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Sailendra History (8th & 9th Centuries)

Sailendra History (8th & 9th Centuries)

C O N T E N T S:

  • The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the 7th to 11th centuries was dominated by Srivijaya based in Sumatra, also Sailendra that dominated central Java and constructed Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world.(More...)

  • Probably, the sailendras were merged with the Srivijaya kingdom of Sumatra in the fourth century A.D. By the end of the eighth century, the empire spread to Malaya peninsula, One of the kings sent an expedition to Java.(More...)


The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the 7th to 11th centuries was dominated by Srivijaya based in Sumatra, also Sailendra that dominated central Java and constructed Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. [1] The greatest of the Indonesian Muslim kingdoms, Mataram, was founded in 1581 in the area of Java where the Sailendra and Sanjaya kingdoms had flourished centuries earlier. [2] In central Java in the 8th and 9th centuries, the Buddhist Sailendra kingdom and the predominantly Hindu Sanjaya (or Mataram) kingdom constructed the great temple complexes of Borobudur and Prambanan respectively. [2] The Borobudur was built over a period of some 75 years in the 8th and 9th centuries by the kingdom of Sailendra, out of an estimated 2 million blocks of stone. [2] Located 25 miles from northwest of Yogyakarta city on Java Island, build the kingdom of Sailendra between 8th to 9th centuries. [2] Srivijaya : From the 7th to 13th centuries Srivijaya, a maritime empire centered on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, had adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism under a line of rulers from Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa to the Sailendras. [1] Sailendras were of foreign origin, either from South India or from Indo-China, and ruled Sumatra and Java from the 8th through the 13th centuries. [2]

Mahajanapada - A Mahājanapada is one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth centuries BCE to fourth centuries BCE. Two of them were most probably ganas i. e. republics, the 6th century BCE is often regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history. [2] Throughout most of their shared history, ancient India and Indonesia enjoyed friendly and peaceful relations, therefore this Indian invasion is a unique event in Asian history; in 9th and 10th centuries, Srivijaya maintained close relations with the Pala Empire in Bengal, and an 860 Nalanda inscription records that Maharaja Balaputra of Srivijaya dedicated a monastery at the Nalanda university in Pala territory. [1] Most of its history from the 6th to 13th centuries, Sumatra was dominated by Srivijaya empire. [2]

The history of Angkor as the central area of settlement of the historical kingdom of Kambujadesa is also the history of the Khmer kingdom from the 9th to the 13th centuries. [2] Champa disappeared in the 14th century from History after many centuries of fight with the kingdom of Annam which was the advanced post of Chiense culture. [2] Interestingly, and somehow ironically considering the extremely turbulent political scene that these countries experienced in later centuries, both the Kingdom of France and the Roman Republic rank amongst the most politically stable forms of governments in history. [2] Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. Indonesia's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and China, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. [1] The site at Sisupalagarh, occupied from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD, has been identified with Tosali, the provincial capital of Ashoka, and with, the capital city of Kalinga after it regained independence early in the 1st century BC. The history of the following centuries is complex. [2] A prince of Kalinga named invaded Ceylon with a fleet carrying 24,000 soldiers and ruled the island from 1214 to 1235 AD. Later history Between the 11th and 16th centuries CE, the name Kalinga was gradually replaced by Odra Desa, Uddisa and eventually Orissa. [2] For four centuries these kings ruled Ayutthaya, presiding over some of the greatest period of cultural, economic, and military growth in Thai history only disrupted when the Burmese army invaded the city. [2] Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change. [2] This area of Indonesia and time in historyCentral Java during the 8th and 9th centuries CEare particularly fruitful and revealing with regards to both women in Buddhism and the history of the Bhikkhunī Sangha. [2] Indonesia now is a melting pot of over 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries and influenced by all the cultures that have been present in Indonesia throughout its rich and diverse history: Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European. [2] They were written down many centuries later, long after the "Vedic Age", but much of what we know about this period of ancient Indian history is as a result of the faithful word-of-mouth transmission of the Vedas from one generation to another. [2] Scholars generally agree that the literature belongs to the first few centuries of the common era although they still dispute the internal chronology of the literature, leaving us without a connected account of the history of the period. [2] Little is known about Indonesia’s early history, but historians believe that as early as the first few centuries A.D. trade on the Strait of Malacca helped to create economic and cultural links among China, India, and the Middle East. [2] The Sanskrit script was based on the Aramaic alphabet, which came to India from the Middle East some time before 500 BC. One of the greatest linguists in world history flourished sometime in the following centuries. [2]

The political history of Indonesia during the fourteenth and fifteen centuries is not well known due to scarcity of evidence. [2] A lack of historical evidence has meant the political history of Indonesia in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is unclear. [2]

Indonesia history - 670-1375 - srivijaya the mahayana buddhist sailendra dynasty ruled the sri vijaya / srivijaya kingdom of srivijaya controlled the trade of. [1] Dynasty history Saylendra Ruler Ancient Mataram Kingdom, the term Sailendra dynasty was first found in Indonesia in the year 700 Saka Kalasan inscription (778 CE).Then this term appears also in the inscription of the village Kelurak Saka year 704 (782 AD). [2] Furthermore Casparis tried holding nets reconstruction Mataram state history to the 9th century AD The foundation anggaan that since there are two medieval 8 ruling dynasty king of kings, the Sailendra dynasty originating from Fu-nan, and adherents of Mahayana Buddhism, which successfully conquered the king of kings of the house of religious Sanjayaang Shiva. [2] It has been a significant location in Central Javanese history for over a millennium, as it contains traces of the Sailendra dynasty as well as Borobudur, during colonial Dutch East Indies period, the Kedu Plain belonged within the Kedu residency administration. [2] History By late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya. [2] The Sailendra were adherents of Mahayana Buddhism, the religion which inspired them to embark on one of the most ambitious building programmes known to history. [2] In the ensuing chaos, Singharari collapsed, Kertanegara was killed, but the Mongols were successfully driven out - making the Indonesians one of the few peoples to resist a Mongol onslaught - and the king's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya, established the Majapahit kingdom in 1293 AD. One of the most famous Buddhist kingdoms in Indonesian history is Sailendra (750-850 AD). [2] This great Buddhist relic was built by the Sailendra dynasty between 750 and 850 AD, and ranks with Cambodia's Angkor Wat in importance to world culture and history. [2] The established version of history holds that the Sailendra dynasty existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty in Central Java, and much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation. [2] History Sailendra dynasty ended in 850, when Srivijaya Balaputradewa fled to the country of origin which is his mother. [2]

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries) Tarumanagara (358-723) Sailendra (8th 9th centuries) Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579) Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045) Pagaruyung Kingdom Kediri (1045-1221. [2] The Borobudur was constructed over a duration of some 75 years in the 8th and 9th centuries by the kingdom of Sailendra, from approximated 2 million blocks of stone. [2] In the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Java observed rivalries between two dynasties, the first four Sanjaya Dynasty lines after King Sanjaya (Panangkaran, Panunggalan, Warak and Garung), which was known as the Amrati Kings, competed over their power and religious influences with the Sailendras princes in the south of central Java who had arisen since 779. [2] An Old Melayu inscription found at Sojomerto on Java mentions Dapunta Selendra, an 'ardent Saivite', whom Boechari believes to have been the founder (vamsakara) of the Sailendras, one of the powerful families that governed central Java from the second half of the eighth to the first half of the ninth centuries. [2] The Mataram kingdom, that was ruled by the Sailendra clan during the 8th and 9th centuries was located in Central Java. [2] In the 8th to 9th centuries, the Sailendra dynasty that ruled Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom built numbers massive monuments in Central Java, includes Sewu and Borobudur temple. [2] Borobudur was built by the Sailendra Dynasty kings in the 8th and 9th centuries, around that time that Charlemagne ruled Europe. [2]

It was built by Sailendra dynasty between the 8th and 9th centuries coinciding witht the first major period of architectural activity on Java. [2] The Borobudur Temple Compounds is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, and was built in the 8th and 9th centuries AD during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. [2] Borobudur, a Buddhist temple about 42 km northwest from the city,was constructed in the 8th and 9th centuries during the Sailendra dynasty, and is believed to have taken 70 years to complete. [2]

Buddhist art in Indonesia reached its golden era under the Sailendra dynasty of the Sri Vijaya Empire between the 8th and 13th centuries. [2] The Sailendra dynasty is said to hark back indirectly to India by being cousins to the Chandella dynasty, which left numerous monuments in India between the 7th and 8th centuries (most notably, the Khajuraho temples). [2] These temples are located in a straight "line", and is believed to have been built in the 8th-9th centuries in the Sailendra dynasty. [2]

The Prambanan temple complex was barely completed when, for reasons which are still not fully comprehended, Central Java all but vanished from the records of history for about five centuries. [2] Began the long line of Kambuja princes and also the famed Angkorean period in Cambodian history which was to reach to glorious heights in the succeeding centuries. [2] Most local trading polities selectively adopted Indian Hindu elements of statecraft, religion, culture and administration during the early centuries of the common era, which marked the beginning of recorded history and the continuation of a characteristic cultural development. [2] For centuries, Borobudur had been buried in the darkness of history. [2] It ruled for four centuries and is considered a golden age in Chinese history. [2] For Pallava history in the 5th and 6th centuries we have Sanskrit title-deeds which give the names of several Pallava princes. [2] The history prior of the 14th and 15th centuries is not well known due to scarcity of evidence. [2] The site was abandoned mysteriously in the 15th century, but rebuilt in the 19th and 20th centuries into a monument to Indonesian history and culture, as well as the continuing influence of Buddhism in the world today. [2] Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. [2]

The Sailendras controlled central Java during the 8th & 9th Centuries. [3] The Sailendra dynasty reached its zenith in Indonesia during the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. [2]

The unit focuses on Buddhist art and architecture created during the reigns of the Sailendra kings of Java (8 th -9 th century), King Jayavarman VII of Cambodia (the Khmer ruler of the late 12 th and early 13 th centuries), the Pagan rulers of Myanmar (11 th -14th centuries), and the Ayutthaya rulers of Thailand (1351-1767). [4]

Probably, the sailendras were merged with the Srivijaya kingdom of Sumatra in the fourth century A.D. By the end of the eighth century, the empire spread to Malaya peninsula, One of the kings sent an expedition to Java. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL Fossilised remains of Homo erectus and his tools, popularly known as the Java Man, austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, are thought to have originally been from Taiwan and arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished bringing Hindu, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties subsequently thrived and declined in inland Java. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL The most striking art form is the Srivijaya Art of Indian, Java and Sumatra Forms during the 8th-13th centuries AD. Especially in the 10th century AD when the Great King Raja governed the Jola Kingdom, he was in control of all the territories in southern India. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Bali Kingdom - The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. 9th century to Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th centuries, the culture, language, arts and architecture of the island was influenced by Java. [1] The name Labadius probably was derived from the Indian Sanskrit word Yavadvipa, the name that the natives of the Indian subcontinent first used to refer to the island of Java in religious texts that were written in the third century BCE. Archaeological digs in western Java have produced Chinese ceramics that date from the period of the Han dynasty that once ruled China during the opening centuries of the Common Era. [2] Classical period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230BCE. The Gupta Empire (4th-6th century) is regarded as the "Golden Age" of Hinduism, although a host of kingdoms ruled over India in these centuries. [2]

In the following centuries small Hinduized states arose in Java, the earliest known being the 5th century kingdom of Taruma, situated near present day Bogor in the western part of the island. [2] According to the earliest known inscription, dating from A.D.732, there was a Hindu king named Sanjaya, who united the kingdom of Java and whose descendants are recorded in inscriptions for the following two centuries. [2] Centuries before the time of Majapahit, there was already a kingdom with Hindu culture in southern Bali at the era of ancient Mataram, between 600-1000 AD. Pejeng and Bedulu as the center of the kingdom with the king from the descendant of Warnadewa. [2] That said, however, there have been instances where Hindu kings have conquered other kingdoms outside of India, most notably in Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the 10th - 11th centuries. [2] Majapahit empire, the last Indianized kingdom in Indonesia, based in eastern Java, existed between the 13th and 16th centuries. [2] The Srivijaya Empire of Sumatra (7th to 14th Centuries), the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java (14th to 16th Centuries), and then the Muslim states (following the 16th Century) held control over Kalimantan at different points of time. [2] The islands of Sumatra and Java in western Indonesia were the seat of the Sri Vijaya Empire (8th-13th centuries), which practiced Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism and were a major political and cultural influence in the Southeast Asian peninsula. [2] Buddhism entered Java in the early 5th century, by which time Java had already been in commercial contact with Bengal and Southeast India for several centuries. [2]

In the 9th century Jayavarman II, who had been educated at the indianized Sailendra kingdom of Java, became ruler of the Khmers and introduced the cult of the devaraja (divine king) which identified the person of the king with the Hindu deities Shiva and Vishnu. [2] This ended the Sailendra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler. [2] Shortly after they lost control of Java the Sailendras reappeared on the throne of Srivjaya and remained in power there until the 13th century This ended the Sailendra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler. [2]

Whatever the reason for the move, an eastern Javanese empire Javanese empire prospered in the 10th Century and actually attacked and occupied Srivijaya for two years 990-A.D. Sailendra - The Shailendra dynasty was the name of a notable Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java whose reign marked a cultural renaissance in the region. [1] The Shailendra dynasty ( IAST : Śailēndra derived from Sanskrit combined words Śaila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain", also spelled Sailendra, Syailendra or Selendra ) was the name of a notable Indianised Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java whose reign marked a cultural renaissance in the region. [2]

Shailendra dynasty, also spelled Sailendra, or "ailendra, Indonesian Śailendra, or Sjailendra ("Lord of the Mountain"), a dynasty that flourished in Java from about 750 to 850 after the fall of the Funan kingdom of mainland Southeast Asia. [2]

According to an 11th century inscription found in northwest Cambodia and a report from an Arab merchant, Jayavarman II spent some time in the court of the Indonesian Sailendras kingdom and may have originally arrived in Indonesia as a prisoner. [2] Little is known about the kingdom due to the dominance of the Sailendra, who during this period constructed Borobudur, a Buddhist monument Candi Mendut, Central Java, Indonesia The Buddhist temple of Candi Mendut is located about 3km (2 mi) east of Borobudur, and dates from the same period (c. 800 AD, reign of Sailendra Indra). [2] In the Malay Archipelago it had a rival in Sailendra, another thalassocracy centered on Central Java, and after the latter's fall in 852, in the Kingdom of Mataram, also centered on Central Java " Patrons of Buddhism, the Sailendras during the height of their power in central Java constructed impressive mounuments and temple complexes, the best known of which is the Borobudur on the Kedu Plain" (K.R. Hall, 1985:109). [2] In the Malay Archipelago it had a rival in Sailendra, another thalassocracy centered on Central Java, and after the latter's fall in 852, in the Kingdom of Mataram, also centered on Central Java With the construction of the world's largest Buddhist temple, Borobudur and Hindu temple, Prambanan by the kingdom of Sailendra as the result. [2]

During the early eighth century, the state of Mataram controlled Central Java, but apparently was soon subsumed under the Buddhist Sailendra kingdom. [2]

Other than trade and agriculture, the Sailendra Kingdom also had numerous artisans that worked in the temple, like Borobudur, commissioned by the rulers The Sailendras built the massive temple monument of Borobudur in the mid-9th century. [2] In the 8th -9th century, the Sailendra Dynasty of the Mataram kingdom in Central Java built the magnificent Buddhist Borobudur temple in Central Java, this was followed by the construction of the elegant Hindu Prambanan Temple built by the Civaistic king Rakai Pikatan of the Sanjaya line. [2] Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple of ancient Java, and the construction of this royal temple was probably started by Rakai Pikatan as the Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty's answer to the Buddhist Sailendra Dynasty's Borobudur and Sewu temples nearby. [2]

The temple-building activity has decreased since the era of King Balitung in scale, quality and quantity, and yet the Eastern Java period of Medang kingdom leave no tangible traces of any temple structure comparable to those of the previous Central Javanese Sailendra era. [2] Bali was already a colony of the Central Javanese kingdom of Mataram, the earliest recorded ruler of which was, according to Stutterheim, King Sandjaya or Sanjaya (AD 732) of the Sailendra dynasty, who ruled also over southern Sumatra. [2] While Central and Eastern Java was dominated by a kaleidoscope of competing agrarian kingdoms including the Sailendras, Mataram, Kediri, Singhasari, and finally Majapahit. [2] Their alliance and intermarriage with Srivijayan ruling family resulted with the merging of two royal houses, with Sailendra n finally emerge as the ruling family of both Srivijaya and Medang Mataram (Central Java). [2]

The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur, by 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and later of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. [2] Insight Indonesia is Indonesian prehistory and early history, Pre-Colonial civilization, Kingdom of Mataram, Srivijaya empire and Sultanate of Mataram. [2] KEY TOPICS Economic history of Indonesia - The colonial state would be succeeded by Indonesian Republic after the World War II. Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara and Mataram were dependent on rice yields and this foreign contact was started by small Indianised trading kingdoms in the early 4th century that nurtured contacts with other major civilisations in Asian mainland, India and China. [2] Our formal history book tell us that the oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia was Kutai Kingdom di East Kalimantan, 4 century AD. But when we find a new site which is predicted to be older than 4 century AD, most of the time we identified it as as Hindu sites. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL Majapahit kingdom is the kingdom of the last Hindu-Buddhist master of the Malay Peninsula and is regarded as one of the greatest country in history unfolds Indonesia.Kekuasaannya in Java, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulu Archipelago, Manila (Saludung), east to Indonesia, although the power is still being debated. [2] Early history • 350-400 - Kutai - the Martadipura phase - earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia • 5th century: Stone inscriptions in west Java announce decrees of Purnavarman, king of Tarumanagara. • 683: Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa performed Siddhayatra as the journey to expand his influence. [2] Islam in Southeast Asia In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Malay Archipelago, the Chola Navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman, Kadaram (Kedah), an important fortified city in the Malayan peninsula was sacked and the king was taken captive. [2] The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. [2] The city of Angkor served as the royal centre from which a dynasty of Khmer kings ruled one of the largest, most prosperous, and most sophisticated kingdoms in the history of Southeast Asia. [2] The Classic Age of Ancient India roughly corresponded, in the chronology of world history, to that of Ancient Greece 700 BC to 350 BC. Under a line of kings of the Nanda dynasty (reigned c. 424-322 BC), the kingdom dramatically expanded, to cover a large part of northern India. [2] Such ideas were emphasised more strongly in the new teachings of Jainism and Buddhism, which both also had their origins in ancient India, in the years around 500 BC. Period of Maurya Empire: Ruling India in between the time of 322 BC and 185 BC, the Maurya Empire is regarded as the first main kingdom in the ancient history of India who was geographically extensive as well as politically powerful. [2] The different kingdoms were often at war with one another, and echoes of these violent times can still be heard in one of the greatest epics of ancient India, the "Mahabharata", which has come down to us from this period of history. [2]

Chinese records tell us that a Hinduised kingdom of Palembang existed in Sumatra in the 5th century A. D. A learned French savant, M. CrodGs, has made a most remarkable contribution to our knowledge of the ancient history of Further India by identifying Palembang with Shrivijaya, the San-fot-si of the Chinese. [2] The ancient kingdoms of Singapore and Palembang are no myth; the latter, at least, must have played a great part in history. the accounts of Chinese trade with Sumatra that the kingdom of Palembang was a powerful State, certainly as far back as the year 900 AD, perhaps even as far back as the year 450 AD. There are even the names (often mutilated beyond recognition by Chinese transcribers) of a large number of the old kings of Palembang. [2]

The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671 CE, and states that it was "absorbed" by Srivijaya by 692 CE, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua. [2] Kuning is preparing to exhibit a body of work that focuses on the history and culture of the nomadic communities along the coasts of Indonesia's Riau Islands Province, as well as on historical figures such as Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasathe first maharaja of the Southeast Asian kingdom of Srivijaya, which was founded as early as 200 BCE and dissolved in the fourteenth century. [1] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300. 2nd Edition, Stanford: Stanford University Press. [1] Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch) who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, so then Portuguese East Timor and master retreat (since 1515). [1] History Exist before 17th Century of Kutai kingdom to show the social class of Dayak tribe. jaunt nguku wore by mantiq (noble/ king) waniq ngelukng wore by marantikaq (commoners) Weaving ulap Doyo or Cain ulap Doyo is an art weave cloth of the tribe of Benuaq in Cape Isuy, District Kutai, Samarinda, East Kalimantan. [2] Nyai Roro Kidul - Origin and History. mostly linked to 16th century Javanese Mataram Sultanate, the older manuscript traced her legendary origin to the era of Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran. the Queen of Southern Seas as the protector and spiritual consort of the kings of Mataram Sultanate. [2] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS We don't have "Kingsdoms of Sumatra" or "Javanese Kingdoms", why should this be different? Furthermore because its a grouping of "kingdoms" over a very long time period it doesn't belong in the pre-Islam history section. ( Caniago ( talk ) 16:25, 11 February 2008 (UTC)) At first time I saw the term "Kingdoms of Sunda" eases us to enter into articles about kingdoms in this Sundanese/West Javanese area. [2] The new history of the T'ang dynasty mentions a kingdom of the name of Kalinga in Central Java and describes embassies which came from this kingdom and from Bali in the period 637-649. [2] The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, the Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history. [2] It was a busy shipping lane and the international nature through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyad dynasty in Western Asia Sunanto 7.Musyrifah century, History of Civilization Islamic Indonesia, 2005, Rajawali Press, pp. 8-9; Suryanegara Ahmad Mansur, Discovering History, 1998, cet. [1] Thank you Rinpoche and Valencia sharing this interesting article on the history of 3 main Buddhist Kingdoms in Indonesia: Kalingga, Medang and Srivijaya. [1] Palembang is the oldest city in Indonesia, and has a history of being the city of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, a powerful Malay kingdom. [2] Among the great maritime trading empires of history, the Kingdom of Srivijaya, based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, ranks among the wealthiest and most splendid. [2] Over much of its 700 years of documentable history, the island has been part of some larger entity, including: the kingdom of Srivijaya (modern day Sumatra, seventh to 13th century), the kingdom of Sukothai (modern-day Thailand, late 14th century), the Melaka Sultanate (1400 to 1510) and the Johor Sultanate (1511 to 1819), the British Empire (1867 to 1963), and independent Malaysia (1963 to 1965). [2]

Indonesia History By the time of the Renaissance, the islands of Java and Sumatra had already enjoyed a 1,000-year heritage of advanced civilization spanning two major empires. [1] Indonesia's History Indonesia has a long history that began with organized civilizations on the islands of Java and Sumatra. [2]

Both Indonesia's colonial and republican governments have favoured Hindu and Buddhist sites in Java in their allocation of resources for excavation and preservation, with less emphasis on the early history of Islam in Indonesia. [2] I knew that Indonesia, especially Java, had a very rich Buddhist history but I had never read a detailed overview of this history before reading this post. [2]

They originate from various areas in Java dating from the 7th to the 15 th century, the Hindu-Buddhist period in the history of the Indonesian archipelago. [2] With the fall of the Gupta empire in the 6 th century, no state has been able to win control of much of the subcontinent for any length of time; this stage in India's history has been characterised by the emergence of powerful regional kingdoms. [2] Kuninda Kingdom - The history of the kingdom is documented from around the 2nd century BCE. They are mentioned in Indian epics and Puranas, the Mahabharata relates they were defeated by Arjuna. [2] The Prince Banawa then submitted his crown to Sutawijaya and thus ended the history of Kingdom of Pajang in 1586, when Sutawijaya founded the greatest Islamic kingdom in Java: Mataram Sultanate. [2] This kingdom is the kingdom of the first in the area of West Java ever recorded by history. [2] Historians place the rise of the first major period of Ancient Egypt's history, known as the Old Kingdom, at around 2686 BC and say that it lasted until 2134 BC. It was during this period that the first pyramid was built by Djoser and Cheops built the Great Pyramid which is the only remaining seven wonders of the ancient world. [2] King Sanna and Sanjaya also known in Carita Parahyangan, a book from later period which mainly tell the history of Pasundan ( Sunda Kingdom ). [2] The century following the death of Jayavarman I, the last known king of the kingdom, in the second half of the 7th century, was a dark period in the history of Chenla. [2] Reference to the Sri Lankan materials, king Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja is one of Javakan kings from Tambralinga kingdom, one the kingdoms in the prehistory period of Thai history, who had invaded Sri Lankan in 1247. [2]

The history of the kingdom of Singhasari commences with the probably mythic account of Ken Arok, who founded his dynasty c. 1182 AD. By 1280 the Singhasari had erased the last vestiges of Srivijaya, but had drawn the attention of emperor Kublai Khan. [2] Little physical evidence of Sunda kingdom remains, and most parts of West Java history is remain unclear. [2] In the following course of human history, several kingdoms existed on Java. [2] The history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is also part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava (the land of Java ), and the classical Javanese civilisation. [2] To give you a teaser as to why, a complete history of Indonesia would require talking about the Sudanese Indianised Tarumanagara (4th 7th Century) in Java, Kallinga Kindgom (6th 7th Century) and its successeors the Javanese Hindu-Budddhist Medang Kingdom (8th-10th Century). [2] Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java") a generic name for a large number of manuscripts, in which the first Javanese conversions are attributed to the Wali Sanga ("nine saints"). [2] According to the Babad Tanah Jawi (or the History of Java ), the monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a rebel who revolted against Pakubuwono I, the king of Mataram in 1709. [2]

The first king of Mataram was Sri Sanjaya, who drove the Sailendras from Java and left inscriptions in stone. [2] The Sailendra, with their strong connections to Srivijaya, managed to gain control of Central Java and become overlords of the Rakai (local Javanese lords), including the Sanjayas, thus making the Sanjaya kings of Mataram their vassals. [2] The Khmer king, Jayavarman II, was mentioned to have spent years in the court of Sailendra in Java before returning to Cambodia to rule around 790 CE. Influenced by the Javanese culture of the Sailendran-Srivijayan mandala (and likely eager to emulate the Javanese model in his court), he proclaimed Cambodian independence from Java and ruled as devaraja, establishing Khmer empire and starting the Angkor era. [2] Because of that conversion, the later series of Sailendra kings who ruled Medang become Mahāyāna Buddhists also and gave Buddhism royal patronage in Java until the end of Samaratungga's reign. [2] In Medang there is two dynasty the Sanjayas ruled northern parts of Java, while Sailendras ruled in southern Java, the daughter of Sailendra Maharaja Samaratungga named Pramodhawardhani married Rakai Pikatan of Sanjaya, that succeeded his father inlaws throne. [2]

At its peak the Sailendra kingdom ruled the eastern two-thirds of Java, Bali, Lombok, coastal areas of Kalimantan, southern Sulawesi, and the Funanese successor state of Water Chenla. [2] The Sailendras maintained close relations with Srivijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years. [2] Coedes suggested that the move to East Java was probably in response to the Buddhist Sailendras. : 79,90 This theory is inline with the one proposed by J.G. de Casparis which suggests, that the shift of capital city eastward was to avoid a Srivijaya invasion from Sumatra. [2]

Inscriptions talek of Sailendra rule over Sumatra, java and the Malay peninsula by theend of the thirteenth century A.D. As a naval power the Sailendras continued till the 12th century. [2] Outside Indonesia, the name Sailendra is to be found in the Ligor inscription (775) on the Malay peninsula and the mid-9th century Nalanda inscription. [2] The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which the dynastic name Sailendra appears is the Kalasan inscription of central Java, dated 778 AD, which commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine for the Buddhist goddess Tara. [2] Bosch in his book "Srivijaya, de Sailendravamsa en de Sanjayavamsa" (1952) suggested that the Buddhist Sailendra and the Shivaist Sanjaya dynasty (the Mataram kingdom) ruled Central Java together The Canggal inscription (A.D. 732) states that Sanjaya was an ardent follower of Shaivism. [2] Despite its economic, cultural and military prowess, Srivijaya left few archaeological remains in their heartlands in Sumatra, in contrast with Srivijayan episode in Central Java during the leadership of Sailendras that produced numerous monuments; such as the Kalasan, Sewu and Borobudur mandala For certain period, Sailendras ruled both Central Java and Sumatra. [2] Despite its economic, cultural and military prowess, Srivijaya left few archaeological remains in their heartlands in Sumatra, in contrast with Srivijayan episode in Central Java during the leadership of Sailendras that produced numerous monuments; such as the Kalasan, Sewu and Borobudur mandala In Thailand, the Srivijayan art was associated with Javanese art and architecture, which probably demonstrate the Sailendra influences over Java, Sumatra and the Peninsula. [2]

The Sailendras were active promoters of Mahayana Buddhism and covered the Kedu Plain of Central Java with Buddhist monuments, including the world famous Borobudur During his administration, he initiated the construction of a massive Buddhist monument Borobudur, Samaratungga married Dewi Tara, the princess of Srivijayan ruler Dharmasetu, which created close political alliance between the Sailendras and Srivijaya. [2]

After 832 AD the Hindu dynasty of Sanjaya began to reunify central Java and soon reappropriated the Buddhist monuments built by the Sailendra. [2] Arab historians described the 8th century AD dynasty of Java as originating from Kalinga, and said that Sailendra was also powerful in Cambodia and Champa (Annam). [2] The Sailendra (or officially Sailendravamça) is the name of an influential Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java. [2] An alternate theory, proposed by Poerbatjaraka, suggests there was only one kingdom and one dynasty, the kingdom called Medang, with the capital in the Mataram area (thus the name of the kingdom: "Medang i Bhumi Mataram" ), and the ruling dynasty being the Sailendra. [2] From Sumatra, the Sailendras also maintained overseas relations with the Chola kingdom in Southern India, as shown by several south Indian inscriptions. [2] In the field of foreign affairs, the Sailendra commanded great prestige in its neighbors and other Buddhist Kingdoms as far as India. [5] During the late ninth century, when Srivijaya monarchs donated sleeping quarters for monks at the Buddhist pilgrimage site of Nalanda in northern India, they emphasized their Sailendra lineage, indicating that the Sailendras had more prestige among the Buddhist community. [2] In the middle of the eighth century, central Java was under the rule of the Sailendra kings who were Buddhists. [2] According to the Casparis in Java early first ruling dynasty king king yangberagama Shiva, but after the arrival of the king of Na-na-fu was the behrasil conquer it, then in Central Java, there are two kings of the house of the king, the Sanjaya dynasty who are Shiva, and the pendtang the later call themselves religious Buddhist Sailendra. [2] It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java, established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty Ancient Mataram Kingdom ruled by the dynasty that two Buddhist Sailendra dynasty and Hindu Sanjaya dynasty early Syiwa.Pada Ancient Mataram era, Sailendra dynasty quite dominant in Java center.Menurut historians, Sanjaya dynasty was initially under the control of the Sailendra dynasty. [2]

The agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties subsequently thrived and declined in inland Java. [2] On neighboring Java, the Buddhish Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined, leaving behind vestiges of grand religious monuments such as Sailendra’s Borobudur and Mataram’s Prambanan. [2]

Shortly after they lost control of Java the Sailendras reappeared on the throne of Srivjaya and remained in power there until the 13th century The Sailendras appear to have had access to ports on the northern coast of Java, and after the formation of Srivijaya in southern Sumatra, the Sailendra maintained close relations, including marriage alliances with Srivijaya. [2] Shortly after they lost control of Java the Sailendras reappeared on the throne of Srivjaya and remained in power there until the 13th century The khmer King, Jayavarman II, was mentioned to have spent years in the court of Sailendra in Java before returning to present day Cambodia, around 790 CE, to establish the Khmer empire. [2] INDIA AND JAVA that the Sailendra king had with the Chola kings at the time of Rajaraja. [2] Boechari tried to reconstruct the early stage of Sailendra based on Sojomerto inscription, while other historians such as Slamet Muljana and Poerbatjaraka tried to reconstruct the list of Sailendra n king in middle and later period with their connections to Sanjaya and Srivijaya, based on inscriptions and Carita Parahyangan manuscript. [2]

In the late ninth century Srivijaya was ruled by a Buddhist Sailendra ruler, while Java was ruled by Pikatan and his successors who patronized Siva" (cf. De Casparis, 1956; Hall, 1985:111). [2] The Mahayana Buddhist Sailendra Dynasty ruled the Sri Vijaya / Srivijaya kingdom of early medieval Sumatra. [3]

In the administrative affairs, the Sailendra ruled over a decentralized kingdom. [5] Because the area ruled by Sailendra flourished in the central plains of Java, it did not had any complete access to the sea and ports. [5]

The Sailendras rose up and took over the Kingdom, making the Sanjaya Dynasty to go east. [5] The Sailendra ruled for decades until 825 when the Hindu Sanjaya returned. [5]

This text, we may conclude from the internal evidence gleaned from its pages, dates from the Majapahit period (14th and loth centuries A. D.) i. e., during the rule of the last Hindu kingdom of Java. [2] The classical period of Sanskrit literature dates to the Gupta period and the successive pre-Islamic middle kingdoms of India, spanning approximately the 3rd to 8th centuries CE. Hindu Puranas, a genre of Indian literature that includes myths and legends, fall into the period of Classical Sanskrit. [2] The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more, the Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. [2] This is an area where the Indian bhikkhunī sangha is said to have been established with the Aśokan Missions in the 3rd century BCE. From rock-cut cave temple-monastery inscriptions, it is known that Buddhists were active in the area from that time up through the early centuries of the Common Era. [2] The Chalukya Empire (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. [2] The Dutch ruled Indonesia for nearly three centuries, but by the turn of the 20th century, the Indonesians were more than ready for independence. [1] By the 14th Century, the Javanese (and Indonesians) were seduced to adopt Islam as the preferred form of worship and this spelt the decline of Buddhism (practised for 9 centuries) and Hinduism 10 centuries in Indonesia. [1] If we accept the establishment of Hinduism from the Taruma Kingdom in the 4th century, and was supplanted peacefully by Islam in the 14th century, Hinduism has had an indelible influence on the culture of Indonesians for 10 centuries before the establishment of Islam. [1] Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, which was a rising power until it was replaced by Sultanate of Aceh. [1]

The first institutionalized spread of Malay occurred during the Srivijaya Empire (seventh through fourteenth centuries AD) which used Malay as its official language. [3]

There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya even in Indonesia, Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to Sanfoqi, previously read as Sribhoja, and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire. [2] Although commonly referred to as Indonesia's first discovered state ("A political entity with defined boundaries, a central government with clear authority over the territory enclosed within those boundaries and to which the citizenry owned allegiance" A Short History Of Indonesia), Srivijaya was more of a confederacy, in that it was centred around the capital with vassal states surrounding it. [2]

The history of the Nalanda Mahavihara "falls into two main divisionsthe first, one of growth, development and fruition from the sixth century to the ninth, when it was dominated by the liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age; the second, one of gradual decline and final dissolution from the ninth century to the thirteentha period during which the Tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Palas. [2] It is during the period of Pallava ascendency that we meet with the first epigraphical monuments of Hindu influence in the Archipelago, In the history of the spread of Indian civilisation the Coromandel coast played an important part although the Indian emigrants did not come exclusively from that part of India. [2] In later Indian records, the Mauryan empire appears only as an entry in the long list of kingdoms that made up the vast and complex history of India; no special significance was attached to it. [2] The mightiest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia's ancient history was the Majapahit Empire. [2] The five tribes constituting the Yuezhi are known in Chinese history as Xiūm", Gu"shuāng, Shuāngmǐ, X"dn, the Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria around 135 BC. The displaced Greek dynasties resettled to the southeast in areas of the Hindu Kush, some traces remain of the presence of the Kushans in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana. [2] The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada it experienced what is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history, when its influence extended to much of southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. [2]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(22 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (189) Sailendra History (8th & 9th Centuries)

2. (32) Srivijaya History (Indonesia, 3rd Century to 14th Century)

3. (25) Sailendra Dynasty | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online

4. (25) Shailendra dynasty - WikiVividly

5. (21) HISTORY MY COUNTRY: History Saylendra Dynasty Rulers of the Ancient Mataram

6. (11) The Sailendra Dynasty: Builders of Borobodur, Agents of Buddhism | Searching in History

7. (5) Land-based Agricultural Kingdoms in Southeast Asia (Khmers, Saliendra…

8. (5) History in Indonesia - Lonely Planet

9. (4) Sailendra Dynasty | Atlantis in the Java Sea

10. (4) Indonesia History - 670-1375 - Srivijaya-Palembang

11. (3) Chapter 8

12. (3) Borobudur - building Borobudur

13. (3) Early kingdoms in Indonesia - Indonesia Fascination

14. (3) A List of Historical Time Periods to Take You Through the Past

15. (3) Indonesian Art | Boundless Art History

16. (2) What are the things that everyone should know about Indonesian history? - Quora

17. (1) Children and Youth in History | Hariti Relief Panel at Candi Mendut, Java [Bas-Relief]

18. (1) Bodhisattva Padmapani - Works - The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art

19. (1) Exploration and Conquest

20. (1) ARTH406: Buddhist Art

21. (1) Art for asian art history Flashcards | Quizlet

22. (1) Shailendra dynasty - Wikipedia

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