vietnamese nation, a Cham nation, and a part of the Khmer Empire. [4] Vietnam: A New History is therefore attentive to the Asian sources of Vietnamese reformism, the diverse intellectual origins of youthful radicalism, the role of international communism in shaping Hồ Ch' Minh’s early history, and the global Buddhist, Catholic, and other confessional communities that shaped religious belief and practice in French Indochina. [1] Cherry emphasizes how Goscha not only develops the economic changes in Vietnam during the French occupation but also evaluates the emergence of reformism in Vietnam from Asian sources and the "diverse strands of Vietnamese political engagement" including those who joined the French, others who strove for gradual reform of the colonial system, and those who resisted the French from nationalist and communist perspectives. [1] Goscha’s studies include the Vietnamese wars after 1945, but his writings focus more on the political and cultural transformations and conflicts that shaped Vietnam and its neighbors from their pre-colonial past and their interactions with each other as well as with the major powers that participated in the colonization period and the twentieth-century conflicts. [1] This war of decolonization was primarily fought between different Vietnamese states, with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and its allies on one side, and the Associated State of Vietnam, and its successor, the Republic of Vietnam, and its allies, on the other side. [1] Cherry endorses Goscha’s focus on the role of the two competing Vietnamese states with "two different visions of the form that that a modern independent Vietnam should take." [1] Keith also praises Goscha’s analysis of the "many new Vietnamese political ideas and movements" as well as his persuasive shift to evaluate these leaders and movements as not bound to fail in competition with Ho Chi Minh and the Indochinese Communist movement "but as alternative visions for modern Vietnam whose eclipse was not only contingent, but perhaps even temporary." [1] The main point hereof to remember is that with the military aids from China as well as the former Soviet Union, the Vietnamese Communist Party became a part of their hegenomic expansionism in not only Vietnam but also Laos and Cambodia in Indo-China, and they were well aware of that. [3] The etyomological postulation of the zodiac items and other cultural concepts as discussed above may also help explain why Sinitic etymonic items are customarily accepted by the Vietnamese naturally for their intrinsic Yue values and they both have been cited as of "Sinitic" to the effect that Vietnam was even referred to as "Little China" in the book by the same title by Brodrick (1942), all for a good reason. [3] The give away of large areas of land and sea to China and the oppression of Montagnard ethnic minorities living in the former Royal Domain (Domaine de la Couronne) of Central Vietnam prompted widespread protests and condemnations amongst politically active Vietnamese living overseas and inside Vietnam. [7]

While much of the "new’ in this history of Vietnam derives from these questions I raised about interpretation, Haydon Cherry is right that there is a need to rethink "older interpretations of the Vietnamese past, but also the empirical or documentary basis of many of those interpretations." [1] In the end, death was an overwhelmingly Vietnamese experience ( Vietnam: A New History, 329). [1] In the meanwhile those Vietnamese factors, in return, have dominantly overtaken all other local Chamic and Khmer cultural characteristics in the central territories from the now lost ancient Champa and Khmer kingdoms that Vietnam annexed in the not-so-distant past. [4] To be exact, the Vietnamese have always been representative of the ancient Yue as they were also known as "the Yue of the South", i.e., "Vietnam", the last stronghold bastion of the ancient Yue. [4] The ns and Qins were among the earliest foreign aggressions of Vietnam, but the ancient Vietnamese regained control of their country soon after their invasions. [2] The importance of this analytical shift is that it allows Goscha to treat the many other Vietnamese political experiments of the era not as illegitimate ones that were bound to fail, but as alternative visions for modern Vietnam whose eclipse was not only contingent, but perhaps even temporary. [1] Due to revolutionary transformation of the writing system from Chinese- to Latin-based orthography, modern Vietnamese readers, possessing only meager knowledge of Chinese scripts, which cut off their historical connections with their national past, mostly depend on the official state's version of history that was actually already rewritten time and time again when the ruling class change hands. [3] It is of no surprise that scores of the Vietnamese basic vocabularies, to say the least, appear to have originated from the same linguistic roots as those of Chinese, as enumerated previously, for the reason that they were long in close contact at least 1,500 years before the confirmed influence of the Chinese language on Vietnamese started from the Warring Periods (403 B.C. - 221 B.C.) as recorded in Chinese history. [4] Characteristically similar to the racial composition of the Vietnamese after one thousand years under Chinese domination, all those natives still living in China South are definitely of a mixed stock as of now, portions of them having been 'Sinicized', and as defined in every aspects of the term, be it 'Qin-ized' (of Chinese charaterization of the populace in Shaanxi 陜西), 'Tang-ized' (Cant. [3] Now that they view those so-called Confucius institutes that have sprung up around the country in the last two decades along with the building hundreds of China-state factories with battalions of Chinese migrant workers from China moving in to have replaced Vietnamese workers after initial local hirings in recent years are parts of China's expansionist scheme. [3]

The Vietnamese fishing boats, having been following their ancestral sea routes to within the Vietnam East Sea - as they call it - and coastal waters, the way that Vietnamese fishermen have been doing for hundreds of years, now face horrific incidents that are currently happening day in day out at seas. [3] Family networks, remittances, tourism, investment, and retirements in Vietnam, often encouraged by the Vietnamese government, have, in a sense, partly reversed the exodus from Vietnam during the twenty years after 1975. [1] Archaeologists link the beginnings of Vietnamese civilization to the late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Phung Nguyen culture, which was centered in Vĩnh Phúc Province of contemporary Vietnam from about 2000 to 1400 BCE. [2] Any other claims similar to statements above made by several overzealously Vietnamese nationalist scholars are not incredulous with respect to their relevancy of inheritance in every aspect of the matter under examination should the readers still remember the case of their acclamation on those artifact findings excavated in the Indo-Chinese peninsula of today's Vietnams southern parts were created by the "Vietnamese ancestors", which turned out to be phon. [4] In the past, with literacy in the old character-based writing systems of Vietnam being restricted to scholars and elites, calligraphy nevertheless still played an important part in Vietnamese life. [6] Many observers of Vietnam have focused so much of their attention on "French colonialism,’ "Vietnamese communism,’ "nationalism,’ and the "American War’ that they have, in my view, missed the fascinating story of Vietnamese Republicanism and how it emerged from global connections. [1] The most important of these, which Goscha explored in his seminal work Vietnam or Indochina? (expanded and republished in 2012 as Going Indochinese ) were between Vietnamese, Khmer, and Lao populations in French Indochina. [1]

He recently co-edited a special issue of the Journal of Vietnamese Studies 12:3-4 with Claire Edington (University of California, San Diego) on the state in Vietnam. [1] No "Vietnamese ancestors" were known to have ever existed in those stretches of land that were only annexed to the entity of "Vietnam" as recently as in the late 18th century. [4] History: It is believed that 'tuồng' was imported from China around the 13th century when Vietnam was warring against the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. [3] In the book’s first two chapters, Goscha makes a powerful case that "modern’ Vietnam begins not with the arrival of French colonial rule, as Brocheux and Héméry claim, but with the revolutionary nineteenth century imperial projects of the Nguyễn dynasty (Vietnam’s last), if not earlier. [1] The first, Pierre Brocheux and Daniel Héméry’s Indochina: An Ambiguous Colonization (2009, published in French in 1994 as Indochine: la colonisation ambigu" ), was the first synthesis of scholarship, most of it French, about the core of modern Vietnamese history: the political, economic, and cultural dimensions of the hundred years of colonial rule (roughly the 1850s until the 1950s) in what France called "Indochina," later the nations of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. [1] By the end of the 19th century, however, after the French colonists took control of the country, "Quốcngữ", the new romanized national Vietnamese orthography created by Western missionaries gradually began to have replaced Chinese writing system both by the colonial government's decrees and national consensus. [4] The northern Vietnamese look much more like the southern Chinese than those earlier Annamese who resettled further in the south since the 13th century because they mixed with the indigenous inhabitants of much theorized Polynesian and Malay of the Austronesian stock, or the Mon-Khmer descents of the Austroasiatic stock. [4] The party replaced the south’s economic ancien régime with an inefficient and disruptive economic model of resettlement, central planning, and collectivization, which further devastated the country’s economy as it struggled to recover from war, as well as demonizing and punishing parts of the southern population (especially ethnic Chinese or Vietnamese of Chinese descent). [1] For over the last 1,300 years or so the only job the Vietnamese men had done continually is to fight in wars, one generation after another, with each one always involved the Chinese interference. [3] Over the years I have intuitively collected from both Chinese classics and modern Chinese media words that will prove that some forms of classical Chinese and vernacular Mandarin have long permeated deeply in Vietnamese. [4] If we block out all the possible vocabularies of Chinese origin from the modern Vietnamese, it is doubtful that anyone can ever make a complete sentence intelligibly; or at the very least, their speech would sound rigid like archaic Chinese style 'wenyanwen' 文言文 - classical writing Chinese - not to mention all grammatical function words (虛詞), including prepostions, all of them from Chinese. [4] Inevitably, the Chinese influence steadily found its way into all arrays Vietnamese and left strong marks permanently on it so that words from basic linguistic stratum - distinguishable from the core indigenous remnants originated from the proto-Taic forms as pointed out earlier - to an upper overly scholarly vocabulary stock, all used by the Vietnamese widely in all walks of daily life up to the present time. [4] It is probably that those Chinese words creeping into the Vietnamese vocabulary could probably have appeared in some form of vernacular Mandarin, which is a recurring phenomenon similar to what is still going on at present time. [4] " (Doctrine of Buddhism on. ) since the 15th century, Annam's creation of Nôm characters (ChữNôm 𡨸喃, the Vietnamese sound of 字南 Z"Nán) that imitated the Chinese ideographic block writing system with modifications to transcribe native and local sounds, such as indigenous strange placenames or Sinitic-Vietnamese variants of ancient Chinese words, pushed the Nôm literature up to another level as it flourished from the 16th century onward. [4] With respects to Chinese dialectal variants and Vietnamese as one but hundreds of years ago when ancient Annam was still a Chinese prefecture, analogously, it is useful to paint a depictive picture of today's English, the official one along with the 'Californian English'. [3] The Chinese informed that since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, and the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident. [3] The month 11 of the Chinese year must contain the Winter Solstice, so it is not the month from 11/23/1984 to 12/21/1984 like in the Vietnamese calendar, but the one starting 12/22/1984. [4] It never occurred to them that, nevertheless, ancient Taic or Yue languages might be ancestral roots of all languages, probably including Chinese and Mon-Khmer languages as well, depending on how to look at each them, like Vietnamese. [4] For the theory on tonality they would side with Haudricourt's theorization and argued that the ancient Annamese was originally toneless simply because it was a Mon-Khmer language, and it is only that Vietnamese has been dressed up with plenty of Chinese vocabularies with generous tones that mark up its vocabulary. [4] In her case, specifically, despite the fact that her culture and national language are so deeply sinicized that what the Vietnamese and the Chinese both commonly share is so similar. [3] From the mainstream of mystic Chinese theories regarding the Vietnamese ancestry, with an act of altruism and a cooler head in distinguishing the Chineese people from the Chinese government and those national extremists, we all shall benefit in dealing with Chinese entities. [3]

To account for such underlying antagonistic sentiment against China let us take a look at the relationship between the Vietnamese and Chinese under the periscope of their rising conflicts in the South China Sea. [3] Multivariate comparisons using cranial and dental metrics demonstrated close affinities of the Man Bac people to later early Metal Age Dong Son Vietnamese and early and modern samples from southern China including the Neolithic to Western Han period samples from the Yangtze Basin. [4] Like what had commonly recurred in many countries across continents, the racial transformation of people from several different racial stocks in ancient China went through the same process that would later repeat with the Han migratory movenment south who mixed with the native people and begot the Vietnamese people. [3]

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