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Spanish Hegemony (Americas, 16th Century - 1820s)

Spanish Hegemony (Americas, 16th Century - 1820s)

C O N T E N T S:

  • In the 16th century the Spanish overseas territories were divided in two viceroyalties: New Spain (1535) for North America, Antilles, the Philippines and Venezuela, and Peru (1542) for South America, which was divided in the 18th century.(More...)
  • As Spain’s power weakened in the seventeenth century, England, The Netherlands, and the French took advantage overseas by seizing islands in the Caribbean, which became bases for a burgeoning contraband trade in Spanish America.(More...)
  • The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre.(More...)
  • The codices, largely written in the 16th century by indigenous scribes under Spanish direction, provide information in great detail on culinary practices of pre-Hispanic peoples.(More...)
  • Closer to home and earlier, the U.S. declared hegemony over the Western Hemisphere in the 1820s with the Monroe Doctrine, acquiescing in existing Spanish and Portuguese territories for the time being, but vowing to preclude any further colonization by any foreign power.(More...)
  • The symbolic year chosen to represent this world revolution is 1789, the year of the French Revolution, but this world revolution included the American Independence, the Haitian Revolution and the revolt of the Spanish colonies of Latin America led by Simon Bolivar that extended into the 1820s.(More...)

  • Both were deeply concerned when, towards the end of the seventeenth century, there appeared the possibility of a mighty political transformation in Europe by the union of the dominions of France and Spain, and by the addition to the already overwhelming power of the French monarchy of the wealth of the Spanish colonial empire.(More...)
  • Spanish colonies had to import rope, sails, etc. from Spain itself.(More...)
  • Both England and France followed the example of the Portuguese, the Spanish and the Dutch in acquiring colonial empires in Asia and the Americas and further expanding the Central PMN. During periods of warfare among the European powers the overseas colonies would change hands, and so wars took on a global aspect as the whole world came to be divided up by the colonial imperialism of the European states.(More...)


In the 16th century the Spanish overseas territories were divided in two viceroyalties: New Spain (1535) for North America, Antilles, the Philippines and Venezuela, and Peru (1542) for South America, which was divided in the 18th century. [1] The Criollos were a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Latin America, composed of the locally born people of pure or mostly Spanish ancestry. [1]

In a comparative perspective, our findings support the view that when Spain colonised America and built a worldwide empire it was not a poor country of warriors but a relatively affluent nation and, by the end of the sixteenth century, when it had achieved "the political hegemony of Europe’ (Hamilton 1938, p. 168), Spanish per capita income was among the highest in Europe, second only to Italy and the Low Countries. [1] In the Spanish controversies, a century earlier, the question at hand was that of the concrete rights and obligations Spain his vis-à-vis its new subjects in the Americas. [1]

In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget " Since the 16th century, genuine European colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain were distinguished by developing a concept of their world rule and basing it on the legacy of Rome. [1] KEY TOPICS In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget Despite the fact that many people in America from the early 19th century to the early 20th century lived in poverty and discrimination, the overall condition of American economy, technological advancement, and standard of living improved. [1] In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget At the end of the 19th Century when the American frontier and rural America were undergoing tremendous change, urban America was also experiencing tremendous social, political, and economic transformations. [1]

Publisher's Summary Having succeeded in establishing themselves in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, in the early 16th century Spain and Portugal became the first imperial powers on a worldwide scale. [2] The 16th century, particularly under Charles I, who was also Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the golden age of Spain: its empire in the Americas produced vast wealth; its arts flourished; its fleet ruled the high seas; and its armies were the strongest in Europe. [1]

If this could stick two crowns: the Spanish and the Austrian would become to the same situation that occurred at the beginning of the 16th century, with the figure of Carlos I of Spain and V of Germany. [1] The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. [1]

Spanish emigration It has been estimated that in the 16th century about 240,000 Spaniards emigrated to America, and in the 17th century about 500,000, predominantly to Mexico and Peru. [1] In what follows, I will sketch the two branches of the genealogy of conquest by turning to two sets of debates: (i) the 16th century Spanish disputes about the legitimacy of the conquest of America, and (ii) the 17th century English controversies about the Norman conquest. [1] Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before the arrival of spanish people. [1] Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century. [1] By the early 16th century, Spanish conquistadors had penetrated deep into Central and South America. [1] In the 16th century, the Spanish and Portuguese conquered most of South America. [1]

The Italian Wars resulted in an ultimate Spanish victory and hegemony in northern Italy by expelling the French, during the 16th century this formation evolved into the tercio infantry formation. [1]

Spain gained an horrid reputation in the 16th century for their colonial brutality in the Americas during the period as well as the reception of the Inquisition keeping Spain religiously pure; Catholic. [1] In 1492 Spain was certainly not a hegemon anywhere in the Americas, that came in the early 16th century. [1] Throughout the 16th century Spain was the leading European power based on the gold derived from South America (but the gold caused inflation in Europe and ruined the economy of Spain). [1]

Silverblatt writes that while the Spanish conquistadors were laying claim to land and peoples in South America in the 16th and 17th centuries, their countrymen in Spain were in the throes of the Spanish Inquisition. [1] In the 16th century, Spain settled the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean, and took over large areas on mainland North and South America overrunning the Aztecs and Incas. [1] From the middle of the 16th century, silver and gold from American mines increasingly financed the military capability of Habsburg Spain in its long series of European and North African wars. [1] To this list could be added the hegemony of Habsburg Spain in 16th century Europe. [1] The 16th century represents the zenith of Spanish hegemony in the world, a process that would last until the middle of the 17th century. [1] Brinkley, p 19 However, England was checked by Spanish hegemony and did not make intrusions into America for almost a century. [1] While one could argue that Spanish hegemony in Latin America lasted until the early 19th century, with regard to the North, the first half of the 18th century clearly shows us that Britain, and to a lesser extent, France, reigned there. [1]

With the massive influx of Spanish (South American) silver in the 16th century however, coupled with the onset of ideological (religious) wars with the Protestant Reformation, the traditional campaign season was increasingly ignored and rulers had to maintain armies all year round - something only a handful could afford to do. [1] By the latter part of the 16th century, however, under Philip II, the toll of religious wars in Europe and the flow of people and resources to the New World had drained the strength of the Spanish nation; in 1588, the "invincible" Spanish Armada was defeated by England. [1] In the 16th century, Spanish kings had treated their merchants like ATMs, extracting cash from them to fund royal wars to dominate Europe. [1] By the early 20th century, Indonesia began a movement for independence which grew particularly large between World Wars I and II and Japan occupied Indonesia during WWII. Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans--the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British--sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' of Indonesia. [1] Until the 16th century the Philippines remained unknown to the world at large: then the Filipinos suddenly found themselves being fought over by Spaniards from Mexico and Moslems the Moros -- from Borneo. (The islands are named after the Spanish king of the time, Philip II of Armada fame. [1] In the late 16th century, the Japanese, under Hideyoshi, claimed control of the Philippines and for a time the Spanish paid tribute to secure their trading routes and protect Jesuit missionaries in Japan. [1]

KEY TOPICS Emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, and French and English settlers in the 17th century. [1] The French were the most dangerous foes of the Spanish early in the 16th century, with the Protestant (Huguenot) captains from La Rochelle figuring prominently. [1] The first Spanish exploration of the northwest part of Mexico -- ironically, given the presence of the spectacular natural harbors at moden-day Mazatlan and Topolobampo and the expertise of 16th century Spanish sailors -- was destined to be by land, not by sea. [1] First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. [1] The syncretism between indigenous and Spanish cultures gave rise to many of nowadays Mexican staple and world-famous cultural traits like tequila (since the 16th century), mariachi (18th), jarabe (17th), charros (17th) and the highly prized Mexican cuisine, fruit of the mixture of European and indigenous ingredients and techniques. [1] The question of how to justify colonial conquest was controversial throughout 16th century Spanish political thought. [1] The evangelical effort was a major part of, and a justification for the military conquests of European powers such as Spain, France and Portugal " Since the 16th century, genuine European colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain were distinguished by developing a concept of their world rule and basing it on the legacy of Rome. [1] "The major colonizers of Southeast Asia were Europeans, Japanese and the U.S. All in all, there were seven colonial powers in Southeast Asia: Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, the United States, and Japan " Since the 16th century, genuine European colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain were distinguished by developing a concept of their world rule and basing it on the legacy of Rome. [1]

At the beginning of the 16th century, Spain, the first European great power, inherited vast commitments in Europe and overseas. [1]

If and to what extent 16 th century Spain can truly be considered the example or model for the rest of Europe and in what way the Spanish hegemony affected cultural transfer processes inside and outside Europe will be discussed in the context of the following survey. [1] During the 16th century and 17th century, Spain established an empire with many far flung outposts. [1] Habsburg Spain was a superpower and the center of the first global empire in the 16th century. [1] By the early 16th century, Spain had a substantial empire in Terranova, subduing the gold -rich indigenous Terranovan empires. [1]

By the middle of the 16th century the 7.5m inhabitants of the Spanish kingdoms were the mainstay of the Hapsburg Empire, which controlled more than 20 of Europe's 90 millions and 9m of the 12m natives in the New World. [1] There are no other significant documents from this period of pre-Hispanic Philippine society and culture until the Doctrina Christiana of the late 16th century, written at the start of the Spanish period in both native Baybayin script and Spanish. [1] Under Charles I the Inquisition became a formal department in the Spanish government, hurtling out of control as the 16th century progressed. [1] When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, the majority of the estimated 500,000 people in the islands lived in barangay settlements. [1] Some Pacific islands were visited by Spanish ships in the 16th century, but they made no effort to trade with or colonize them, including New Guinea (by Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545 ), Solomon Islands (by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in 1568 ) and Marquesas Islands (by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira in 1595 ). [1] As the 16th century opened, the total white population of the area was limited to a few hundred bored Spanish soldiers garrisoning the forts of Florida and the outpost established in New Mexico. [1] The Spanish monarchy can be regarded as Europe's leading power in the 16th century. [1] During the second half of the 16th century, Spanish power suffered from over-extension and economic stagnation. [1] Between the 16th century and the 18th century, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons, during the Spanish-American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21,1898. [1] …region until 1565, when the Spanish founded Saint Augustine in present-day Florida, the peoples of the Southeast suffered greatly during the 16th century. [1] Throughout the 16th century, in the period of Spanish colonization, exposure to Christian mythology and cosmology led these healers to view their practice differently. [1] The Pre-classic or Formative period is taken as being from around 2000 BC to 300 AD whilst the Classic period, representing the golden age of the Mayans, covered the years 300 AD to 900 AD. The Post-classic period covers the decline of the Mayans from 900 to the early years of the 16th century and the arrival of the Spanish. [1] The Chinese trade flourished late in the 16th century, so much that the streets of Manila could be paved with granite cobblestones brought from China as ballast in Chinese and Spanish ships. [1] The prominence of Italian cookbooks continued into the 16th century, when recipes from the impressive Opera (Work), by Bartolomeo Scappi--private cook to the pope--were published in Spanish and Dutch versions. [1] Early records claim that Maynila was named after the Yamstick Mangrove ( Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, whose local name was "nila" or "nilad", by the time the Spanish colonizers arrived in the late 16th century. [1] The Kingdom of Maynila ( Old Malay : Kota Seludong, Jawi script : كوتا سلودوڠ ), was one of three major city-states that dominated the area by the lower reaches and mouth of the Pasig River before the arrival of Spanish colonizers in the 16th century. [1] The English were the most effective raiders on the "Spanish Main" late the 16th century. [1] Tomás Luis de Victoria, a Spanish composer of the 16th century, mainly of choral music, is widely regarded as one of the greatest Spanish classical composers. [1] In Spanish art, architecture, and literature, the great age was the 16th century and the early part of the 17th. [1] The extent to which the 16th century can be considered the "Spanish Century" will be discussed. [1] Gallardo, Alexander (2002), "Spanish Economics in the 16th Century: Theory, Policy, and Practice", Lincoln, NE:Writiers Club Press,2002. [1] This conflict consumed much Spanish expenditure during the later 16th century. [1] If anything, Britain actually looked more vulnerable to continental domination than ever in the 16th century, culminating in the attempted Spanish invasion of 1588. [1]

The opening of the New World made Spain the richest and most powerful European state of the 16th century. [1] The development of Spain itself was hampered by the fact that Charles I and Philip II spent most of their time abroad; for most of the 16th century, Spain was administrated from Brussels and Antwerp, and it was only during the Dutch Revolt that Philip returned to Spain, where he spent most of his time in the seclusion of the monastic palace of El Escorial. [1] Herrerian : An architectural style developed in Spain during the last third of the 16th century, under the reign of Philip II (1556-1598), and continued in force in the 17th century, but transformed by the Baroque current of the time. [1] Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. [1] The 16th century was a time of development in Spain as both agriculture and trade burgeoned. [1] During the 16th century, Habsburg Spain saw a growth in its military power. [1] By the beginning of the 18 th century Spain was a weakened nation, marginalized by the other nations of Europe, and never recovered to its 16th century glory. [1] These imports contributed to inflation in Spain and Europe from the last decades of the 16th century. [1] These imports diverted investment away from other forms of industry and contributed to inflation in Spain in the last decades of the 16th century: "I learnt a proverb here", said a French traveler in 1603: "Everything is dear in Spain except silver". [1] In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain, small early attempts often disappeared, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. [1] As the 16th century had worn on, inflation in Spain (a result of state debt and, more importantly, the importation of silver and gold from the New World) triggered hardship for the peasantry. [1] While Spain was beginning its rise to dominance in the 16th century, Portugal which was a significant economic rival, was absorbed. [1] The average cost of goods quintupled in the 16th century in Spain, led by wool and grain. [1] Morisco : A term used to refer to former Muslims who converted, or were coerced into converting, to Christianity after Spain outlawed the open practice of Islam by its Mudejar population in the early 16th century. [1] All the money reaching Spain in the 16th century did not solve the chronic national problem of bankruptcy. [1] During the 16th century, Spain held the equivalent of US$1.5 trillion (1990 terms) in gold and silver received from New Spain. [1] During the 16th century, Spain focused on conquering areas with dense populations that had produced Pre-Columbian civilizations. [1] Black confraternities ( cofrad'as ) were also common among black Catholics throughout New Spain at least as early as the 16th century. [1]

French colonization of the Americas - The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere. [1] Gardner D. Stout President The American Museum of Natural History INTRODUCTION Before the voyages of Columbus and Cortes made it known to Europeans in the early 16th century, Mexico and Central America were occupied by various peoples -- Mayas, Aztecs, Zapotecs, Totonacs, and many others. [1] Other European nations soon disputed the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas, England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the 16th century, but these failed. [1] Seville has its origins in the trade routes controlled by the Phoenicians in the 8th century BC. Romans, Goths, Muslims, and Christians established their capital here before it became the most important city in Southern Europe and gateway to the Americas in the 16th century. [1] Portugal established a route to China in the early 16th century, sending ships via the southern coast of Africa, human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time, from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. [1] Mesoamerica, cultural area encompassing present-day Mexico and most of Central America, where a number of civilizations with shared traits and cultural traditions developed before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century. [1] It is the oldest permanent European settlement in the Americas, several 16th century writers estimated the 1492 population of Hispaniola at over 1 million people. [1] It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492-1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850-1950); the estimate is 240,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. [1] Demographic impact It has been estimated that in the 16th century about 240,000 Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, and in the 17th century about 500,000, predominantly to Mexico and Peru. [2] She might have enjoyed a hegemonic position in the Americas for two centuries, and relative dominance in Europe during a brief phase of the 16th century, but played no important role in Asia or Africa. [1] By the late 16th century, silver from the Americas accounted for one-fifth of Spain's total budget. [3]

The bulk of the changes in Spanish America came in the second half of the 18th century following the visita general (general inspection) of New Spain (1765-1771) by José de Gálvez, who was later named Minister of the Indies. [1] From the middle of the 16th century forward, France tried to establish several colonies throughout North America that failed due to weather, disease, or conflict with other European powers. [1]

By the seventeenth century the period of Spanish hegemony was over, and the English, French, and Dutch began to trade and form colonies in the Caribbean. [1] During the 17th century, the success of the Dutch challenging Portuguese and Spanish hegemony, led several other European powers to attempt to establish overseas trading posts or settlements, with varying degrees of success. [1]

Spanish hegemony remained unchallenged until 1670, with the English establishment of Charles Towne, South Carolina and brought down a slave raid to St. Catherines, the northernmost outpost of the Spanish Empire on the east coast of North America. [4] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL European wars and American adventure consumed no small amount of Spanish man power, but at least America sent Spain abundant gold and silver, and the mother country enjoyed with her new colonies a very extensive and profitable trade. [4] POSSIBLY USEFUL Following Britain's seizure of the key Spanish ports of Havana, Cuba and Manila, the Philippines, in the Seven Years' War, Spain stepped up military measures to secure its empire, establishing missions and presidios in Mexico's northern frontier, particularly in California over concerns about Russian colonization of the Americas. [1] Wars for independence spread quickly, and Spanish royalist forces lost one colony after another in decisive conflicts, culminating in the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824 in Peru, which effectively diminished Spain's domination in the Americas (which was already dampened by Napoleon's invasion of Spain in the same period). [1] Spain maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire until the 19th century, when the shock of the Peninsular War sparked declarations of independence in Quito (1809), Colombia (1810), Venezuela and Paraguay ( 1811 ) and successive revolutions that split away its territories on the mainland (the Spanish Main ) of America. [1]

It was an administrative change that reflected the recognition (as early as the 16th century) that the northern area of South America had certain challenges of distance from Peru. [5]

Namayan - Namayan was one of three major polities that dominated the banks of the Pasig River and the coast of Laguna de Bay in the Philippines prior to the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. [1] At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines, from the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World. [4] Spanish settlement of the region continued, however, as the early 20th century saw a stream of immigration of poor people and political exiles from Spain to the former American colonies, especially Cuba, Mexico and Argentina. [1] The century began with the War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to the throne of Spain and ended with the Napoleonic Wars in which Spain would become a bloody battleground. [1] Spain's continental power was ended by wars with England, the Netherlands, and France in the 17th century and by the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 14), which also established the Bourbon (Borb ó n) dynasty in Spain. [1] Despite these problems, the growing inflow of New World silver from the mid-16th century, the justified military reputation of the Spanish infantry, and even the quick recovery of the navy from its Armada disaster made Spain the leading European power, a novel situation of which its citizens were only just becoming aware. [1] In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the mid-17th century. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL For a period in the seventeenth century, when the Spanish and Portuguese crowns were united, Spain did control Maluku, but the Dutch eventually proved stronger. [1] The Spanish Golden Age : (Spanish: Siglo de Oro, "Golden Century") A period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. [2] It might be said roughly to include the period of the last three Spanish Philips, from about the middle of the sixteenth century to the latter part of the seventeenth: the ages of Camoens in Portugal, and m Spain of Cervantes, of Lope de Vega, El Greco, Velazquez, and a host of only slightly less-endowed geniuses. [1] It is indefensible to say that the Spanish were a world power at any point in the nineteenth century, save for a brief spit in the 1870s when the capable Alfonso XII of Spain and his thoughtful ministers succeeded in restoring some vigour to Spanish politics and prestige. [1] Under a series of exceptionally able rulers, this form of government might have maintained Spanish prosperity and power, while repressing enlightenment, but it was the peculiar curse of Spain that the last three Hapsburg princes, whose reigns filled the whole of the sixteenth century, were weak, and their choice of favorites, ghostly and secular, was unwise. [1] Through most of the twentieth century, Spanish society (unlike Spain's former colonies in the New World, Africa, and Asia ) was not ethnically diverse, except for the presence of Gypsies, who arrived in Spain in the fifteenth century. [1] The Spanish court ceremonial, which has with some justice been credited with a model function in European court culture, is of considerable interest to the question of the significance of Spain as the starting point in cultural transfers during the 16 th century. [1] In the light of the military omnipresence of the Spanish monarchy and the enormous extent of its realm, it is not astonishing that Spain became to a particular degree the starting point and node of cultural transfer processes in the 16 th century. [1]

The period of the 16th to the mid-17th century is known as "the Golden Age of Spain" (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro ). [1] Until the eighteenth century, there were just two viceroyalties, with the Viceroyalty of New Spain (founded 1535) administering North America, a portion of the Caribbean, and the Philippines, and the viceroyalty of Peru (founded 1542) having jurisdiction over Spanish South America. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL Spain maintained and actually expanded its vast overseas empire, harassed by British expansionism, French and Dutch, remaining as a major economic power, successive revolutions until you dispossessed of their territories in the Americas at the beginning of the century XIX. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in his african colonies during the first half of the twentieth century. [1] In the early 20th century impoverished Spaniards, and from the 1930s-70s political exiles from the Spanish Civil War and the Franco government, immigrated to the countries that were former colonies in America - predominantly Cuba, Mexico, Costa Rica and Argentina. [1] Although it is anachronistic to speak of Latin American philosophy before the 1850s when the term "Latin America" first entered usage, most scholars agree that Latin American philosophy extends at least as far back as the sixteenth century when the Spanish founded the first schools and seminaries in the "New World". [1] Charles oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas, including the conquest of both the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire They then set about creating an empire which, during the 15th century, was only surpassed in size (in the Americas) by that of the Incas in Peru. [1]

The most humiliating terms of the treaty, however, were the permission for a Spanish regiment to be quartered in the city of Setúbal, to "ensure the safety of the princess of Spain and of the people and church of Portugal against the pernicious revolutionaries", and the partition of Portuguese America between France and Spain. [1] Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. [1] As it was throughout the Americas, other Spanish colonies and territories, and within Spain itself: when the Jesuits were expelled the King of Spain and the Spanish monarchy confiscated the Jesuits accumulated wealth, including substantial landholdings, warehoused agricultural surpluses and massive numbers of livestock. [1] Conservatives sought to strengthen Mexico's Spanish colonial heritage via enhancing corporations' (Church, Military, etc.) power and special privileges and by turning to Spain on the diplomatic front, policies that would counter the influence and power of America. [1] During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the New Laws of 1542 were created to prevent the exploitation of the indigenous people by the encomenderos. map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. [1] In that sense, under the Spanish judicial code in the Americas, trade relations between Spain and Puerto Rico were supervised and restricted by the House of Trade. [1] The Spanish traded goods across the Atlantic Ocean, between Spain and its viceroyalties in the Americas. [1] Focusing more of their effort on fighting a multi-front war in Europe, Spanish influence in the New World declined and the settlements in Central and South America along with the Caribbean all began to experience financial decline and the loss of defending soldiers as more were recalled to Spain. [1] Linguistic and historical links to Central and South America could increase the influence of Spanish firms in these geographical areas, with reciprocal investment by Latin American business leaders in Spain. [1] The flota system was the method of trade that the Spanish used to send trade goods to their early colonies in South America and New Spain (Mexico). [1] KEY TOPICS In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sailor who defected to the Spanish king, sailed from Spain across the Atlantic, around South America, and over the Pacific to chart the western route to Maluku, "discovering" the Philippines along the way. [1]

It was not until the years after the Thirty Years' War that Spanish military power began to fade; even then, supported by a reinvigorated navy, Spain remained a major military power throughout the 18th century, in competition with Britain and France on the global stage. [1] A whole literary movement, known as Costumbrismo, based on character sketches and articles on Spanish customs and manners, arose out of the press of Spain during the nineteenth century. [1] "Foreign visitors around the middle of the nineteenth century found Intramuros, where the Spanish elite tried to make life as much as possible like life in Spain, dull and monotonous, with few social activities and frequent religious processions. [1] This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. [1] The influx of treasure in the sixteenth century drove Spanish prices up till Spain could only compete through tariffs and restrictions. [1] The Spanish philosopher who is best known in the present epoch is Jose Ortega Gasset (1883- ), for many years professor of meta- physics in the University of Madrid, founder and director of the most important literary magazine in twentieth century Spain, the Revtsta de Occidente, If Ortega’s views are often pessimistic and his statements arbitrary, they are at least challenging and always gracefully expressed. [1] The Christian Spanish re-conquered all of Spain by the end of the fifteenth century - finally retaking Granada in 1492. [1] This is what the phrase "Spanish Golden Age" or Siglo de Oro (century of gold) refers to the typical picture of Spain as a powerhouse economically, politically, and artistically in the 16 th century. [1] Spanish Art in the Twentieth Century: The main objective of this course is to outline, in a systematic and thorough way, the evolution of Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, as well as contemporary artistic manifestations of a more ground-breaking kind, during the twentieth century in Spain. [1] Plans for the compulsory education of all Spanish children during the twentieth century further underscored the problems and needs for special education in Spain. [1] The Spanish and the Moros of the sultanates of Maguindanao, Lanao and Sulu also waged many wars over hundreds of years in the Spanish-Moro conflict, not until the 19th century did Spain succeed in defeating the Sulu Sultanate and taking Mindanao under nominal suzerainty. [1] The Spanish American wars of independence (1808-1826) in the early nineteenth century stripped Spain of its most valuable colonies, but it retained Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam, and the Marianas, as well as various territories in Africa under Spanish rule. [1]

The Spanish language and the Roman Catholic Church were brought to the Americas and to the Spanish East Indies ( Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Marianas, Palau and the Philippines ) by the Spanish colonization which began in the 15th century. [1] To make up for the rapid decline of these earliest Indian laborers, over the course of the sixteenth century Spanish conquistadors first raided islands such as the Bahamas and then shipped more than fifty thousand Indian slaves from Central America to Panama, Peru, and the Caribbean. [1] For almost a century thereafter, conservatives and liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions, both armies originated from Spanish colonial troops of Americas. [1] In the early-16th century, Spanish Habusibao dynasty carrying out dominated Europe's policy, used in the military and the political activity the large amount wealth; The Spanish aristocrats to pursue the high life, the goods supply who from the America colony splashes out, causes to ship back the money which very quick changes to other countries and in the creditor's rights person hand's aspect. [1] Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism, began in the 15th century with the " Age of Discovery ", led by Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas, the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and East Asia. [1] "Chicana/o History" is designed to introduce students to the histories of the Chicana/o people prior to the Spanish colonization of the Americas to the present century. [1] The Spanish language (now the second most widely spoken language in the world) and the Roman Catholic faith were brought to America, parts of Africa and the Spanish East Indies, by Spanish colonization which began in the 15th century. [1] KEY TOPICS The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. [1] During the later sixteenth century Spain acquired a massive overseas empire, chiefly in the Americas, but also in the Far East (the Philippines were named for Philip II). [1] In the middle of the century, Spain developed the galleon for naval warfare, using them in convoys to link her possessions in the Philippines, the Americas and Europe. [1] What’s interesting and unique about Spain’s ascension to its status as Europe’s most powerful force is that it came from the inheritances of Charles V. Yes, Spains possessions in the Americas came from exploration and conquest but what really gave them an upper hand for the better part of the next century and a half was the lands it had scattered all throughout Europe. [1] While competition between rival companies from the towns of Zeeland marked Dutch trade with the Americas in the first years of the seventeenth century, by the time the West India Company finally received its charter in 1621 troubles with Spain once again threatened to disrupt trade. [1] Colonialism was practised by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards, and extended to virtually all of Asia and Africa during the nineteenth century. [1] The European conquest of Latin America beginning in the late 15th century, was initially executed by male soldiers and sailors from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) By 1822, Spain had lost all of its territories in the Americas, and the Portuguese king lost his colony to a new Brazilian monarchy with its own New World Empire. [1]

The Viceroyalty of Peru also had those two important elements, so that New Spain and Peru were the seats of Spanish power and the source of its wealth, until other viceroyalties were created in Spanish South America in the late 18th century. [1] Centered around the northern part of South America, the Spanish Main was the cadre of colonies in the New World owned by Spain. [1] Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río. [1] British America - - List of Hudsons Bay Company trading posts St and this was in response to intelligence that the Russians had begun to explore the Pacific Coast of North America, which the Spanish considered part of New Spain. [1] Spanish territorial claims based on this furthest north penetration of Spain in North America were not supported at the treaty negotiations. [1] The popularity and growth of this press can be explained in part by articles composed by some of the most prominent writers of the Spanish language, both from Spain and Latin America, such as Jose Camilo Cela, Miguel Delibes, Carlos Fuentes, and Gabriel Garc í a M á rquez. [1]

KEY TOPICS The Canary Islands became part of Spanish territory (1495), the hegemony of Spain in the Mediterranean, to the detriment of France, was affirmed with the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, and Navarre was incorporated into the Kingdom. [1] The events of 1492 brought senses of both a renewed and an emergent nation through the reestablishment of Christian hegemony on Spanish soil and the achievement of new power in the New World, which placed Spain in the avant garde of all Europe. [1]

During the 16th and 17th centuries, they were places in which the temporal power of the Spanish monarchy and the ecclesiastical predominance of the Roman Catholic religion in Spain found a common architectural manifestation. [1]

The period of the 16th to the mid 17th century is known as "the Golden Age of Spain" (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro ). [1] Spain in the 16th cent. (the Golden Century) was the first power of the world, with an empire "on which the sun never set," with fleets on every sea, and with a brilliant cultural, artistic, and intellectual life. [1]

An equally significant sign of the country’s political impotence was the presence, at both ends of the century, of foreign troops on its soil, an enormous reverse of the ubiquitous Spanish presence in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. [1] Not only was 75-90% of the human population exterminated, the first century of the Spanish invasion was also the greatest ecological catastrophe for native plants and animals in history, rivaled, and in ways exceeded, by what the English and Americans would later do to North America. [1] In the early 19th century the revolutionary movements resulted in the independence of most Spanish colonies in America, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, given up in 1898 following the Spanish-American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. [1] All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the 1820s, the British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. [1]

Mesoamerica was a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. [1] Mesoamerica or Meso-America ( Spanish : Mesoamérica ) is a region in the mid-latitudes of the Americas, namely the culture area within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. [1] Almost all of South America, Central America, S North America, and the Philippines were added to the Spanish world empire in the 16th cent. [1]

By the 19th century, 10 to 15 million Afrikan peoples had been relocated to the Americas by first Portuguese, then English, Spanish, and U.S. colonialists. [1] The premise is : despite the conspicuous distinction of housing one of the only monarchical regimes in the Americas (like Haiti and Mexico), Brazil experienced some important republican movements by the end of the 18th Century and through the 19th Century, notably inspired by the ideals of the French and American Revolutions, in a context very similar to that in which the other South American countries became independent from the Kingdom of Spain. [1] Spain lost her possessions on the mainland of America with the independence movements of the early 19th century, during the power vacuum of the Peninsula War. [1] History has rarely recorded a baser breed of people than gold rush miners, as greed and desperation are their most salient characteristics, whether it was 16 th century Spain or 19 th century America. [1] As such, Spain controlled a large amount of land in the Americas, although she lost Lower California and all territories north of the Rio Grande to the British -backed North American Union in the 19th century. [1] The European conquest of Latin America beginning in the late 15th century, was initially executed by male soldiers and sailors from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). [1]

The Spanish Empire covered most territories of South and Central America, Mexico, some of Eastern Asia (including the Philippines), the Iberian peninsula (including the Portuguese empire invaded by the Kingdom of Spain and the Duke of Alba in 1580 ), southern Italy, Sicily, Germany, and the Netherlands. [1] The Spanish Empire consisted of the territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. [1] Spanish conquest of Granada; expulsion of Jews from Spain; Columbus's first voyage to America. 1493. [1]

Money was tight for the Spanish during the 17th century, despite that galleons filled with gold were sent from the Americas (though many were raided by pirates or were wrecked in storms). [2] Keeping pace with colonial developments in North America, the Spanish introduced a series of laws in the 17th century known as the Leyes de Indias. [2]

The empire reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs, through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon in the 18th century. [1] The Spanish governor of Louisiana (New Spain) Bernardo de Gálvez carried out an anti-British policy due to the numerous British attacks to take control of the riches of the Spanish Empire over the past century. [1] Spain's crucial victory in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias against a massive British fleet and army in the Caribbean port of Cartagena de Indias, one of a number of successful battles, helped Spain secure its dominance of America until the 19th century. [3] After independence from Spain some three centuries later, in 1821, Guatemala was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America and after its dissolution the country suffered much of the political instability that characterized the region during mid to late 19th century. [1] There were many successful battles that helped Spain secure its dominance of America until the 19th century. [3]

The bulk of Spain's Empire was held for over three centuries, starting in 1492 with the Spanish colonization of the Americas and lasting until the early 19th century Spanish American wars of independence that left only Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as Spanish. [1] Captaincy General of Puerto Rico (until 1898) Santo Domingo (last Spanish rule 1861-1865) Captaincy General of Guatemala South Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717-1819) Captaincy General of Venezuela Viceroyalty of Perú (1542-1824) Captaincy General of Chile (1541-1818) Viceroyalty of the R'o de la Plata (1776-1814) 19th century Main article: Spanish American wars of independence Spanish colonialization in the Americas. [1] In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the emancipation of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally given up in 1898, following the Spanish-American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(15 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (231) Spanish Empire - Wikipedia

2. (196) Spanish Hegemony (Americas, 16th Century - 1820s)

3. (128) Spanish Hegemony (Philippines, 1525 - 1898)

4. (106) Spanish Hegemony (Europe, 16th and 17th Century)

5. (30) Spanish colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia

6. (27) Bourbon Reforms - Wikipedia

7. (21) Why was Spain not able to keep up with the superpowers in Europe during the 19th century? : AskHistorians

8. (17) 3 Overseas Expansion | History Hub

9. (17) Colonial Venezuela - Wikipedia

10. (8) 500 Years of Indigenous Resistance

11. (7)

12. (6) b10chap14.doc

13. (3) 17th The Empire Declines

14. (3) Taste, Smell, and Flavor in Mexico - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

15. (1) Poverty in Latin America - Latin American Studies - Oxford Bibliographies

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