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Singhasari History (1222–1292)

Singhasari History (1222–1292)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • Most of Ken Arok's life story and also the early history of Singhasari was taken from the Pararaton account, which also incorporates some mythical aspects.(More...)
  • The Majapahit empire was the last of the major Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • The story of the founding of the Kingdom of Singhasari and the story of Ken Arok's life are intricately intertwined, and it is a famous story in East and Central Java, featured in The Legend of the Keris of Mpu Gandring.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
Most of Ken Arok's life story and also the early history of Singhasari was taken from the Pararaton account, which also incorporates some mythical aspects. [1] In 1268, Wisnuwardhana died, his throne as the king of Singasari was replaced by Kertanegara, in 1292 knowledge, Kertanegara defeated by a rebel named Jayakatwang, it ended Kertanegara power, ending the history of Singhasari. [2]

The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur, by 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and later of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. [3] There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya even in Indonesia, Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to Sanfoqi, previously read as Sribhoja, and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire. [3] Kutai - Kutai, is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on Borneo and also name of the native people on the region with a language of the correlating name and their history. [3] History of Indonesia - The history of Indonesia has been shaped by its geographic position, its natural resources, a series of human migrations and contacts, wars and conquests, as well as by trade, economics and politics. [3] Made and improved based on "Atlas Sejarah Indonesia dan Dunia" (The Atlas of Indonesian and World History), PT Pembina Peraga Jakarta 1996. [4] Miksic, John, 2004, " The Classical Cultures of Indonesia ’, in: Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood, Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, pp.234 - 256, United States of America and Canada: Routledge Curzon. [5] Its broad collections cover all of Indonesias territory and almost all of its history, the museum has endeavoured to preserve Indonesias heritage for two centuries. [3]

This has spurred the archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation, the history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is also part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava, and the classical Javanese civilisation. [3] The history of Singasari Kingdom has given birth to a legend of Kris (Javanese double-edged dagger) Mpu Gandring that is highly popular among the people of East Java. [6] Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains, and some details of the history are rather abstract, nevertheless, local Javanese people did not forget Majapahit completely, as Mojopait is mentioned vaguely in Babad Tanah Jawi, a Javanese chronicle composed in the 18th century. [3]

Much of Indonesian history took place on Java and it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. [3] The countrys strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history, the area of Indonesia is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures, ethnicities, and languages. [3] Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. [3] The comparatively short text of 32 folio-size pages (1126 lines) contains the history of the kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in eastern Java. [7]

The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada it experienced what is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history, when its influence extended to much of southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. [8] If you want to attend the Singosari history and the kingdom was in the eastern region of Java, please try the travel history to Candi Singosari Malang with friends or in family. [9] Famous history of the kingdom and the history Singosari until adjustment in many history books schoolchildren but what remains now? Remains of Ken Arok and Kingdom Singosari can be found on the attraction Singosari Temple. [9]

If you are looking for sites in Malang and surrounding areas, might be interested to try the travel history to Singosari Malang. [9] In an era of development, because the rate of population growth increased with the development of social culture that the higher the norms of a society that is governed by the order of government, the Village Pesanggrahan are divided into several smaller areas called " Hamlet " with a name that was also taken with the following history of the origin - origin of each hamlet. [10]

Pararaton ancient Javanese manuscripts that are written in the form of a fairy tale with a different form of writing history. [10]


The Majapahit empire was the last of the major Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history. [11]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
The story of the founding of the Kingdom of Singhasari and the story of Ken Arok's life are intricately intertwined, and it is a famous story in East and Central Java, featured in The Legend of the Keris of Mpu Gandring. [12] Ken Dedes - Ken Dedes, first queen of Singhasari, was the consort of Ken Arok, the first ruler of Singhasari, Java, Indonesia. [3] He effectively held power from 1254 and officially succeeded his father when the latter died in 1268, the Singasari dynasty had come to power in Java following the overthrow of the previous Kediri Kingdom by Ken Arok, the first Singhasari ruler in 1222. [3] Ken Arok rose from being a servant of Tungul Ametung, a regional ruler in Tumapel (present day Malang ) to becoming ruler of Java from Kediri, he is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of both the Singhasari and later the Majapahit line of monarchs. [3] Singhasari Government Center was in Tumapel, only after appearing Ken Arok who then killed Akuwu Ametung and married Ken Dedes, the center moved to Malang Kingdom, after defeating the Kingdom of Kediri. [3] Malang is also known as a region rich in potential including from agriculture, plantation and medicinal plants, when the kingdom under the leadership Akuwu Singhasari Ametung was married to Ken Dedes, the Kingdom was under the rule of the Kingdom of Kediri. [3]

Following the defeat of the Melayu Kingdom, Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca, Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediris rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. [3] In 1292, Duke Jayakatwang, a vassal king from the Kingdom of Daha (also known as Kediri or Gelang-gelang), prepared his army to conquer Singhasari and kill its king if possible, assisted by Arya Viraraja, : 199 a regent from Sumenep on the island of Madura. [1] Kertanegara was killed along with many courtiers in his palace in Singhasari in May or June 1292, Jayakatwang then declared himself ruler of Java and king of the restored Kediri Kingdom. [3] In the meantime, Kertanegara had dominated all of Java, but before the Mongol fleet arrived, Jayakatwang, prince of Kediri and one of Singhasaris most powerful vassals, rebelled against his overlord. [3] In the mean time, Jayakatwang, one of his vassal, Lord of Kediri, a fief of Singhasari, rebelled and killed Kertanegara with a surprise attack during a Holy Festival. [13]

In 1222, at the battle of Ganter he defeated Kertajaya of Kediri and founded the new kingdom of Singhasari. [13] Ken Arok later launched a campaign and succeeded to defeat Kertajaya, king of Kediri, Ken Dedes became his wife, the first queen of Singhasari. [3] Ken Arok was the first king of Singhasari, and true to the curse was killed by his son in law, Anusapati, using the keris of Mpu Gandring. [13] The victor, Prince Wijaya, son-in-law of Kertanegara, the last Singhasari king, then ascended the throne as Kertajasa Jayawardhana, the first king of the great Majapahit Empire, on 12 November 1293. [1] It was built to honor Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. [12]

The Kediri (Gelang-gelang) army attacked Singhasari simultaneously from both north and south, the king only realised the invasion from the north and sent his son-in-law, Nararya Sanggramawijaya, famously known as Raden Wijaya, northward to vanquish the rebellion. [3] Early 1293, the Mongol naval forces arrived on the north coast of Java (near Tuban ) and on the Brantas River mouth to flank what they thought was Singhasari. [1] Both Java (Singhasari) and Champa were worried about Mongol expansion and raids against neighbouring states, such as their raid of Bagan (Pagan) in Burma. [1] Indonesia is one of the few areas in Asia that thwarted invasion by the Mongol horde by repelling a Mongol force in 1293, as the centre of the Malayan peninsula trade winds, the rising power, influence, and wealth of the Javanese Singhasari empire came to the attention of Kublai Khan of the Mongol Yuan dynasty based in China. [3] The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara of Singhasari in the late 13th century, the expansionist king launched several major expeditions to Madura, Bali in 1284, Borneo and most importantly to Sumatra in 1275. [3] The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century by various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari, after Srivijaya fell, it was largely forgotten. [3]

Singhasari or Singosari is a kingdom in East Java, Indonesia, which existed in 1222 to 1292. [12] With the bulk of the Javanese army in campaign overseas and Singasaris defence weakened, Jayakatwang seized his chance and he launched a diversionary attack to northern East Java, where his troops drew the remaining Singhasari troops left on the island away from the capital. [3] With Kutaraja, the Singhasari capital defenseless, Jayakatwang attacked the city unnoticed from the mountainous southern region. [3]

The city was capital city of Singhasari in 1222, then transferred to Dutch colony, in 1879, Malang was connected to Javas railroad network, further increasing development and leading to increased industrialization. [3] Singhasari could be translated as "essence of lion" or "sleeping lion", although the lion is not an endemic animal of Java, the symbolic depiction of lions is common in Indonesian culture, attributed to the influence of Hindu-Buddhist symbolism. [3]

Singhasari reached the height of its power during Kertanegaras rule, which saw the expansion of Javanese power into Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula. [3] The Pamalayu expedition from 1275 to 1292, from the time of Singhasari to Majapahit, is chronicled in the Javanese scroll Nagarakrtagama. [1] By the early 20th century, Dutch colonial historians began to study old Javanese and Balinese literature to explore the past of their colony, two primary sources were available to them, the Pararaton manuscript was written in the Kawi language c. 1600, and Nagarakretagama was composed in Old Javanese in 1365, Pararaton focuses on Ken Arok, the founder of Singhasari, but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. [3] Singhasari was founded by Ken Arok, whose story is a popular children's tale in Central and East Java. [13]

Singhasari (alternate spelling: Singosari ) was mentioned in several Javanese manuscripts, including Pararaton. [1] Singhasari’s territory thus became Majapahit territory; in the year 1284, king Kertanegara made a hostile Pabali expedition to Bali, which integrated Bali into the Singhasari kingdom’s territory. [3] In the audition throne room of the Singhasari court, King Kertanegara humiliated the Khan by cutting and scarring Meng Ki's face, one of the Mongols' envoys (some sources even state that the king cut the envoy's ear himself). [1] In Kertanegara's reign, an embassy from the Mongol Khan, Kubilai Khan came to Singhasari and demanded submission. [13]

In the year 1275, the ambitious king Kertanegara, the fifth ruler of Singhasari who had been reigning since 1254, launched a peaceful naval campaign northward towards the weak remains of the Srivijaya : 198 in response to continuous Ceylon pirate raids and Chola kingdom's invasion from India which conquered Srivijaya’s Kedah in 1025. [1] Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. [1] He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of both the Singhasari and later the Majapahit line of monarchs. [1]

Having learned of the fall of the Singhasari capital of Kutaraja due to Kediri's treachery, Raden Wijaya tried to defend Singhasari but failed. [1]

Kertanegara of Singhasari - Kertanegara of Singasari, Kritanagara, or Sivabuddha, was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292. [3] Singhasari temple built as a mortuary temple to honour Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. [1] Historical heritage in the form of the temples is concrete evidence such as, Kidal Temple in Kidal Village, Singhasari Temple in the District of Singosari as the storage of Kertanegaras body ashes. [3]

The serene beauty of Prajnaparamita statue found near Singhasari temple is believed to be the portrayal statue of Queen Ken Dedes, wife of Ken Arok (the collection of National Museum of Indonesia ). [1]

Singhasari Singhasari was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292 (today Indonesia). [2] The island was in frequent conflict with the Javanese kingdoms, first Singhasari and then Majapahit. [8] The Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms both rose in eastern Java and assumed the territory of Srivijaya. [8] The Pamalayu expedition from 1275 to 1292, from the time of Singhasari to Majapahit, is chronicled in the Javanese scroll Nagarakrtagama, Singhasari’s territory thus became Majapahit territory. [2]

Ken Arok dynastys descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in the 13th century until the 15th century, in 1227, Anusapati kill Ken Arok. [2] Before the mongol had their revenge, Jayakatwang, king of Kediri, one of fief of Singhasari, rebelled and killed Kertanegara. [14] In Kertanegara's era, a messenger from Mongol Emperor, Kubilai Khan came to Singhasari and ordered Singhasari recognized the power of Mongol. [14]

This name is contained in at least one inscription, namely, in 1222, Ken Arok founded the Kingdom of Singhasari. [2] Singhasari was founded by Ken Arok, whose story is a folktale in Central. [2]

Singhasari could means the essence of lion or sleeping lion, although lion is not an endemic animal of Java, the depiction of lion as symbolism can be found in Javanese culture, especially attributed to the influence of Hindu-Buddhist symbolism. [2] After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java altogether in 1290, the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute. [8] Kertanagara, ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a punitive expedition which arrived off the coast of Java in 1293. [8] The founder of the Majapahit Empire, Kertarajasa, was the son-in-law of the ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, also based in Java. [8]

In 1222, at Ganter battle, He conquered the Kediri kingdom and declared himself as the ruler of Singhasari. [14] He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of both the Singhasari and later the Majapahit line of monarchs and he was assassinated by Anusapati, in revenge for killing his father, Tunggul Ametung. [2] Singhasari was mentioned in several Javanese manuscripts, including Pararaton and it derived from sanskrit word singha which means lion and sari or saree which in Old Javanese could means either essence or to sleep. [2] A cult or temple named Singosari temple Singhasari and a stupa named Candi Source Laity. [9] Tumapel was the capital city of Singhasari (1222 - 1292) near the modern city of Malang. [2]

The Majapahit founder allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once the Singhasari kingdom was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw in confusion. [8]

In 1292, Duke Jayakatwang, a vassal king from the Kingdom of Daha (also known as Kediri or Gelang-gelang), prepared his army to conquer Singhasari and kill its king if possible, assisted by Arya Wiraraja, a regent from Sumenep on the island of Madura. [15] By the time they arrived, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. [11]

Both Java (Singhasari) and Champa were worried about Mongol expansion and raids against neighboring states, such as their raid of Bagan (Pagan) in Burma. [15] Early 1293, the Mongol naval forces arrived on the north coast of Java (near Tuban ) and on the Brantas River mouth in order to flank what they thought was Singhasari. [15]

As the center of the Malayan peninsula trade winds, the rising power, influence, and wealth of the Javanese Singhasari empire came to the attention of Kublai Khan of the Mongol Yuan dynasty based in China. [15] Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute, but Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused. [11]

The victor, Prince Wijaya, son-in-law of Kertanegara, the last Singhasari king, then ascended the throne as Kertajasa Jayawardhana, the first king of the great Majapahit Empire, on November 12, 1293. [15] Formidable opponent of various Indonesian rulers, lead to the end of Singhasari and the creation of Majapahit Empire. [16] In the year 1275, the ambitious king Kertanegara, the fifth ruler of Singhasari, launched a peaceful naval campaign northward towards the weak remains of the Srivijaya in response to continuous Ceylon pirate raids and Chola kingdom's invasion from India which conquered Srivijaya’s Kedah in 1025. [15] After defeating Srivijaya in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the area. [11] It is a Hindu-Buddhist site built by the Singhasari, a famous Javanese medieval kingdom (1222-1292). [17]

Singhasari (other spelling: Singosari ) was founded by Ken Arok (1182-1227/1247), whose story is a popular children's tale in Central and East Java. [15] Pararaton is mostly about Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. [11] A visit to the nearby bathing pools at Ken Dedes is also a popular stop. It is believed that Ken Dedes were once the private bathing pools of the royal court of the Singhasari dynasty. [17] Having learned the of the fall of the Singhasari capital of Kutaraja due to Kediri's treachery, Raden Wijaya tried to defend Singhasari but failed. [15]

Singhasari kingdom In 1292, Duke Jayakatwang, a vassa king from the kingdom Duha (also know as kediri or gelang-gelang), prepared his army to conquer Singhasari and kill its king if possible,assisted by arya a wiraja, a regent from sumenep on the island of Madura. [18] Singhasari temple was built as a mortuary temple of honor Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. [18]

Singhasari kingdom INFLUENCES ON MODERN DAY INDONESIA Some of these skills and techniques still exists batak areas of sumatra, Tana torjaya in Sulawesi, parts of Kalimantan and Nusa Tenggara. [18] Singhasari kingdom Singhasari kingdom Singhasari was a kingdom located in east java between 1222 and 1292. [18]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(18 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (32) Singhasari - WikiVisually

2. (14) Singhasari - Wikipedia

3. (10) Tumapel - WikiVividly

4. (8) Singhasari kingdom | World Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online

5. (7) ISFA - Indonesian History

6. (5) Majapahit - New World Encyclopedia

7. (5) All about Java, Indonesia: History of Java - Singhasari (1222 - 1292)

8. (4) Singhasari kingdom by caitlyn childs on Prezi

9. (4) Best Travel Indonesia: HISTORIC VISIT TO TEMPLE Singosari Malang

10. (3) Singhasari | Indonesian Folk Tales Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

11. (3) Singhasari - Academic Kids

12. (2) HISTORY OF THE NATION: SINGOSARI KINGDOM

13. (2) Top Things to See and Do in Malang Indonesia - Davids Been Here

14. (1) Humanities Semester 1 Unit Test Flashcards | Quizlet

15. (1) File:Singhasari Kingdom en.svg - Wikimedia Commons

16. (1) The Classical Cultural History of Java | Indo Magic

17. (1) Indonesia History - Singasari Kingdom - 1222-1292

18. (1) What does pararaton mean - Definition of pararaton - Word finder


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