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The Renaissance (Europe, 14th Century - 16th Century)

The Renaissance (Europe, 14th Century - 16th Century)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • The Renaissance is usually considered to have begun in the 14th century in Italy and the 16th century in northern Europe.(More...)
  • ‘Rebirth’) Period of European history lasting roughly from the mid-l5th century to the end of the 16th century.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897) in his The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries.(More...)
  • The Renaissance, a movement that stressed the ideas of the classical world, ended the medieval era and heralded the start of the modern age in Europe.(More...)
  • Medieval Europe bequeathed a legacy to the Renaissance and beyond that continues to influence our thought, art, institutions, and culture.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
The Renaissance is usually considered to have begun in the 14th century in Italy and the 16th century in northern Europe. [1] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS The 'Golden Age' as many call it, is believed to be the time in which Europe has finally started to enter the 'Modern Age.' The Southern Renaissance (in Italy) began during the 14th century while the Northern Renaissance is believed to have started during the 16th century. [1] The Renaissance was a cultural movement that began in Italy in the 14th century, and spread to the rest of Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. [1]

The Renaissance refers to the era in Europe from the 14th to the 16th century in which a new style in painting, sculpture and architecture developed after the Gothic. [1]

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS The Renaissance is a time period in European history from roughly the late 14th century CE through 16th century CE, characterized by new wealth, education, warfare, religious fervor and an incredible production of art. [1] The style of painting, sculpture and decorative arts identified with the Renaissance emerged in Italy in the late 14th century; it reached its zenith in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, in the work of Italian masters such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. [1] The cultural, intellectual and artistic movement of the Renaissance, which saw a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, began in Italy around the 14th Century, and gradually spread across most of Europe over the next two centuries. [1] This Greco-Roman cultural foundation has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, art, and architecture of the modern world: From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries. [1]

The Renaissance was a period of outstanding artistic and cultural output that was born in Italy at the end of the 14th century, and swept across Europe over the next 300 years. [1]

The Middle Ages, or Medieval Ages, of Europe began roughly with Charlemagne and ended in the Renaissance in the 16th century. [1] Renaissance thinking spread to the rest of Europe from the early 16th century, and was influential for the next hundred years. [1] The Renaissance ideals spread to the rest of Europe in the 16th century, and contributed to the Protestant Reformation, in which Christian congregations withdrew from the Roman Catholic Church. [1]

The main thesis of the book is that for the first time in centuries, Italian society, between the 14th and 16th century, encouraged individualism and this directly led to the Renaissance. [1] The word Renaissance is derived from a French word that means rebirth, and most commonly refers to the phase of European history between the 14th and 16th Century that signified a new age and revival of the classical art and intellect of Ancient Greece and Rome. [1]

The Southern Renaissance began during the 14th century while the Northern Renaissance was believed to have started during the 16th century. [1]

This bundle contains 17 ready-to-use Renaissance worksheets that are perfect for students to learn about the period from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern history which started a cultural movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe. [1] The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. [1]

Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and on other factors). [1] Renaissance : A cultural movement from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy and later spreading to the rest of Europe. [1] The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. [1] Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance Provides details on all aspects of the Renaissance in 14th to 17th century Europe. [1]

The Renaissance was a period of artistic and cultural growth in Europe from the 14th through 16th centuries. [1] The Renaissance spread across Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the flowering of art, philosophy, music, and the sciences, under the joint patronage of royalty, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church, and an emerging merchant class. [1] Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. [1]

The Renaissance style came directly from Italy during the Quattrocento to Hungary first in the Central European region, thanks to the development of early Hungarian-Italian relationships - not only in dynastic connections, but also in cultural, humanistic and commercial relations - growing in strength from the 14th century. [2] Although musicologists typically group the music of the Trecento (music of the 14th century) with the late medieval period, it included features which align with the early Renaissance in important ways: an increasing emphasis on secular sources, styles and forms; a spreading of culture away from ecclesiastical institutions to the nobility, and even to the common people; and a quick development of entirely new techniques. [1] The term " Renaissance" was first used in the late 14th century by Italian scholars who saw themselves as the vanguard of a period of improved conditions. [1] Italy - Origin of the Renaissance period, in the late 14th century England - The Elizabethan Period (1558-1603), which was part of the Tudor era (1485-1603) marked the height of the English Renaissance. [1]

By contrast, the Great Italian Wars of the early 16th century allowed Renaissance ideas to spread to France as its armies invaded Italy repeatedly over a 50-year period. [1] European art of the 16th century was marked by the spread of Renaissance culture and ideas from Italy through the rest of the continent, resulting in a number of new styles. [1] Though many years have passed at this point from the time of the early Renaissance movement, by the late 16th century, artists like El Grecco and Caravaggio were painting in the style known as Mannerism. [1] Still others argue for the inclusion of the old periods Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation into a single period beginning in late antiquity and ending in the second half of the 16th century. [1]

Surveys the rediscovery and growing influence of classical Greek learning in Italy from the 14th century to the beginning of the 16th century. [1] The Khanate of the Golden Horde and its successor khanates from the late 14th century until their conquest by Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th century. [1] The Majapahit dynasty began to decline in the late 14th century, however, and it most likely fell early in the 16th century, when the last vestige of Indo-Javanese rule was destroyed by the followers of Islam. [1] As for your Asian examples, Japan's Nanboku-chō period started in the 14th century, and its Sakoku Edit was issued in the 16th century. [1] The 14th century pie is very different from the 16th century pie, entirely due to the other ingredients. [1] In the 14th century until the early 16th century, Majapahit managed to control and unify the nation. [1] Catholicism entered in 14th century, while Protestantism entered in 16th century. [1] Follows the debates on imitation from Dante, Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio in the 14th century to Pietro Bembo in the early 16th century. [1]

Northern Europe, being distant from Italian Renaissance influence and often wary of its Catholic associations, adopted a distinctly Northern architectural language developed during the 16th century, one not influenced by classical forms based on antique Greek and Roman precedents. [1] Renaissance Europe had considerable cultural and intellectual unity, greater than it had in the centuries of the Middle Ages or would again until the European Economic Union of the late twentieth century. [1] KEY TOPICS A second group views the Renaissance as the first two to three centuries of a larger era in European history usually called early modern Europe, which began in the late fifteenth century and ended on the eve of the French Revolution (1789) or with the close of the Napoleonic era (1815). [1] Among the topics covered are Italian culture and society in the 14th-15th centuries; the concept of the Renaissance; intellectual and religious themes of the Reformation; the emergence of the basic forms of the modern state; developments in warfare and international relations; the political and ideological polarization of Europe after Luther; the "general crisis’ of the mid-17th century. [1] Readers who have paid close attention to the varying timelines of each epoch's development across Europe will have realized already that the Renaissance was particularly slow to spread as most countries were just reaching the prime of their Gothic styles when the Renaissance had already taken hold of Italy for almost a century. [1] From about the eleventh century (centuries before the Renaissance), judicial courts in continental Europe drew upon the law codes of ancient Rome as models for the development of complex legal systems. [1] By the fifteenth century, when the Renaissance was just pulling Europe from the Middle Ages, the islands of Java and Sumatra already had a thousand-year heritage of advanced civilization, spanning two major empires. [1] Among the many who found themsevles challenged by this worldview, Francesco Petrarca, a scholar and poet, would emerge as "the single greatest influence on the love poetry of Renaissance Europe until well into the seventeenth century," as Michael Spiller put it. [1]

There is a consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, in the 14th century, most likely due to the political structure and the civil and social nature of the city. [1] There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Tuscany in the 14th century. [3] The Renaissance (late 14th century to mid 17th century) helped contribute to medical discoveries because people began to stray from traditional practices and began to conduct their own experiments. [1] The 14th century was a time of transition from medieval art into the Renaissance. [1] When thinking about European art, it's easy overlook the art of the 14th century (the 1300s) because it usually gets overshadowed by the most famous art movement in European history, the Renaissance. [1]

While the north was just coming into its renaissance in the 16th century, the Italians were moving on to other styles of art. [1] The Renaissance ideals of harmony and proportion culminated in the works of Italian artists Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo in the 16th century. [1] I think Baxandall’s work was fantastic for really taking on that High Renaissance moment-- particularly the 15th to early 16th century, predominantly Italian, art--and asking readers to start by thinking about the significance of paintings in that culture. [1]

The High Renaissance (roughly the first two decades of the 16th century) and Mannerism are the movements most often associated with this period. [1] The first two decades of the 16th century witnessed the harmonious balance and elevated conception of High Renaissance style, perfected in Florence and Rome by Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo. [1] The Polish Renaissance lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and was the Golden Age of Polish culture. [2] Venus of Urbino Titian (Venice, Northern Italy) 1538; 16th Century (High Renaissance) Oil on canvas Motif of the female nude resurrected. [1] In the Renaissance Italy of the early 16th Century, Bologna University in particular was famed for its intense public mathematics competitions. [1] It has to be noted that after this somewhat adulterated 16th century initiation to the Renaissance style there would emerge a very prominent figure who would define a most harmonious classical English style -- Inigo Jones (1573-1652). [1] Spain's approach to the Renaissance style, called Plateresque, was mostly dominated by incorporating certain motifs into its rich and decorated Gothic style, a practice that would persist throughout most of the 16th century, especially with regard to ecclesiastical buildings. [1] Erasmus (1466-1536) and More (1478-1535) are usually often considered late Renaissance writers, but I put them in my lecture on 16th century reformers--where they also belong. [1] In the last years of the 15th century and gaining significant momentum in the 16th century, the rights of women were to be crushed almost out of existence for almost 400 years by the religious zeal and dogma of the "Renaissance", the "Enlightenment", and the industrial revolution. [1] North of the Alps, Renaissance ideals culminated in the work of Albrecht Dürer in the early 16th century, and Germany became a dominant artistic centre. [1] They established an academy that emphasized drawing from life and looked to inspiration from Titian and other Renaissance masters, restoring the naturalism and classical balance of the early 16th century. [1] Renaissance humanism flourished in the early 16th century, with influential writers such as philosopher Juan Luis Vives, grammarian Antonio de Nebrija or natural historian Pedro de Mex'a. [1] It got its name in the mid 16th century from a poem by a Renaissance scholar: its eponymous hero Syphilus, a shepherd, enrages the Sun God and is infected as punishment. [1] Mona Lisa Leonardo Da Vinci 1503-1505; 16th Century (High Renaissance) Oil on wood Use of Sfumato. [1] David Michelangelo 1501-1504; 16th Century (High Renaissance) Marble Sculpture Use of naturalism and classicism. [1] School of Athens Raphael 1509-1511; 16th Century (High Renaissance) Fresco Use of Classicism. [1] Marriage of the Virgin Raphael 1504; 16th Century (High Renaissance) Oil on wood. [1] Gabrielle d’Estrées, mistress of the French King Henry IV. 16th century, Renaissance. [1]

This does not fully explain why the Renaissance occurred specifically in Italy in the 14th century. [2] The other key, a Renaissance period type, likely dating to the 15th.-16th. century, though the bid looks more like 14th. century. [1] Etched into a hillside in southern Tuscany, the stunning town of Cortona was, in the late 14th century, home and workplace of early Renaissance painter Fra’Angelico. [1] The Renaissance began during the 14th century or mid-1300s. [1] Accounts of Renaissance literature usually begin with the three great poets of the 14th century: Dante Alighieri ( Divine Comedy ), Petrarch ( Canzoniere ) and Boccaccio ( Decameron ). [1]

Those who lived before AD1500 obviously did not use the term "Middle Ages" for their own time; the concept of "Middle Ages" or "Dark Ages" was coined in the 17th century, when Europeans often regarded the enlightened ideals of Ancient Greek and the Roman Empire to have been lost with the fall of Rome in the 5th century, and revived in the 14th to 17th centuries; the word renaissance (Italian: rinascimento ) means "rebirth". [1] Century: 16th Scientist/artist: Ulisse Aldrovandi Originally appeared in: Aldrovandi collection Now appears in: Eye for Detail by Florike Egmond Renaissance naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi paid an extraordinary amount of attention to monsters, even by the standards of his own monster-obsessed time. [1] Though the spirit of the Renaissance in Italy was crushed in the mid-sixteenth century, the ideas and ideals of Renaissance thinkers maintained their vibrancy, traveling over the alps to northern Europe where, following Italy's lead, learning, writing, and the arts experienced a great revival in support and importance. [1] The Renaissance was a period of European history that began in 14th-century Italy and spread to the rest of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. [1] Renaissance humanism was a European intellectual and cultural movement which began in Florence, Italy, in the last decades of the fourteenth century, rose to prominence in the fifteenth century, and spread throughout the rest of Europe in the sixteenth century. [1] The cultural phenomenon called the Renaissance began in Italy during the fourteenth century and spread throughout much of Europe by the end of the sixteenth century. [1]

In the 15th century, the Renaissance spread with great speed from its birthplace in Florence, first to the rest of Italy, and soon to the rest of Europe. [1] The Renaissance was born in Florence and spread throughout Europe by the middle of the Fourteenth Century to the Sixteenth Century with the aim of recovering the classical antiquity as a model of the natural man and his earthly values. [1]

The Italian Renaissance marked a period of great cultural change in Europe that took place between the 14th and 16th centuries. [1] The Renaissance, which took place between the 14th and 17th centuries, was a period of cultural and artistic flourishing across Europe. [1]

Originally the term characterized the bulk of the Middle Ages, or roughly the 6th to 13th centuries, as a period of intellectual darkness between extinguishing the "light of Rome" after the end of Late Antiquity, and the rise of the Italian Renaissance in the 14th century. [1] Though various forms of condom-like contraception had been used prior to the Italian Renaissance (scholars have pointed out use of condoms crafted from animal organs in both Ancient Rome and late 14th century China ), most concede that it was physician and anatomist Gabriele Fallopio that came up with the design for a more modern condom. [1]

The Renaissance ( UK : / r ɪ ˈ n eɪ s ən s /, U.S. : / r ɛ n ə ˈ s ɑː n s / ) was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. [1] The period between the year 1000 and 1300 is known as the High Middle Ages, during which the population of Europe experienced significant growth, culminating in the Renaissance of the 12th century. [1]

Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. [2] By the late 16th century Italy was the musical centre of Europe. [1] Other Italian composers of the late 16th century focused on composing the main secular form of the era, the madrigal : and for almost a hundred years these secular songs for multiple singers were distributed all over Europe. [1] In the 16th century, Antwerp gradually overtook Bruges as the leading art center and the wealthiest city in Europe, attracting talented painters such as Quentin Massys and Jan Gossaert. [1] Humanism then became the dominant intellectual movement in Europe in the 16th century. [1] By the end of the 16th century the battle of Reformation and Counter-Reformation had commanded much of Europe ’s energy and attention, while the intellectual life was poised on the brink of the Enlightenment. [1] Emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, and French and English settlers in the 17th century. [1] As the 16th. century drew to a close, Eastern Europe was dominated by two super powers - Poland in the north and the Ottoman empire in the south. [1] Prior to the 16th century plague had spread all over Europe and devastated many populations. [1]

By the 14th century the firearm and cannon could also be found in Europe, India, and the Islamic Middle East, during the early age of gunpowder warfare. [1] In the middle of the 14th century, the Black Death swept across Europe, killing perhaps a third of the population. [1] In the 14th century, a series of disasters shook Western European civilization to its foundations, eventually forcing major changes in Europe. [1] Because of the peace and general prosperity during the 13th century, Europe was overpopulated during the first part of the 14th century. [1] Europe did indeed suffer disasters of war, famine, and pestilence in the 14th century, but many of the underlying social, intellectual, and political structures remained intact. [1] Popular was this story in medieval Europe that we arrive at the irony of the figure of Josaphat, this name a corruption of "bodhisattva’, being canonized, by the 14th century, and worshipped as a saint in the Catholic church. [1] The 14th century plague known as the Black Death is thought to have killed up to 60 percent of the population in parts of Europe. [1] Mid 14th century, most devastating natural disaster in european history, ravaging europes population by 20-50%. [1] While sugar was available in Europe in the 14th century, it was extremely scarce in England and the cost was extremely prohibitive, and even King Henry III had trouble obtaining sugar. [1] The Great Famine of the early 14th century was particularly bad: climate change led to much colder than average temperatures in Europe from c1300 - the "Little Ice Age’. [1] The decline of feudalism was happening all over Europe by the 14th century. [1] In the 14th century, cubeb was imported into Europe from the Grain Coast, under the name of pepper, by merchants of Rouen and Lippe. [1] Two great natural disasters struck Europe in the 14th Century. [1]

POSSIBLY USEFUL Silk, another important textile used during the Medieval Age, was not manufactured in any significant quantity in Europe until much later (16th century). [1] By the beginning of the 16th century, feudalism had already ended in most parts of the Europe. [1] Inequality in Europe grew considerably during the 16th century and stayed high until the 20th century - the rich grew richer from soaring land rents while the poor paid higher prices for food, housing and land. [1]

The Srivijaya Empire of Sumatra (7th to 14th Centuries), the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java (14th to 16th Centuries), and then the Muslim states (following the 16th Century) held control over Kalimantan at different points of time. [1] Therefore, for a more complete list of names in use in the 16th century, you should also contact the lists name first occurances from the 14th and 15th centuries. [1] Not much is known about political developments in Cambodia during the 14th to 16th century. [1] The progressive introduction of paper in the 14th, 15th and 16th century (17th in England) also made writing much cheaper (parchment was made of fine leather and was very expensive). [1] Extant 15th-17th century carpets, as well as depictions of carpets in 14th, 15th, and 16th century artwork. [1] At the opulent Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice’s historic gallery, you’ll find Venetian masterpieces dating from the 14th to 16th century by the likes of Bellini, Titian and others. [1]

Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture offers unparalleled coverage of all aspects of art and architecture from Medieval Western Europe, from the 6th century to the early 16th century. [1] Wool was imported from Northern Europe (and in the 16th century from Spain) and together with dyes from the east were used to make high quality textiles. [1]

The third major work we need to mention is The Decameron (Il Decamerone), a collection of 100 tales embedded in a framework story written by Petrarca's friend Giovanni Boccaccio, written in response to the Black Death epidemic that struck Europe in the 14th century, which we mentioned in our article on Gothic architecture and political change in Northern Europe. [1] The concept of cosmetics as "face paint" did not really begin to resurface in Northern Europe until the 14th century. [1] In the 13th century Japan and Western Europe repelled invasion by the Mongol Empire, but China was conquered by them until establishment of the Ming Dynasty in the 14th century. [1] Historians estimate that between one-fourth to one-half of Europe's population died in the 14th century. [1]

"re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. [1]

From the 14th to 16th centuries, Italy experienced a Golden Age, known as the Renaissance, with wondrous feats of art and science, as well as intrigue and conflict. [1] The Renaissance was a period of wealth, education, war, religion and most importantly, art, from the 14th through 16th centuries CE. The materials and techniques of Renaissance art gave it a distinct style and meaning. [1] One time when we saw this is in the Renaissance, the period of intellectual and artistic growth from the 14th through 16th centuries. [1] Scope is the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries, during which time the pivotal events of the Renaissance and Reformation occurred, irrevocably changing the future's course. as well as general interest topics such as the role of women, drawing, families, food and cookery, literacy, libraries, and travel. [1]

The Renaissance inadvertently led to the violent sectarianism of the Wars of Religion that tore apart Europe periodically in the 16th and 17th centuries. [1] In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europe experienced an intellectual and economic revival, conventionally called the Renaissance, that laid the foundation for the subsequent expansion of European culture throughout the world. [1] The 15th and 16th centuries in Europe are known as the "rebirth" or "Renaissance" of human creativity. [1] Over the course of the 15th and 16th centuries, the spirit of the Renaissance spread throughout Italy and into France, northern Europe and Spain. [1]

Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. [1] According to Peter Barrett, "It is widely accepted that 'modern science' arose in the Europe of the 17th century (towards the end of the Renaissance), introducing a new understanding of the natural world." [1] Renaissance Europe inherited the Julian calendar of ancient Rome, which was ten days in arrears by the sixteenth century. [1]

Italian Renaissance costumes 16th century 16th and 17th century. [1] Other accounts trace the end of the Italian Renaissance to the French invasions of the early 16th century and the subsequent conflict between France and Spanish rulers for control of Italian territory. [1]

The main lists of names in this article were collected from Guido Ruggiero, Violence in Early Renaissance Venice, which takes its data primarily from 14th and early 15th Century Venetian records. [1]

Elizabeth of England and Philip 2 of Spain were 2 of Europe's most famous monarchs in the second half of the 16th century. [1] The apparent prosperity of the 16th century gave way in the middle and late periods of the 17th century to a "general crisis" in many European regions. [1] Due to the collapse of the Kamakura government, this time period until contact with Europeans in the 16th century in Japan was an Age of Civil Wars. [1] In the 16th century, the history of Bali started to be marked by Western influence with the arrival of Europeans, to become, after a long and difficult colonial period under the Dutch, an example of the preservation of traditional cultures and a key tourist destination. [1] The Middle Ages was a period of approximately one thousand years of history; generally accepted as spanning from the fall of the Roman Empire (toward the end of the 5th century) to the Protestant reformation in the 16th century. [1]

Over much of its 700 years of documentable history, the island has been part of some larger entity, including: the kingdom of Srivijaya (modern day Sumatra, seventh to 13th century), the kingdom of Sukothai (modern-day Thailand, late 14th century), the Melaka Sultanate (1400 to 1510) and the Johor Sultanate (1511 to 1819), the British Empire (1867 to 1963), and independent Malaysia (1963 to 1965). [1] Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, which was a rising power until it was replaced by Sultanate of Aceh. [1] Champa disappeared in the 14th century from History after many centuries of fight with the kingdom of Annam which was the advanced post of Chiense culture. [1] If we accept the establishment of Hinduism from the Taruma Kingdom in the 4th century, and was supplanted peacefully by Islam in the 14th century, Hinduism has had an indelible influence on the culture of Indonesians for 10 centuries before the establishment of Islam. [1] The War of the Sicilian Vespers had by the early 14th century divided southern Italy into an Aragon Kingdom of Sicily and an Anjou Kingdom of Naples. [1] The period is mostly associated with Italy where it originated from in the 14th century. [1] Kathmandu Valley : "until 14th century and the arrival of the Mallas, which is an important period for the flourishing of Nepalese art and architecture. [1] Influenced by Confucianism, the Ming Dynasty in China started a long period of isolationism in the 14th century, which hurt its ability to include outside ideas in cultural and technological progress. [1]

Excellent book about all major European political, social, cultural and religious trends and events marking the 16th century as one of the most revolutionary, seminal, disruptive, highly fascinating periods of European history. [1] At the turn of the 16th century, especially in Northern Italy, artists also began to use new techniques in the manipulation of light and darkness, such as the tone contrast evident in many of Titian's portraits and the development of sfumato and chiaroscuro by Leonardo da Vinci and Giorgione. [1] At the end of the 16th century Italy again became a center of musical innovation, with the development of the polychoral style of the Venetian School, which spread northward into Germany around 1600. [2] By far the most famous composer of church music in 16th century Italy was Palestrina, the most prominent member of the Roman School, whose style of smooth, emotionally cool polyphony was to become the defining sound of the late 16th century, at least for generations of 19th- and 20th century musicologists. [1] From the early 15th century to the middle of the 16th century, the center of innovation in sacred music was in the Low Countries, and a flood of talented composers came to Italy from this region. [1] I t was later, during the late 15th century, that the northern cities of the Chao Phraya Plain, Sukhothai among them, started a gradual process of merging, that lasted possibly decades, with the important port- city, paving the way for the glorious Ayutthaya capital of Siam Kingdom, in the 16th century. [1] From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali, Lombok and Borneo. [1] In the 2nd century until the 16th century has been established kingdoms Hindu-Buddhist, first in Java, then in Sumatra and Kalimantan. [1] By the start of the 16th century, with Malaccan Sultanate in the Malay peninsula and parts of Sumatra, the Sultanate of Demak in Java, and other kingdoms around the Malay archipelago increasingly converting to Islam, it had become the dominant religion among Malays, and reached as far as the modern day Philippines, leaving Bali as an isolated outpost of Hinduism today. [1] Starting in the middle of the 16th century, the kingdom came under repeated attacks by the Taungoo Dynasty of Burma (a remaining portion of the Khmer Empire. [1] Since the middle of the 16th century, Europeans were eager to gain a foothold in South East Asia to control the spice trade and to spread Christianity. [1] From France the spirit of the age spread to the Low Countries and Germany, and finally to England and Scandinavia by the late 16th century. [1] Chinese porcelain reached Spanish America in the late 16th century via the first Manila galleons. [1] During the 16th century the Portuguese established the first European colony in Southeast Asia by defeating the Malacca Sultanate. [1] Accounts of 16th century European explorers make mention of a city called Kalapa, which apparently served as the primary port of a Hindu kingdom of Sunda. [1] Historically the area was identified as Mataram, it was the center of both Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom in the 8th to 10th centuries, and later Mataram Sultanate in the 16th century. [1] Nyai Roro Kidul - Origin and History. mostly linked to 16th century Javanese Mataram Sultanate, the older manuscript traced her legendary origin to the era of Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran. the Queen of Southern Seas as the protector and spiritual consort of the kings of Mataram Sultanate. [1]

The Development of Protestant Christianity in Indonesia began during the Netherlands colonial period (VOC), around 16th century. [1] By the early 20th century, Indonesia began a movement for independence which grew particularly large between World Wars I and II and Japan occupied Indonesia during WWII. Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans--the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British--sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' of Indonesia. [1] Following the 16th century Italian Wars, the Italian states lost their cultural and economic dominance, and some of them were conquered by foreign empires, such as Spain and France, with the Ottomans wresting control of some of their possessions in the Eastern Mediterranean. [1] Some time after the decline of Majapahit, probably in the early 16th century, Bali came under the dominance of a royal family based in the town of Gelgel, who created an empire encompassing not just Bali but parts of Lombok, Sumbawa and the eastern peninsula of Java. [1] With the rise of Islam in the Indonesian archipelago, the Majapahit Empire in Java fell and Bali became independent near the turn of the 16th century. [1] Although Muslims had been present in the court of Majapahit, Demak was the first major Muslim state in Java, and its military campaigns in eastern Java during the first half of the 16th century were intended not only to assert its hegemony but to spread allegiance to Islam. [1] Islam was first established in Indonesia sometime during the 12th century and, through assimilation, supplanted Hinduism by the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. [1] Islam however, arrived in Indonesia in the 12th century and by the end of the 16th century, it replaced Hinduisim as the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra. [1] The earliest evidence of Islamised populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra ; other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam which became the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. [1] By the 16th century, it was the dominant faith in Sumatra and Java, mixing with existing cultural and religious beliefs, creating a Muslim faith particular to Indonesia. [1] In the fourth century to the seventh century in the West Java region there are Hindu Buddhist Kingdom of Tarumanagara who continued with the Sunda Kingdom until the 16th century. [1] In the 4th century until the 7th century in West Java, there are Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that is patterned Tarumanagara kingdom, followed by Sundanese kingdom until the 16th century. [1]

At times they reached a form of unity as the United Seventeen Provinces in the 16th Century, and later the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in the 19th Century. [1] The glory of the Kingdom ended in the early 16th century, when the King Louis II of Hungary was killed in the battle of Mohács in 1526 against the Ottoman Empire. [1]

In the 14th century, as Srivijaya Empire faded, the island was taken by first the Majapahit Empire from Indonesia, and then the Ayutthaya Kingdom from Thailand. [1] Although the historicity of the accounts as given in the Malay Annals is the subject of academic debates, it is nevertheless known from various documents that Singapore in the 14th century, then known as Temasek, was a trading port under the influence of both the Majapahit Empire and the Siamese kingdoms inside Indosphere of Greater India. [1] In the 14th century, a senior minister of Majapahit Empire Adityawarman founded the Malayapura Kingdom centered near Tanjungemas and presided over the central Sumatera region, most likely to control the local gold trade. [1] Prior to the founding of 14th century Majapahit Empire, Javanese kingdoms were primarily agriculture based. [1] The kingdom of Hungary experienced a golden age during the 14th century. [1] From the 7th to the 14th century, Srivijaya, a Buddhist Kingdom grew on Sumatra and at its peak it spread from West Java to the Malay Peninsula. [1] Similarities with the Java language only due to the influence of the Java language's vocabulary since the conquest of Bali by the Kingdom in Java, especially in the 14th century by Gajah Mada. [1] Jakarta was a small harbor town when the last Hindu Kingdom of Java, Kingdom of Pajajaran, was ruling in 14th century. [1] By the 14th century, eastern Java saw the rise of the Hindu Kingdom Majapahit and its chief minister from 1331 to 1364, Gadjah Mada, was able to gain control of much of what is present-day Indonesia. [1] The 14th century also witnessed the rise of a Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit in East Java. [1] When Islam became ascendant on Java in the 14th century through trade with the Arabs, kingdoms were sporadically established around the country with the king being called a sultan. [1] By the middle of the 14th century Majapahit controlled most of Java, Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, part of Borneo, the southern Celebes and the Moluccas. [1] By the middle of the 14th century, however, the Javanese empire of Majapahit claimed suzerainty over the whole of Sumatra and over the peninsula as far north as Langkasuka. [1] Founded at the end of the 14th century by Parameswara, a prince from the declining Srivijaya empire in Sumatra, it became one of the largest entrepot in Southeast Asia by the beginning of the 15th century. [1] The Hoysala Empire from the invasions of the Sultanate of Delhi circa 1318 until its dissolution circa 1346, and then the Vijayanagara Empire as its successor until its consolidation of power in southern India in the late 14th century. [1] One assemblage included 127 objects from the 9th to 13th century, including Yue celadon of the 9th or 10th century, 135 objects from the 13th to early 14th century, and 1,627 sherds from the late 13th and 14th centuries, including Jingdezhen blue and white and Cizhou wares. [1] Later the plains of Central Thailand was dominated by Sukhothai in the 13th century and later Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 14th century. [1] The kingdom of Srivijaya, from the 3rd till 14th century, had one of the strongest economies in the world at the time, due to its control and immense power in the trading routes of South East Asia. [1] Although it is believed that the name Singapura replaced Temasek some time in the 14th century, there is basically only one record which give some detail on the kingdoms of Singapura - the Malay Annals written during the heyday of Melaka and re-compiled in 1612 by the Johor court. [1] Pannai, Panai or Pane is a Buddhist kingdom existed around 11th to 14th century located on east coast of Northern Sumatra. [1] The Khmer and Sukhothai people, who were Hinayana Buddhist, later governed the Srivijaya Kingdom and in the 14th century AD the kingdom was annexed as part of Krung Sri Ayutthaya. [1] By the 14th century, most of the power of Sri Vijaya Kingdom waned and Sumatra came under the direct control of Javanese rulers. [1] During the 7th century until the 14th century, Buddhist kingdom of Sriwijaya in Sumatra growing rapidly. [1] The term Bangaladesa is used to describe the region in 11th century South Indian records, the modern term Bangla is prominent from the 14th century, which saw the establishment of the Sultanate of Bengal, whose first ruler Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was known as the Shah of Bangala. [1] Since early first millennium CE, Hindu and Buddhist empires like Gangga Negara (2nd to 11th century), Langkasuka (2nd to 14th century) and Srivijaya (3rd to 14th century) have ruled the region. [1] Through the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires, Hindu influence has been visible in the Philippine history from the 10th to 14th century. [1] Although the historicity of the accounts as given in the Malay Annals is the subject of academic debates, it is nevertheless known from various documents that Singapore in the 14th century, then known as Temasek, was a trading port under the influence of both the Majapahit Empire and the Siamese. [1] This summarises the position cm the South East Asian mainland until about the 12th century.Meanwhile, from about the 6th century, and until the 14th century, there was a series of great Maritime empires based on the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java. [1] By the 14th century, the empire of Srivijaya had already declined, and Singapore was caught in the struggle between Siam (now Thailand) and the Java-based Majapahit Empire for control over the Malay Peninsula. [1]

The 14th cent. through the 16th cent. was a period of economic flux in Europe; the most extensive changes took place in Italy. [1] Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe. [2] Two Thousand Years of the Modern Era in Eastern Europe Part 3: 14th to 16th Centuries - Turkish Advances. [1]


‘Rebirth’) Period of European history lasting roughly from the mid-l5th century to the end of the 16th century. [1] In architecture, the huge profits of the spice trade financed a sumptuous composite style in the first decades of the 16th century, the Manueline, incorporating maritime elements. [2] The gothic style and medieval scholastic philosophy remained exclusively until the turn of the 16th century. [2] The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time, by the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of India who were not Turks or Muslims. [1] Indo-Javanese architecture, produced from the 3rd to the 16th century, includes such monuments as the gigantic stupa of Borobudur ( c. 800; designated a World Heritage site in 1991) and the temple of Mendut; the Buddhist temple Sewu (9th century); the magnificent Shiva temple Prambanan (9th century); the holy bathing places of Jalatunda (late 10th century) and Belahan (mid-11th century); and the round Hindu temple of Jabung ( c. 10th century). [1] The archipelago was called the East Indies from the late 16th century and it is still sometimes referred to as such, but broader usages of the East Indies term had included Indochina and the Indian subcontinent. [1] A number of Javanese ports in eastern Java thus broke away completely from the moribund Majapahit empire in the early 16th century. [1] Islamic sultanate semikin then spread his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replacing the Hindu as a major confidence at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. [1] The principal state of the east coast was Kutai, a Malay kingdom in the Mahakam river basin which converted to Islam in the 16th century. [1] According to local folktales and the Carita Pahrayangan manuscript written in the 16th century, the kingdom was ruled by Queen Shima in 674 CE. She was famous for legalizing a law against thievery and her passion for truth and justice. [1] The strains between Christian faith and Classical humanism led to Mannerism in the latter part of the 16th century. [4] Josquin des Prez, drawing by Joris van der Straeten, 16th century. [4]

Only after the fall of Srivijaya (an officially Buddhist Indonesian state) in the 14th century did Islam spread widely throughout the region, and by the 15th century powerful Muslim dynasties such as the Malacca Sultanate had been established. [1] Of the minangkabau but it is assumed that they rose from the southern reaches of the srivijaya, a buddhist kingdom in sumatra, around the 14th century by. [1] Majapahit is last great Hindu kingdom in Indonesia at 14th century. [1] After its eventual fall in 14th century AD, some kingdoms were established in South Sumatra. [1] A leading example was the French kingdom, ruled by the Capetian dynasty from 987 until the early 14th century. [1] Indian influence between the 8th and 14th century produced a number of small Shaivite-Buddhist kingdoms. [1] The construction was started around 1120 CE and completed in 1150 CE. During the early 14th century, Halebidu was sacked and looted by Muslim invaders from northern India and the temple fell into a state of ruin and neglect. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(31 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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2. (83) Renaissance - Wikipedia

3. (20) Unique Facts About Europe: The Renaissance

4. (20) Topic: Europe 1300-1699: Renaissance | CosmoLearning History

5. (14) Renaissance | Definition, Meaning, & Facts | Britannica.com

6. (12) The Legacy of the Middle Ages in the Renaissance and Beyond: Digital Collections for the Classroom

7. (11) Humanity Bloomed During the Renaissance

8. (8) The Renaissance Period Facts, Information & Worksheets | Lesson Plans

9. (7) The Renaissance | Boundless World History

10. (7) European Tapestry Production and Patronage, 1400-1600 | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

11. (7) Built in the 14th century - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports

12. (7) 14th Century Art: Overview & Themes | Study.com

13. (6) Late Medieval Disaster

14. (5) science - Why did Renaissance come first only in the Europe? - History Stack Exchange

15. (4) The Renaissance in Italy: 14th-16th Centuries | Art Essay

16. (4) 14th-17th Centuries - British Society for the History of Paediatrics and Child Health

17. (4) Renaissance Art and Architecture | Oxford Art

18. (4) 10 dangers of the medieval period - History Extra

19. (3) Political Thought - Renaissance and Reformation - Oxford Bibliographies

20. (3) European Renaissance (14th-17th century) - IMDb

21. (3) Renaissance 16th 17th centuries | Environmental history timeline

22. (3) The Best Books on The Renaissance | Five Books

23. (2) Northern European 15th-16th centuries

24. (1) 16th Century Art | Artsy

25. (1) Renaissance Flute

26. (1) 16th Century Mathematics - The Story of Mathematics

27. (1) History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery

28. (1) 1500s - Evolution of Medicine in Europe

29. (1) The Middle Ages (14th, 15th, 16th Century) | Raymonds Quiet Press

30. (1) PLAGUE AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN RENAISSANCE EUROPE

31. (1) 14 best Italian Renaissance (14th century - 16th century) images on Pinterest | Italian renaissance, Artworks and Fresco


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