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Spanish Hegemony (Europe, 16th and 17th Century)

Spanish Hegemony (Europe, 16th and 17th Century)

C O N T E N T S:

  • KEY TOPICS Emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, and French and English settlers in the 17th century.(More...)
  • The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power in 16th and 17th centuries and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets.(More...)
  • Spanish hegemony remained unchallenged until 1670, with the English establishment of Charles Towne, South Carolina and brought down a slave raid to St. Catherines, the northernmost outpost of the Spanish Empire on the east coast of North America.(More...)
  • The invasion and conquest of the Spanish Netherlands was necessary because these lands for too long had served as the basis from which Spain launched its attacks on France and the Republic and plotted the submission of Europe.(More...)
  • The Canary Islands became part of Spanish territory (1495), the hegemony of Spain in the Mediterranean, to the detriment of France, was affirmed with the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, and Navarre was incorporated into the Kingdom.(More...)

  • POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL European wars and American adventure consumed no small amount of Spanish man power, but at least America sent Spain abundant gold and silver, and the mother country enjoyed with her new colonies a very extensive and profitable trade.(More...)
  • Carlos I was a good king, and his successor Philip wasnt bad, but there was a lot of inbreeding in the royal family, resulting in weak kings, and even the vast wealth from the New World couldnt keep Spain fighting wars against the Netherlands, France, the Ottomans, the disaster of the Spanish armada in England, all while basically being ruled by occasionally insane always weak kings.(More...)
  • It is these paradoxes and contradictions that allow scholars to grant Grotius at one and the same time both the title of father of the modern law of nations, based upon an almost absolute concept of state sovereignty, and of the "post-modern’ international law of the twentieth century, which sought to limit that same sovereignty.(More...)
  • During the last years of the 16th century, the problems weren't so bad because England had particularly able ruler, one of finest in English history, Elizabeth I (1558-1603).(More...)


KEY TOPICS Emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, and French and English settlers in the 17th century. [1] The 16th century represents the zenith of Spanish hegemony in the world, a process that would last until the middle of the 17th century. [2] In what follows, I will sketch the two branches of the genealogy of conquest by turning to two sets of debates: (i) the 16th century Spanish disputes about the legitimacy of the conquest of America, and (ii) the 17th century English controversies about the Norman conquest. [2] Spanish emigration It has been estimated that in the 16th century about 240,000 Spaniards emigrated to America, and in the 17th century about 500,000, predominantly to Mexico and Peru. [2]

While the Spanish Royal Navy was quite large (the 3rd largest in the world still in 1779), with massive ships of the line and sleek frigates, the crews and officers were not the stock and quality of its 16th and 17th century predecessors. [2]

In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum--a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. [2] During the 16th century and 17th century, Spain established an empire with many far flung outposts. [2] Herrerian : An architectural style developed in Spain during the last third of the 16th century, under the reign of Philip II (1556-1598), and continued in force in the 17th century, but transformed by the Baroque current of the time. [2] Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. [2]

The reign of Charles V, in fact, saw three dangerous developments that were to be of incalculable importance for 16th and 17th century Spain. [2] What makes Spain so interesting is both its dramatic and meteoric rise during the 15th and 16th centuries and its cataclysmic and deleterious fall during the 17th century. [2]

This BTW also holds true for the Ottoman Empire, which also failed to adapt fully to the modern militaries of Europe; in the 16th century the Ottoman armies were among the strongest and most potent on the Continent, but in the late 17th century War of the Holy League (1683-1699) they were repeatedly humiliated and driven from significant portions of their Balkan empire. [2] Spain's continental power was ended by wars with England, the Netherlands, and France in the 17th century and by the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 14), which also established the Bourbon (Borb ó n) dynasty in Spain. [2] At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines, from the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World. [1] In a comparative perspective, our findings support the view that when Spain colonised America and built a worldwide empire it was not a poor country of warriors but a relatively affluent nation and, by the end of the sixteenth century, when it had achieved "the political hegemony of Europe’ (Hamilton 1938, p. 168), Spanish per capita income was among the highest in Europe, second only to Italy and the Low Countries. [2] If and to what extent 16 th century Spain can truly be considered the example or model for the rest of Europe and in what way the Spanish hegemony affected cultural transfer processes inside and outside Europe will be discussed in the context of the following survey. [2]

The gradual decline of Spain as an imperial power throughout the 17th century was hastened by the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), as a result of which it lost its European imperial possessions. [2] During the reign of Carlos II, Spain went from being the first European power to occupy a secondary position or mere comparsa in foreign policy: it was causing the collapse of Spanish power which had already started at the beginning of the 17TH century. [2] Why had Spain, once the dominant world power under Philip II, suffered a decline in the 17th century? One explanation for its failure to keep pace with France and England lies in the so-called "Black Legend -- the leyenda negra -- of Spanish cruelty and fanaticism," usually associated with religiosity and an exaggerated sense of honor. [2]

He argues that its 16th and 17th century involvement in continental wars was defensive and occasional. [2] From the late 16th and early 17th century on, the genealogy of conquest is divided into two separate (though at times intersecting) branches: one that concerns the colonial world and that focuses on the normative question of how to legitimate European conquest and colonization; and another that concerns political authority, more specifically, the problem of instituting and transferring sovereignty and political authority. [2] For 16th and 17th century English settlers, conquest amounted to subjugating the American wilderness, triumphing over the fierce and savage forces they encountered in the form of untamed nature and hostile Indian tribes. [2]

During the 17th century, the success of the Dutch challenging Portuguese and Spanish hegemony, led several other European powers to attempt to establish overseas trading posts or settlements, with varying degrees of success. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL By the end of the 17th century, only Melilla, Alhucemas, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (which had been taken again in 1564), Ceuta (part of the Portuguese Empire since 1415, has chosen to retain its links to Spain once the Iberian Union ended; the formal allegiance of Ceuta to Spain was recognized by the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668), Oran and Mazalquivir remained as Spanish territory in Africa. [2]

During the 16th and 17th centuries, they were places in which the temporal power of the Spanish monarchy and the ecclesiastical predominance of the Roman Catholic religion in Spain found a common architectural manifestation. [2] An equally significant sign of the country’s political impotence was the presence, at both ends of the century, of foreign troops on its soil, an enormous reverse of the ubiquitous Spanish presence in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. [2] The events of 1492 brought senses of both a renewed and an emergent nation through the reestablishment of Christian hegemony on Spanish soil and the achievement of new power in the New World, which placed Spain in the avant garde of all Europe. [2] Silverblatt writes that while the Spanish conquistadors were laying claim to land and peoples in South America in the 16th and 17th centuries, their countrymen in Spain were in the throes of the Spanish Inquisition. [2] KEY TOPICS In the 16th century the Spanish overseas territories were divided in two viceroyalties: New Spain (1535) for North America, Antilles, the Philippines and Venezuela, and Peru (1542) for South America, which was divided in the 18th century. [1] If this could stick two crowns: the Spanish and the Austrian would become to the same situation that occurred at the beginning of the 16th century, with the figure of Carlos I of Spain and V of Germany. [2]

Demographic impact It has been estimated that in the 16th century about 240,000 Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, and in the 17th century about 500,000, predominantly to Mexico and Peru. [2] Only a few decades later, in late 16th and 17th century England, the question of conquest also took center stage in a major political controversy. [2] I imagine if there were, they still would have been sent on their way, the Portuguese expulsions of interlopers in Brazil during the 16th and 17th century resulted in an expulsion of foreigners, whatever their religion. [2]

The 17th century saw the beginning of the end of Spanish hegemony, a process that would continue in the 18th and 19th centuries. [2] The final decades of the 17th century saw utter decay and stagnation in Spain; while the rest of Western Europe went through exciting changes in government and society -- the Glorious Revolution in England and the reign of the Sun King in France -- Spain remained adrift. [2] Under the Habsburgs, Spain dominated Europe politically and militarily, but experienced a gradual decline of influence in the second half of the 17th century under the later Habsburg kings. [2] The best way to understand when and why Spain fell during the 17th century from its place as the number one power in Europe is to look at when and why Spain rose. [2] It wasn't really until the 17th century that Spain truly began to fade as a major power in Europe. [2]

Publisher's Summary Having succeeded in establishing themselves in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, in the early 16th century Spain and Portugal became the first imperial powers on a worldwide scale. [2]

By the latter part of the 16th century, however, under Philip II, the toll of religious wars in Europe and the flow of people and resources to the New World had drained the strength of the Spanish nation; in 1588, the "invincible" Spanish Armada was defeated by England. [2] In the 16th century, Spanish kings had treated their merchants like ATMs, extracting cash from them to fund royal wars to dominate Europe. [2]

Due to dogmatism on both sides, Spanish oppression, and multiple wars on multiple fronts (including a brutal 80 years war in the Netherlands and 30 years war in Germany), Spanish hegemony in Europe never took. [2]

The empire reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs, through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon in the 18th century. [2] The Italian Wars resulted in an ultimate Spanish victory and hegemony in northern Italy by expelling the French, during the 16th century this formation evolved into the tercio infantry formation. [2] To this list could be added the hegemony of Habsburg Spain in 16th century Europe. [2] The 16th century, particularly under Charles I, who was also Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the golden age of Spain: its empire in the Americas produced vast wealth; its arts flourished; its fleet ruled the high seas; and its armies were the strongest in Europe. [2] At the beginning of the 16th century, Spain, the first European great power, inherited vast commitments in Europe and overseas. [2] Throughout the 16th century Spain was the leading European power based on the gold derived from South America (but the gold caused inflation in Europe and ruined the economy of Spain). [2]

U3. 17th century in europe & spain Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [2] In the early 17th century, the Dutch were at war with Spain, which absorbed the Portuguese Empire due to the Iberian Union. [2] At the end of the 17th century, Spain was an ailing empire, facing declining revenues and the loss of military power, ruled by a weak king, Charles II, who left no successor. [2]

The Philippines was never profitable as a colony during Spanish rule, and the long war against the Dutch in the 17th century together with the intermittent conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. [2] The Dutch navy was noted for its cruisers in the 17th century, while the Royal Navy--and later French and Spanish navies--subsequently caught up in terms of their numbers, during the 18th century the frigate became the preeminent type of cruiser. [2] They lost the modern Netherlands in the 17th century when the Protestant Dutch rebelled (assisted by England) and successfully resisted their Spanish rulers. [2] Throughout the 17th Century, French fashion was replacing Spanish fashion in European courts as a reflection of the changing global political scenario. [2] The syncretism between indigenous and Spanish cultures gave rise to many of nowadays Mexican staple and world-famous cultural traits like tequila (since the 16th century), mariachi (18th), jarabe (17th), charros (17th) and the highly prized Mexican cuisine, fruit of the mixture of European and indigenous ingredients and techniques. [2] In Spanish art, architecture, and literature, the great age was the 16th century and the early part of the 17th. [2]

By the middle of the 16th century the 7.5m inhabitants of the Spanish kingdoms were the mainstay of the Hapsburg Empire, which controlled more than 20 of Europe's 90 millions and 9m of the 12m natives in the New World. [2] The Spanish monarchy can be regarded as Europe's leading power in the 16th century. [2]

What I mean is that the expulsion of these populations deprived the Spanish kingdoms of precisely the kind of people they were so sorely to lack in the 17th century: artisans, traders, professionals, etc. A parallel can be drawn here with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV which cost France its Huguenot population and had a similar adverse long-term effect. [2] Money was tight for the Spanish during the 17th century, despite that galleons filled with gold were sent from the Americas (though many were raided by pirates or were wrecked in storms). [2] Keeping pace with colonial developments in North America, the Spanish introduced a series of laws in the 17th century known as the Leyes de Indias. [2]

The Ottomans were not the only great European nation to decline rapidly after the 17th century: Spain and Portugal also did, and yet they retained vast trade empires and incomes. [2] By the middle of the 17th century, Spain was facing financial ruin after the disastrous Thirty Years War. [2] The century began with the War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to the throne of Spain and ended with the Napoleonic Wars in which Spain would become a bloody battleground. [2] The Spanish American wars of independence (1808-1826) in the early nineteenth century stripped Spain of its most valuable colonies, but it retained Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam, and the Marianas, as well as various territories in Africa under Spanish rule. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Spanish possessions in America began a series of independence movements, which lead to the complete separation from Spain by the mid 1820's of Mexico, and the colonies in Central and South American. [2]

Despite these problems, the growing inflow of New World silver from the mid-16th century, the justified military reputation of the Spanish infantry, and even the quick recovery of the navy from its Armada disaster made Spain the leading European power, a novel situation of which its citizens were only just becoming aware. [2] It was not until the years after the Thirty Years' War that Spanish military power began to fade; even then, supported by a reinvigorated navy, Spain remained a major military power throughout the 18th century, in competition with Britain and France on the global stage. [2]

Both were deeply concerned when, towards the end of the seventeenth century, there appeared the possibility of a mighty political transformation in Europe by the union of the dominions of France and Spain, and by the addition to the already overwhelming power of the French monarchy of the wealth of the Spanish colonial empire. [2] By the end of the 17th century, the balance of power had shifted from Spain to France. [2]

Spanish dishes continued to be popular after the Dutch rebellion and the independence of the northern provinces in the 17th century. [2] The number of Spanish galleons deploying across the Atlantic sea routes increased significantly in the first half of the century, undoing the decline of the latter 17th century. [2] In the first half of the 17th century, Spanish ships attacked the Anatolian coast, defeating larger Ottoman fleets at the Battle of Cape Celidonia and the Battle of Cape Corvo. [2] By the beginning of the 17th century, the Spanish and Portuguese had penetrated virtually every region in the southern hemisphere, establishing numerous settlements facilitated with the help of Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries, as well as mines, ranches, and plantations. [2] As the Spanish began to expand into South America and Central America in the 17th century they discovered a wealth of mineral wealth such as gold and silver, including the legendary silver mine at Potosi. [2] Others, the buccaneers, arrived in the mid-to-late 17th century and made attempts at earning a living by farming and hunting on Hispaniola and nearby islands; pressed by Spanish raids and possibly failure of their means of making a living, they turned to a more lucrative occupation (not to mention more active and conducive to revenge). [2] The control of Guam, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, and Palau was later, from the end of the 17th century, and remained under Spanish control until 1898. [2] The number of official Mestizos rises in censuses only after the second half of the 17th century, when a sizable and stable community of mixed-race people with no claims on being either Amerindian or Spanish appeared. [2] By the 17th century, Andean healers tried by Spanish inquisitors confessed to dreams and visions wherein they received recipes for herbal medicines from the spirits. [2] A contemporary of Cervantes, Lope de Vega consolidated the essential genres and structures that would characterize the Spanish commercial drama, also known as the "Comedia," throughout the 17th century. [2] Credit emerged as a widespread tool of Spanish business in the 17th century. [2] It has been estimated that at the end of the 17th century the holdings of the Spanish church had expanded to include nearly 20% of Castilian land and that the clergy made up as much as 10% of adult males in Castile. [2]

Brinkley, p 19 However, England was checked by Spanish hegemony and did not make intrusions into America for almost a century. [2] While one could argue that Spanish hegemony in Latin America lasted until the early 19th century, with regard to the North, the first half of the 18th century clearly shows us that Britain, and to a lesser extent, France, reigned there. [2] By the seventeenth century the period of Spanish hegemony was over, and the English, French, and Dutch began to trade and form colonies in the Caribbean. [2]

In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the mid-17th century. [2] In the Spanish controversies, a century earlier, the question at hand was that of the concrete rights and obligations Spain his vis-à-vis its new subjects in the Americas. [2]

The indigenous Amerindian tribes usually had substantial numerical superiority -- and clearly superior knowledge of the local terrain at any given battle -- but these military advantages could not counter the weight of Spanish war-making technology and the war fighting experience that the Spaniards had gained in countless conflicts within Europe and elsewhere within the Empire of Spain. [2] Nevertheless the defeat of the military attack, The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589 marked a turning point in the 1585-1604 Anglo-Spanish War in Spain's favor, and few can doubt that the Spanish fleet was the strongest in Europe until the Dutch fleet inflicted defeat at the Battle of the Downs in 1639, when an increasingly exhausted Spain began to visibly weaken. [2] However the failure of the Drake-Norris Expedition to Portugal and the Azores in 1589 checked English expansion in the 1585-1604 Anglo-Spanish War, and though its ships were increasingly outgunned the Spanish fleet remained the largest in Europe, and retained much of its prestige until in 1639 the Dutch inflicted another defeat at the Battle of the Downs, when an exhausted Spain began visibly to weaken. [2]

By the beginning of the 18 th century Spain was a weakened nation, marginalized by the other nations of Europe, and never recovered to its 16th century glory. [2] These imports contributed to inflation in Spain and Europe from the last decades of the 16th century. [2]

It proved too much for Spain, and the dismantling of its empire began as early as the 17th century. [2] By the 17th century, Spain controlled an empire on a scale and world distribution that had never been approached by its predecessors. [2] At the beginning of the 17th century, Spain possessed large chunks of Latin America and the Philippines. [2] As the 17th century began, and despite her travails, Spain was still unquestionably the dominant power. [2] Spain officially claimed the island in 1565 but did not attempt to conquer it until the latter part of the 17th century. [2] Even Catalonia (part of the old Aragon) rebelled in the middle of the 17th century, although Spain managed to hang on to it. [2] This course examines the history of Spain from the late-medieval period through the 17th century from social, cultural, political, economic, and religious perspectives. [2] On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade, the island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. [2] To talk about Spain in the 19th century, we must talk about Spain in the 17th century. [2] Historians reckon the total cost in human lives due to these plagues throughout Spain, throughout the entire 17th century, to be a minimum of nearly 1.25 million. [2] Spain suffered utter decay and stagnation during the final decades of the 17th century. [2] By the second half of the 17th century, Cuba had displaced Santo Domingo as the Caribbean's most important supplier of sugar to Spain. [2] Altogether more than 1,250,000 deaths resulted from the extreme incidence of plague in 17th century Spain. [2]

The period of the 16th to the mid-17th century is known as "the Golden Age of Spain" (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro ). [2] The Spanish Golden Age (Spanish: Siglo de Oro, "Golden Century") was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. [2] It is indefensible to say that the Spanish were a world power at any point in the nineteenth century, save for a brief spit in the 1870s when the capable Alfonso XII of Spain and his thoughtful ministers succeeded in restoring some vigour to Spanish politics and prestige. [2] Through most of the twentieth century, Spanish society (unlike Spain's former colonies in the New World, Africa, and Asia ) was not ethnically diverse, except for the presence of Gypsies, who arrived in Spain in the fifteenth century. [2] Spanish settlement of the region continued, however, as the early 20th century saw a stream of immigration of poor people and political exiles from Spain to the former American colonies, especially Cuba, Mexico and Argentina. [2] The Spanish philosopher who is best known in the present epoch is Jose Ortega Gasset (1883- ), for many years professor of meta- physics in the University of Madrid, founder and director of the most important literary magazine in twentieth century Spain, the Revtsta de Occidente, If Ortega’s views are often pessimistic and his statements arbitrary, they are at least challenging and always gracefully expressed. [2] The Christian Spanish re-conquered all of Spain by the end of the fifteenth century - finally retaking Granada in 1492. [2] A whole literary movement, known as Costumbrismo, based on character sketches and articles on Spanish customs and manners, arose out of the press of Spain during the nineteenth century. [2] "Foreign visitors around the middle of the nineteenth century found Intramuros, where the Spanish elite tried to make life as much as possible like life in Spain, dull and monotonous, with few social activities and frequent religious processions. [2] Spanish Art in the Twentieth Century: The main objective of this course is to outline, in a systematic and thorough way, the evolution of Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, as well as contemporary artistic manifestations of a more ground-breaking kind, during the twentieth century in Spain. [2] Plans for the compulsory education of all Spanish children during the twentieth century further underscored the problems and needs for special education in Spain. [2]

Focusing more of their effort on fighting a multi-front war in Europe, Spanish influence in the New World declined and the settlements in Central and South America along with the Caribbean all began to experience financial decline and the loss of defending soldiers as more were recalled to Spain. [2] During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia, conquering territory and they colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. [2] Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe ). [2] The religious wars between Catholic and Protestant powers, the internal strives in several countries such as the Holy Roman Empire and France, and the struggle for the hegemony over Europe between the French kings and the Habsburg rulers of Spain and the Empire had aggravated the crisis. [2] Under King Philip II, Spain became the most powerful Catholic nation in Europe reaching the height of its power when it successfully contended with France for European hegemony, absorbed Portugal and its colonies into the empire, defeated the Ottoman Turks in the Mediterranean, occupied the Netherlands, and, finally, invaded and conquered England in 1588. [2]

KEY TOPICS Hitherto it has largely been assumed that in the "Age of Louis XIV’ Spain collapsed as a military and naval power, and only retained its empire because states which had hitherto opposed Spanish hegemony came to its aid. [2] KEY TOPICS The Canary Islands became part of Spanish territory (1495), the hegemony of Spain in the Mediterranean, to the detriment of France, was affirmed with the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, and Navarre was incorporated into the Kingdom. [2] Emigration of Spanish workers to the more industrialized countries of Western Europe, notably to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), France, Switzerland, and Belgium, increased markedly during the 1960s, but since 1973 the number of Spaniards returning to Spain has been greater than the number of those leaving. [2] With the accession of the Hapsburg Charles (Carlos) to the Spanish throne, Spain suddenly acquired large swathes of land in central and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands, Burgundy and chunks of Germany). [2] The decline of Spanish power in Europe however, was blamed solely on external sources, from the early centuries where they chose to show how both domestic and foreigners sought to ruin the greatness of Spain and play down the successes of its history, resorting to holding them back with a demonized and negative version of their colonial power which Judrias supports as the cause of why Spain is considered a backwards nation. [2] At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines. [2]

With the exception of the unconquered Spanish towns, II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 45 northern Africa, to the borders of Morocco, passed by 1540 under Turkish rule, which was not seriously threatened by any European Power until the French began their colonial expansion in Algiers in the early nine- teenth century. [2] The Spanish and the Moros of the sultanates of Maguindanao, Lanao and Sulu also waged many wars over hundreds of years in the Spanish-Moro conflict, not until the 19th century did Spain succeed in defeating the Sulu Sultanate and taking Mindanao under nominal suzerainty. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL For a period in the seventeenth century, when the Spanish and Portuguese crowns were united, Spain did control Maluku, but the Dutch eventually proved stronger. [2] It might be said roughly to include the period of the last three Spanish Philips, from about the middle of the sixteenth century to the latter part of the seventeenth: the ages of Camoens in Portugal, and m Spain of Cervantes, of Lope de Vega, El Greco, Velazquez, and a host of only slightly less-endowed geniuses. [2]

The Criollos were a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Latin America, composed of the locally born people of pure or mostly Spanish ancestry. [2] KEY TOPICS The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. [2] Their accounts are similar to Spanish conquerors accounts contained in petitions for rewards and these were almost immediately published in Spain and later in other parts of Europe. [2] The term "Spanish court ceremonial" suggests where contemporaries suspected its origins lay and is testimony to the perception of a cultural gradient between Spain and the rest of Europe. [2] It is true that all that treasure is brought home in Spanish names, but Spain herself is no more than the canal through which all these treasures are conveyed over the rest of Europe. [2] Although the heresy-hunting of the Spanish Inquisition resulted in a vast number of victims being burned throughout Europe, in Spain itself witchcraft persecutions were relatively more restrained than elsewhere, and there were relatively fewer burnings. [2] The Index of the Spanish Inquisition not only included the work of the reformers but also the writings of Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536) and other humanists. 51 But also the witch-hunting manuals, which were widespread in Central Europe, such as the Malleus Maleficarum of the Dominican Heinrich Kramer (Henricus Institoris, 1430-1505), were prohibited in Spain. [2]

Under a series of exceptionally able rulers, this form of government might have maintained Spanish prosperity and power, while repressing enlightenment, but it was the peculiar curse of Spain that the last three Hapsburg princes, whose reigns filled the whole of the sixteenth century, were weak, and their choice of favorites, ghostly and secular, was unwise. [2] The Spanish court ceremonial, which has with some justice been credited with a model function in European court culture, is of considerable interest to the question of the significance of Spain as the starting point in cultural transfers during the 16 th century. [2] In the light of the military omnipresence of the Spanish monarchy and the enormous extent of its realm, it is not astonishing that Spain became to a particular degree the starting point and node of cultural transfer processes in the 16 th century. [2] This is what the phrase "Spanish Golden Age" or Siglo de Oro (century of gold) refers to the typical picture of Spain as a powerhouse economically, politically, and artistically in the 16 th century. [2] The influx of treasure in the sixteenth century drove Spanish prices up till Spain could only compete through tariffs and restrictions. [2]

The country had been in a religious civil war from 1610 to 1627 and they were to face Spain, the preeminent power in Europe that had over a century of conducting war under its belt. [2] What’s interesting and unique about Spain’s ascension to its status as Europe’s most powerful force is that it came from the inheritances of Charles V. Yes, Spains possessions in the Americas came from exploration and conquest but what really gave them an upper hand for the better part of the next century and a half was the lands it had scattered all throughout Europe. [2] The territories of Spain and its Austrian allies encircled France and prevented it from intervening in Italy or Germany, since more than a century the battle grounds of Europe. [2]

Spain in the 16th cent. (the Golden Century) was the first power of the world, with an empire "on which the sun never set," with fleets on every sea, and with a brilliant cultural, artistic, and intellectual life. [2]

In a way that was beneficial to Spain, little happened until 1630 that posed a military threat to Spanish hegemony. [2] When the French defeated the Spanish Army at Rocroi in 1643, it was, at the least, the symbolic end of Spanish hegemony and the beginning of French predominance in Europe. [2] There were many battles within Europe where Spain was involved, such as the Firt Italian War and Second Italian War under the reing of Charles V. Howerver, what Spain didn't expect was that soon it would lose it's hegemony as the most important European empire. [2] By the end of the 19th century, those holdings had been whittled down to Cuba alone, and by that time the once-hegemonic Spain had been crushed in a series of European wars, reducing it to a second-rate regional power largely limited to southwestern Europe. [2] In the middle of the century, Spain developed the galleon for naval warfare, using them in convoys to link her possessions in the Philippines, the Americas and Europe. [2] The Cortes, or national assembly, an institution which grew up in Spain before it did in the rest of Europe, diminished in power with the growth of royal authority in the fifteenth century. [2] This course surveys nearly a thousand years of Jewish history, religion, and culture in Europe from the Islamic conquest of Spain (711 C.E.) to the rise of the Sabbatian movement in the midseventeenth century. [2]

Perhaps - despite all contrary tendencies - in this sense the Spanish century is best considered a century of accelerating cultural exchange within Europe and beyond the limits of the continent. [2] In viewing the cultural history of New Mexico, Espinosa reminded his readers that its first century as a Spanish colony, the 17th, was the second great century of Spain's Golden Age of arts and letters. [2] By the early 20th century, Indonesia began a movement for independence which grew particularly large between World Wars I and II and Japan occupied Indonesia during WWII. Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans--the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British--sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' of Indonesia. [2] The Cross of Burgundy, used by Spanish naval and military forces under the House of Habsburg and sporadically as a war flag until 1843; it is germane to stories set in the 16th and 17th centuries, such as Ruled Britannia. [2] Like the English, Dutch interest in the Caribbean expanded with the decline of Spanish power in the 16th and 17th centuries. [2] During the 16th and 17th centuries, Spanish soldiers, missionaries and adventurers also established pioneering communities, primarily in Paraná, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo, and forts on the northeastern coast threatened by the French and Dutch. [2]

In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget " Since the 16th century, genuine European colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain were distinguished by developing a concept of their world rule and basing it on the legacy of Rome. [2] "The major colonizers of Southeast Asia were Europeans, Japanese and the U.S. All in all, there were seven colonial powers in Southeast Asia: Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, the United States, and Japan " Since the 16th century, genuine European colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain were distinguished by developing a concept of their world rule and basing it on the legacy of Rome. [2]

From the middle of the 16th century, silver and gold from American mines increasingly financed the military capability of Habsburg Spain in its long series of European and North African wars. [2]

With the massive influx of Spanish (South American) silver in the 16th century however, coupled with the onset of ideological (religious) wars with the Protestant Reformation, the traditional campaign season was increasingly ignored and rulers had to maintain armies all year round - something only a handful could afford to do. [2] Between the 16th century and the 18th century, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons, during the Spanish-American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21,1898. [2]

Works such as the Gu'a de los pecadores by the Dominican priest Luis de Granada (1504-1588) became bestsellers in Catholic Europe and were found in every French monastic library of the 17 th century. 49 Spanish theologians played a major role in the Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation. [2] Although the Spanish language began its global victory march in the 16 th century, it never became a lingua franca in Europe - as opposed to Latin before and French after. [2]

The Spanish and Portuguese had turned early to the African slave trade, already flourishing in late medieval Europe, as they staked out colonies in the New World during the sixteenth century. [2]

This evolved from the Council of the Indies and Viceroyalties into an Intendant system, in an attempt for more revenue and efficiency. 19th century During the Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. [2] Spain was left virtually empty,, and the Muslims retook Spain and made in roads into the rest of Europe, This time, the Muslims made sure of their control of the peninsula, resulting in a Spain with a Muslim character persisting into the 21st century. [2] By the time Napolean invaded Spain they were trying to fight him with weapons and tactics that had been abandoned over a century earlier in much of Europe. [2] It was poured away on military campaigns that were in the end unsuccessful, though they brought Spain to the dominant military position in Western Europe for a century. [2] The Muslims translated many of the Ancient Greek texts into Arabic and, in the middle of the 11th Century, scholars from all around Europe flocked to Spain to translate these books from Arabic into Latin. [2] The twentieth century in Spain opened with a backward political system compared to the rest of Europe. [2]

The decline culminated in regard to control over European territories, with the Peace of Utrecht ( 1713 ), signed by a monarch who came from one of the rival powers, Felipe V : Spain renounced its territories in Italy and the Netherlands Netherlands, lost hegemony in Europe, resigned to continue to dominate European politics. [2] The Spanish Constitution will be as unchanging as the Rosetta Stone Europe will ignore the paradigm shift from the hegemony of France an Germany to the creation (or re-establishment) of autonomous and smaller nations like Catalonia If needed, the Spanish government will continue to send paramilitary forces to impose their law. [2] Brief phase is Napoelon (at the best. very "best" between 1792-1815), or Hitler or Bismarck. but the Spanish military hegemony in Europe was, as minima, 170 years, around 7 generations. [2]

Arbitristas was the Spanish word for those who proposed introducing new arbitrios (sales taxes) to save the economy of Spain, that had been ruined by the price revolution and the wars that the Spanish Empire was carrying in Europe. [2] The Spanish Empire consisted of the territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. [2]

In the seventeenth century, Spain declined but France rose to become the greatest power in Europe. [2] The French gained the western part of Santo Domingo in 76 IV B. Powers of Eighteenth Century : Greater Europe, 1697, when Spain recognised their occupation, Santa Lucia in 1763, and Tobago in 1783. [2] In the early eighteenth century disaster still beset the retreating Ottoman empire. 1--2 Introduction, While these changes took place in Europe, England turned her energies to rich fields of opportunity east and west, hitherto monopolised by Spain and Portugal, and began the building of Greater Britain. [2]

The vast quantities of precious metals, especially silver, flowing from Mexico and Peru to Spain played an essential role in the expansion of Europe's economic and political power throughout the world after the fifteenth century. [2] In a manner of speaking, the other side of this narrative is the image of Spain, described toward the end of the 19 th century as the leyenda negra, which took shape during the 16 th century in the Protestant territories of Europe and remains partially effective even in the present time. 4 The hegemonic power Spain functioned as a negative foil against which its opponents attempted to differentiate themselves. [2] Under the Habsburgs, Spain dominated Europe politically and militarily for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but experienced a gradual decline of influence in the second half of the seventeenth century under the later Habsburg kings. [3] The final decades of the seventeenth century saw decay and stagnation in Spain; while the rest of Western Europe went through changes in government and society--the Glorious Revolution in England and the reign of the Sun King in France--Spain remained adrift. [4]

The Spanish governor of Louisiana (New Spain) Bernardo de Gálvez carried out an anti-British policy due to the numerous British attacks to take control of the riches of the Spanish Empire over the past century. [2]

Until the 16th century the Philippines remained unknown to the world at large: then the Filipinos suddenly found themselves being fought over by Spaniards from Mexico and Moslems the Moros -- from Borneo. (The islands are named after the Spanish king of the time, Philip II of Armada fame. [2] Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century. [2] The first Spanish exploration of the northwest part of Mexico -- ironically, given the presence of the spectacular natural harbors at moden-day Mazatlan and Topolobampo and the expertise of 16th century Spanish sailors -- was destined to be by land, not by sea. [2] First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. [2] The French were the most dangerous foes of the Spanish early in the 16th century, with the Protestant (Huguenot) captains from La Rochelle figuring prominently. [1]

Lasarte Epic and Satire in the Spanish American Colonies: 16th and 17th centuries Critical readings of "La Araucana" by Ercilla,"Espejo de paciencia" by Silvestre de Balboa, "Sátira al Peru de 1598" by Rosas de Oquendo, and a selection of satirical works by Valle y Caviedes and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. [2] The 16th and 17th centuries marked the zenith of the Spanish power. [2] The Spanish penetrated the area in the 16th and 17th centuries and tried to convert the Maya to Christianity, but with little success. [5]

Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before the arrival of spanish people. [2] During the second half of the 16th century, Spanish power suffered from over-extension and economic stagnation. [1] The Pre-classic or Formative period is taken as being from around 2000 BC to 300 AD whilst the Classic period, representing the golden age of the Mayans, covered the years 300 AD to 900 AD. The Post-classic period covers the decline of the Mayans from 900 to the early years of the 16th century and the arrival of the Spanish. [1] Under Charles I the Inquisition became a formal department in the Spanish government, hurtling out of control as the 16th century progressed. [1] The prominence of Italian cookbooks continued into the 16th century, when recipes from the impressive Opera (Work), by Bartolomeo Scappi--private cook to the pope--were published in Spanish and Dutch versions. [1] In the 16th century, the Spanish and Portuguese conquered most of South America. [1] In the late 16th century, the Japanese, under Hideyoshi, claimed control of the Philippines and for a time the Spanish paid tribute to secure their trading routes and protect Jesuit missionaries in Japan. [2] Early records claim that Maynila was named after the Yamstick Mangrove ( Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, whose local name was "nila" or "nilad", by the time the Spanish colonizers arrived in the late 16th century. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(30 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (197) Spanish Hegemony (Europe, 16th and 17th Century)

2. (185) Defensive Warfare, Prevention and Hegemony: The Justifications for the Franco-Spanish War of 1635 - Institute for International Law and Justice

3. (177) Spanish Empire - Wikipedia

4. (113) Spanish Hegemony (Americas, 16th Century - 1820s)

5. (92) Spanish Empire - New World Encyclopedia

6. (82) History of Spain |

7. (71) Habsburg Spain - Wikipedia

8. (66) When did Spain become a minor nation? It was once a world power equal to the UK and France. What happened? - Quora

9. (48) Spain and Catholicism | Boundless World History

10. (29) europe - Decline of the Spanish empire? - History Stack Exchange

11. (28) The Early Modern "Spanish Century"

12. (22) The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (16th - 17th Centuries)

13. (21) The Decline of Spain & Emergence of Competing Powers - Video & Lesson Transcript |

14. (17) Spanish Empire Facts for Kids |

15. (14) Assessing the Success of Portuguese and Spanish Exploration and Colonization

16. (13) France in the 17th Century - Renaissance and Reformation - Oxford Bibliographies

17. (10) Silver, Trade, and War

18. (8) When dressing Spanish’ was in style | BBVA

19. (7) U8. spanish hegemony 16 century

20. (7) History. Facts and figures about Spain | USA

21. (5) 16th Century - The Empire Expands

22. (5) Chapter 8 The New World

23. (4) 17th C Spain. Overview: Politics

24. (4) British Empire (British Hegemony) | Alternative History | FANDOM powered by Wikia

25. (4) The Dutch in the 17th century


27. (3) 16th and 17th Century England

28. (2) Conquest : Political Concepts: Issue One

29. (2) Origins of Dutch World-trade Hegemony - Oxford Scholarship

30. (1) Final Exam Terms Johnson-West Flashcards | Quizlet

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