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Spanish Hegemony (Philippines, 1525 - 1898)

Spanish Hegemony (Philippines, 1525 - 1898)

C O N T E N T S:

  • On May 1, 1898, the Spanish navy was decisively defeated in the Battle of Manila Bay by the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia Thereafter Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines.(More...)
  • The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre.(More...)
  • In the Treaty of Paris (1898) ending the Spanish-American War, the Spanish agreed to sell the Philippines to the United States for $ 20 million which was subsequently narrowly ratified by the U.S. Senate.(More...)

  • The collapse of central Spanish authority resulted in successful wars of independence amongst Spain's American colonies, drastically reducing the size of her empire, and in turn led to a sequence of civil wars in Spain itself, many fought by frustrated veterans of the French and colonial campaigns.(More...)


On May 1, 1898, the Spanish navy was decisively defeated in the Battle of Manila Bay by the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia Thereafter Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines. [1] Spanish rule ended in 1898 with Spains defeat in the Spanish-American War, the Philippines then became a territory of the United States. [1] The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula precipitated the Spanish American wars of independence (1808-1826), resulting the loss of its most valuable colonies, but Spain retained Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and the Marianas as well as various territories in Africa under Spanish rule. [2] At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines, from the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World. [1] In the 16th century the Spanish overseas territories were divided in two viceroyalties: New Spain (1535) for North America, Antilles, the Philippines and Venezuela, and Peru (1542) for South America, which was divided in the 18th century. [1] By doing so, the Philippines was unintentionally exempted from the harsh conditions of the plantation system and slave trade common to other Spanish colonies. 82 19 MAP 8: British Occupation of Manila and Other Security Threats from 1600 to 1764 The Philippines became an important colony of Spain -- it was its entrepot and Catholic outpost in Asia. [1] On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. [1] The First Philippine Republic was established after the Philippine Revolution against Spanish Empire, in December 1898, Spain sold the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, making the United States formally the Philippines colonial power. [1] The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish Colonial Period, started with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, which heralded the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ended with the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American Colonial Era of Philippine history. [1]

Spanish colonial rule saw the introduction of Christianity, the code of law, the Philippines was ruled under the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain until Mexican independence. [1] At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines. [1] Some historians use "Habspurg" and "Spanish" almost interchangeably when referring to the dynastic inheritance of Charles V or Philip II. The U.S. paid Spain $20 million to vacate Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. [1] While the Philippines was understood to be the Spanish East Indies, the current King of Spain still uses the title 'King of the Spanish East Indies'. [1] Manila Galleons were Spanish cargo vessels that sailed between ports on the western coast of New Spain to Manila in the Spanish East Indies, now the Philippines. [1] The Spanish-Moro Conflict was a series of wars lasting over several centuries from the beginning of Spanish colonization of the Philippines, to the Spanish-American War when Spain finally began to subjugate Moroland after centuries of failing to do so. [1]

He invaded the Spanish possessions in Italy in 1521, inaugurating the second war of Franco-Spanish conflict, the war was a disaster for France, which suffered defeat in the Battle of Biccoca (1522), the Battle of Pavia (1525), in which Francis I was captured and imprisoned in Madrid, and in the Battle of Landriano (1529) before Francis relented and abandoned Milan to Spain. [1] General Wesley Merritt then met with Spanish Governor General Fermin Jaudenes, thus concluding a preliminary agreement in the terms of surrender of the Spaniards. 113 24 The United States declared war on Spain on February 15, 1898. [1]

KEY TOPICS Hitherto it has largely been assumed that in the "Age of Louis XIV’ Spain collapsed as a military and naval power, and only retained its empire because states which had hitherto opposed Spanish hegemony came to its aid. [1] The events of 1492 brought senses of both a renewed and an emergent nation through the reestablishment of Christian hegemony on Spanish soil and the achievement of new power in the New World, which placed Spain in the avant garde of all Europe. [1]

Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines. (V.D. -H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98) 1522 Sep 8, Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. [1] On June 2, 1899, the last Spanish garrison in the Philippines, located in Baler, Aurora, was pulled out, effectively ending nearly 400 years of Spanish hegemony in Asia. [1] Prior to this, a brief war with the United States resulted in the loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, in 1898, thus completing the dissolution of the Spanish overseas empire. [1] Cuba, Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico and Spanish East Indies (including Mariana Islands and the Philippines ) remained a part of the Spanish crown until the SpanishAmerican War ( 1898 ). [1] The Philippines, the Pacific islands of Guam, the Mariana Islands, and the Caroline Islands remained under Spanish control until the Spanish American War, 1898. [1] In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the emancipation of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally given up in 1898, following the Spanish-American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. [1] In 1898, the United States won the Spanish-American War and occupied Cuba, Puerto Rico (and the Philippines in Asia Pacific), ending Spanish rule in America. [1]

That war ended in December 1898 with Spains surrender and annexation of the Philippines to the United States, however, cut off from communications with their own government and military, the Spanish forces continued their defense against the Filipino forces until 1899. [1]

If and to what extent 16 th century Spain can truly be considered the example or model for the rest of Europe and in what way the Spanish hegemony affected cultural transfer processes inside and outside Europe will be discussed in the context of the following survey. [1] In a way that was beneficial to Spain, little happened until 1630 that posed a military threat to Spanish hegemony. [1]

On May 1, 1898, in the Battle of Manila Bay, the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy, led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia, decisively defeated the Spanish naval forces in the Philippines. [1] MAP 13: The American Capture of Manila and Subsequent Movements (August 13, 1898) Battle of Manila Bay On April 27, 1898, the U.S. Asiatic Squadron led by Commodore George Dewey sailed from Mirs Bay near Hong Kong to launch an attack against the Spanish fleet in the Philippines. [1] On May 1, 1898, as the Philippine Revolution continued unabated in the Visayan provinces, the American fleet, led by Commodore George Dewey, destroyed the Spanish fleet under the command of Admiral Patricio Montojo at the Battle of Manila Bay. [1]

Battle of Manila Bay Battle of Manila Bay, (May 1, 1898), defeat of the Spanish Pacific fleet by the U.S. Navy, resulting in the fall of the Philippines and contributing to the final U.S. victory in the Spanish-American War. [1] A session of congress of the short-lived First Philippine Republic The Spanish-American war began in 1898 after the USS Maine, sent to Cuba in connection with an attempt to arrange a peaceful resolution between Cuban independence ambitions and Spanish colonialism, exploded and sank in Havana harbor. [1] In 1897, Philippine forces led by Aguinaldo signed a ceasefire with the Spanish authorities and Aguinaldo, in April 1898, the Spanish-American War broke out. [1] In the Treaty of Paris (1898) ending the Spanish-American War, the Spanish agreed to sell the Philippines to the United States for $ 20 million which was subsequently narrowly ratified. [1] In the Philippines, the Spanish-American War (1898) brought the islands under U.S. jurisdiction, with English being taught in schools and becoming a second official language with Spanish. [1] The Philippines together with the Pacific islands of Guam, the Mariana Islands, and the Caroline Islands remained under Spanish control until 1898. [1] After Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila, the U.S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines, which he did on May 19, 1898, in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. [1] This article covers the history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, known as the Spanish Colonial Time. [1]

February 1565 de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor general of the Philippines, was called El Viejo and El Adelantado, arrived on Samar island on board his flagship Capitana piloted by seasoned navigator-priest Andres Urdaneta who was earlier with the 1525 expedition of Fray Garcia Jofre de Loaiza. [1] The Spanish Empire covered most territories of South and Central America, Mexico, some of Eastern Asia (including the Philippines), the Iberian peninsula (including the Portuguese empire invaded by the Kingdom of Spain and the Duke of Alba in 1580 ), southern Italy, Sicily, Germany, and the Netherlands. [1] With the conquest and settlement of the Philippines, the Spanish Empire reached its greatest extent; in 1564, Miguel López de Legazpi was commissioned by the viceroy of New Spain (Mexico), Don Luis de Velasco, to lead an expedition in the Pacific Ocean to find the Spice Islands, where earlier explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy López de Villalobos had landed in 1521 and 1543, respectively. [1]

All major colonial European powers (as well as, later, the United States and Japan ) took part in the long history of colonialism in the region: In the twentieth century the Netherlands was in control of Indonesia ; Portugal, of East Timor; the United States, of the Philippines (taken from Spain after 1898); France, of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia (so-called French Indochina); and Great Britain, of Malaya and Myanmar (Burma). [1] The maps in this section show the changes in territory that resulted from the Treaty of Paris, Philippine and American dispositions before the outbreak of the war, the battles between Filipino and American forces, the U.S. military’s three-pronged attack to capture Aguinaldo in northern Luzon, and the American campaign in Mindanao. 27 MAP 15: Treaty of Paris of 1898 On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris was signed between the United States and Spain. [1] Over the next 3 years U.S. casualties in the Philippines war totaled over 4,000. (AP, 8/12/97)(WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/12/00)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.D1)(WSJ, 7/2/03, p.B1) 1898 Oct 18, The American flag was raised in Puerto Rico shortly before Spain formally relinquished control of the island to the U.S. (AP, 10/18/97) 1898 Dec 10, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the Spanish-American War. [1] Spain held onto significant fragments of its empire in America ( Cuba and Puerto Rico ), Asia (Philippines), and Oceania ( Guam, Micronesia, Palau, Northern Marianas and Marshall Islands ) until the Spanish-American War of 1898, and in Africa ( Equatorial Guinea, North of Morocco, Western Sahara ) until 1975. [1] Outside of America, the United States added a colonial dominion in Hawaii and Guam, in 1898, the Philippines and 75 Porto Rico, taken from Spain, at the Peace of Paris, in the same year, and the Samoan island of Tutuila and its dependencies, in 1900. [1] In the Treaty of Paris signed in December 1898, the United States "purchased" the colony from Spain for $20 million and the Philippines came under a second colonial power. [1] Abroad, imperial Spain lost most of its dominions in the Western Hemisphere as a result of colonial rebellions in the first half of the 19th century; Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines were lost as a result of the Spanish-American War in 1898. [1] It begins with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, covers the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ends with the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, the beginning of the American Colonial Era of Philippine history. [1]

At the end of the century most of the remaining Spanish Empire ( Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam ) was lost in the Spanish American War in 1898. [1] XXV The Road to Unhappiness I N 1898 Spain lost a war to a far more powerful nation, and Cuba and the Philippines were taken from her. [1] Spain retained significant fragments of its empire in the Caribbean ( Cuba and Puerto Rico ); Asia ( Philippines ), and Oceania ( Guam, Micronesia, Palau, and Northern Marianas ) until the Spanish-American War of 1898. [1] More and more communities rallied to the cause of independence--not only in the Tagalog provinces but also in northern Luzon (excluding the Cordilleras), southern Luzon, the Visayas, and northern Mindanao--and military clashes continued.24 The Malolos Republic On February 15, 1898, the United States declared war on Spain, and the Philippine Revolution became embroiled in the Spanish-American War. [1] There, the most extensive acquisitions were simply a purchase from Spain of her three islands groups, the Marianas, Carolines, and Marshalls, east of the Philippines (which the United States took in 1898). [1] On June 12, 1898 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence declaring independence from Spain and later established the First Philippine Republic. [1] On June 12, 1898, in Kawit, Cavite, Philippine independence from Spain was proclaimed and a dictatorial government led by Aguinaldo was established. [1] The House of Emilio Aguinaldo is where the proclamation of Philippine Independence from Spain took place on June 12, 1898. [1] On June 12, 1898 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence declaring independence from Spain. [1] It also pointed to the insidious truth that the Sultanate of Sulu was not conquered or controlled like other parts of the Philippines ceded by Spain in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. [1] The 1898 Treaty of Paris was a treaty of surrender of Spain to the USA, whereby Spain ceded and sold her territories to the USA for 20 million dollars such as Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and Philippines. [1] As if all this were not enough, by 1825 Spain had also suffered the devastating loss of all its overseas possessions, except Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines; in 1898 these too were lost following Spain’s humiliating defeat by the United States. [1] From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from Mexico, via the Royal Audiencia of Manila, and administered directly from Spain from 1821 after the Mexican revolution, until 1898. [1]

The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre. [1] Due to dogmatism on both sides, Spanish oppression, and multiple wars on multiple fronts (including a brutal 80 years war in the Netherlands and 30 years war in Germany), Spanish hegemony in Europe never took. [1] While one could argue that Spanish hegemony in Latin America lasted until the early 19th century, with regard to the North, the first half of the 18th century clearly shows us that Britain, and to a lesser extent, France, reigned there. [1] During the 17th century, the success of the Dutch challenging Portuguese and Spanish hegemony, led several other European powers to attempt to establish overseas trading posts or settlements, with varying degrees of success. [1] By the seventeenth century the period of Spanish hegemony was over, and the English, French, and Dutch began to trade and form colonies in the Caribbean. [1] Brinkley, p 19 However, England was checked by Spanish hegemony and did not make intrusions into America for almost a century. [1] When the French defeated the Spanish Army at Rocroi in 1643, it was, at the least, the symbolic end of Spanish hegemony and the beginning of French predominance in Europe. [1] Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. [1] The Dutch Republic was similarly poised to vie for European supremacy after it completed an 80-year struggle to throw off the shackles of Spanish hegemony in 1648. [1] Spanish hegemony remained unchallenged until 1670, with the English establishment of Charles Towne, South Carolina and brought down a slave raid to St. Catherines, the northernmost outpost of the Spanish Empire on the east coast of North America. [1]

In the Treaty of Paris (1898) ending the Spanish-American War, the Spanish agreed to sell the Philippines to the United States for $ 20 million which was subsequently narrowly ratified by the U.S. Senate. [3] U.S. (1898-1946) : After the global triumph of the U.S. over Spain in 1898, the U.S. moved in to colonize the Philippines. [4]

The collapse of central Spanish authority resulted in successful wars of independence amongst Spain's American colonies, drastically reducing the size of her empire, and in turn led to a sequence of civil wars in Spain itself, many fought by frustrated veterans of the French and colonial campaigns. [1] Wars for independence spread quickly, and Spanish royalist forces lost one colony after another in decisive conflicts, culminating in the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824 in Peru, which effectively diminished Spain's domination in the Americas (which was already dampened by Napoleon's invasion of Spain in the same period). [1] Spain's continental power was ended by wars with England, the Netherlands, and France in the 17th century and by the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 14), which also established the Bourbon (Borb ó n) dynasty in Spain. [1] It was not until the years after the Thirty Years' War that Spanish military power began to fade; even then, supported by a reinvigorated navy, Spain remained a major military power throughout the 18th century, in competition with Britain and France on the global stage. [1]

POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL European wars and American adventure consumed no small amount of Spanish man power, but at least America sent Spain abundant gold and silver, and the mother country enjoyed with her new colonies a very extensive and profitable trade. [1] The indigenous Amerindian tribes usually had substantial numerical superiority -- and clearly superior knowledge of the local terrain at any given battle -- but these military advantages could not counter the weight of Spanish war-making technology and the war fighting experience that the Spaniards had gained in countless conflicts within Europe and elsewhere within the Empire of Spain. [1] Nevertheless the defeat of the military attack, The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589 marked a turning point in the 1585-1604 Anglo-Spanish War in Spain's favor, and few can doubt that the Spanish fleet was the strongest in Europe until the Dutch fleet inflicted defeat at the Battle of the Downs in 1639, when an increasingly exhausted Spain began to visibly weaken. [5] However the failure of the Drake-Norris Expedition to Portugal and the Azores in 1589 checked English expansion in the 1585-1604 Anglo-Spanish War, and though its ships were increasingly outgunned the Spanish fleet remained the largest in Europe, and retained much of its prestige until in 1639 the Dutch inflicted another defeat at the Battle of the Downs, when an exhausted Spain began visibly to weaken. [1] In the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713), England, the Dutch Republic, German states, Austria, Prussia, and Portugal all formed a grand alliance to keep the Spanish royal line from switching from the Hapsburgs to the Bourbons, which, it was feared, would make Spain and its possessions a tool for French interests. [1] In 1808 the Spanish king was tricked and Spain was taken over by Napoleon without firing a shot, but the brutal French provoked a popular uprising from the Spanish people and the grinding guerrilla warfare, which Napoleon dubbed his "ulcer," the Peninsular War, (famously depicted by the painter Goya ) ensued, followed by a power vacuum lasting up to a decade and turmoil for several decades, civil wars on succession disputes, a republic, and finally a liberal democracy. [5] By addressing the declaration not the Spanish King himself but to his representative in the Netherlands, France left the door ajar later to deny that it had declared war on Philip IV and Spain. [1] The Netherlands rebelled against Philip and later Spanish rulers, so it became a major liability, instead of a major asset, especially since the war dragged on for 80 years, (with some breaks), during which Spain went bankrupt several times. [1] Giving even more cause for the French colonists to attack the Spanish, France went to war with Spain on behalf of Germany in the Thirty Years War. [1] The century began with the War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to the throne of Spain and ended with the Napoleonic Wars in which Spain would become a bloody battleground. [1] Spain's European possessions were given up at the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, but Spain retained its vast overseas empire. [1] The Spanish American War was a devastating blow to the nation of Spain because it marked the definitive end of its Empire. [1] The Decree of War to the Death, in Spanish Decreto de Guerra a Muerte, was a decree issued by the South American separatist leader, Simón Bol'var, which permitted murder and any atrocities whatsoever to be committed against civilians born in Spain (or the Canary Islands), other than those actively assisting South American independence, and furthermore exonerated Latin Americans who had already committed such murders and atrocities. [1] The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the fragmentation of the former viceroyalties into independent nation-states. [1] The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) was both a civil and international war in which the French backed the Bourbon contender for the Spanish throne and an alliance led by Austria, the Netherlands and Britain backed the Habsburg contender while a divided Spain fought on both sides. [1] The Napoleonic Wars had not only absorbed British attention but had also shattered Spanish power (Napoleon actually succeeded in capturing the king of Spain early in the conflicts). [1] Moroccan Sultan (then King ) Mohammed V was interesting in these Northern African Spanish territories and there was a Invasion of Spanish Sahara by Moroccan army, also known as the Ifni War and, in Spain, the Forgotten War (la Guerra Ignorada). [1] Moroccan Sultan (later King ) Mohammed V was interested in these territories and invaded Spanish Sahara in 1957 (The Ifni War, or, in Spain, the Forgotten War, la Guerra Olvidada ). [1]

Through the declaration by the Cardinal-Infante, the Spanish however recognized that a state of war existed between France and Spain. [1] Louis XIV of France seized the opportunity for further aggrandisement by invading the Spanish Netherlands, and although this was humiliating for Spain, at least the country was finally rid of one of the ulcers that had drained it for close to two centuries: ironically, France was temporarily bankrupted by Louis' wars. [1] The claim that France’s war against and invasion of the Spanish Netherlands was a defensive reaction against an imminent attack by Spain was not exactly true, but France had some reason to fear an invasion. [1] The Treaty of Münster ended the Spanish Eighty Years' War in 1648, with Spain recognizing the independence of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. [1] Lima had been the seat of the Spanish viceroys until this time. (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97) 1821 Aug 23, After 11 years of war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy. [1] The Spanish and the Moros of the sultanates of Maguindanao, Lanao and Sulu also waged many wars over hundreds of years in the Spanish-Moro conflict, not until the 19th century did Spain succeed in defeating the Sulu Sultanate and taking Mindanao under nominal suzerainty. [1] The Watergeuzen (or simply Geuzen) were a fleet of privateers during the Eighty Years War, the Low Countries (or Netherlands) rebellion against the Spanish occupation, which began during the reign of Philip II of Spain (in the 1550s). [1] The authors of the Declaration du Roy of June 6 stated that the joint Franco-Dutch invasion of the Spanish Netherlands was the first operation of the war because the population there had been suffering for so long under Spanish "servitude’ and the war against Spain. [1] The war secured the Spanish throne for the Bourbon Philip as Philip V of Spain at the Peace of Utrecht but in the war's settlement, Spain had to give up the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan, Sardinia, Sicily, Gibraltar and Menorca to the Habsburg allies. [1] His debt at his death amounted to 85 million ducats, or 300 tons of gold. (HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 5/21/02) 1527 Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish soldier, was appointed 2nd in command under Panfilo de Narvaez (47), to explore the recently discovered land of Florida. (ON, 10/03, p.1) 1528 Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. [1] A major vein was struck in 1768. (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7) 1558 Jul 13, Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France. (HN, 7/13/98) 1558 Sep 21, Charles V (b.1500), King of Spain (Carlos I), former Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), died. [1] They settled in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns. (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2) 1779 Jun 16, Spain, in support of the U.S., declared war on England. (MC, 6/16/02) 1779 Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet. (MC, 6/16/02) 1779 Jul 24, The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. [1] The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. [1] For this reason, when the Spanish Governor of Paraguay received the news about the war between Portugal and Spain, he sent an expeditionary force to take what he imagined to be the weakest point in the border, the fort of Coimbra. [1] Focusing more of their effort on fighting a multi-front war in Europe, Spanish influence in the New World declined and the settlements in Central and South America along with the Caribbean all began to experience financial decline and the loss of defending soldiers as more were recalled to Spain. [1] The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain. [1] The Napoleonic Wars were to have a tremendous impact on Spanish military history, both within Spain itself and across her American colonies. [1] Not far removed from how Spanish mercenaries treated the Incan emperor, President McKinley made demands of Spain as he rattled his saber, and even after Spain capitulated, meeting all American demands, McKinley still declared war on them. [1] The Spanish fleet in the Mediterranean was being prepared, plans for a multiple attack had been entertained in Spanish government circles, and Spain had been pressuring the Emperor for months to declare war on France. [1] The Portuguese Restoration War (Portuguese: Guerra da Restauração; Spanish: Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century 'romantic' historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668. [1] In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Sir George Rooke captured Gibraltar for the British, and Spain formally ceded it to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. [1] The Treaty of Paris of 1763 restored Spanish rule and in 1764 the British left the country fearing another costly war with Spain. [1]

His death in 1700 ended the Habsburg Dynasty, led to the War of the Spanish Succession, and contributed to the continuation of the decline of Spains influence in European affairs. [1] In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the mid-17th century. [1] Despite these problems, the growing inflow of New World silver from the mid-16th century, the justified military reputation of the Spanish infantry, and even the quick recovery of the navy from its Armada disaster made Spain the leading European power, a novel situation of which its citizens were only just becoming aware. [1] KEY TOPICS POSSIBLY USEFUL At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Spanish possessions in America began a series of independence movements, which lead to the complete separation from Spain by the mid 1820's of Mexico, and the colonies in Central and South American. [1] The bulk of Spain's Empire was held for over three centuries, starting in 1492 with the Spanish colonization of the Americas and lasting until the early 19th century Spanish American wars of independence that left only Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as Spanish. [1] The Alliance had several purposes: retrieve the Spanish Crown to Gibraltar and Minorca; obtain for Austria's great commercial benefits in the American colonies of Spain; dismember France as much as possible and divide up their domains; assign Belgium and different Italian for the Emperor possessions while it would weaken the English maritime Empire. [1] The Spanish reconquest attempts in Mexico were episodes of war in Mexico that were comprised in clashes between the newly born Mexican nation and Spain, mainly covered two periods first attempts from 1821 to 1825 and the defense of territorial waters and second period divided into two stages includes the Mexican expansion plan to take Cuba between 1826 and 1828 and the 1829 expedition of Spanish General Isidro Barradas on Mexican soil. [1] With the French victory in the War of the Spanish Succession, the Bourbon dynasty was established in Spain and its overseas possessions. [1] Although the new Spanish steam frigates were superior to local vessels, the huge distances and lack of land support ultimately concluded with Spain handing back the islands at the end of the Chincha Islands War. [1] The Spanish had been debasing their currency to pay for the war and prices exploded in Spain just as they had in previous years in Austria. [1] The Ifni War, also known as the 1957 Invasion of Spanish Sahara and, in Spain, the Forgotten War (la Guerra Ignorada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents and indigenous Sahrawi rebels that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege of. [1] The War of the Spanish Succession might have been avoided if the Archduke Charles had not received support within Spain. [1] The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. [1] The Spanish Ambassador had offered Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain as a spouse for King Charles II along with a generous dowry of £200,000, more than the double the amount the Portuguese had offered to France. [1] A possible Spanish naval assault by Charles V, King of Spain, from the Low Countries in 1539 never materializes as a result of quarrels between Spain and France. [1] This became the National Day of Catalonia (Diada) first celebrated in 1886. (, 11/24/12, p.25) 1715 Jul 30, Eleven of twelve Spanish ships carrying gold and silver disappeared in a hurricane near Vero Beach, Florida. ( 1716-1788 Charles III, (Carlos III) king of Spain from 1759-1788, was born in Madrid. [1] …Morocco: two years later, the Spanish pushed into Portugal, and Philip II of Spain became king of both countries. [1] The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain. [1]

The most humiliating terms of the treaty, however, were the permission for a Spanish regiment to be quartered in the city of Setúbal, to "ensure the safety of the princess of Spain and of the people and church of Portugal against the pernicious revolutionaries", and the partition of Portuguese America between France and Spain. [1]

In a comparative perspective, our findings support the view that when Spain colonised America and built a worldwide empire it was not a poor country of warriors but a relatively affluent nation and, by the end of the sixteenth century, when it had achieved "the political hegemony of Europe’ (Hamilton 1938,p.168), Spanish per capita income was among the highest in Europe, second only to Italy and the Low Countries. [1] Conservatives sought to strengthen Mexico's Spanish colonial heritage via enhancing corporations' (Church, Military, etc.) power and special privileges and by turning to Spain on the diplomatic front, policies that would counter the influence and power of America. [1] The oldest universities, colleges, and vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were all created during the Spanish colonial period, and by the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power, Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia. [1] On this occasion, Cubans - as well as the inhabitants of other islands in the Spanish Caribbean - faced not only the military and political might of a declining Spain, but the strength of a rising and ambitious imperial power: the United States. [1] The French colonists refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768. (, 3/5/98) 1766 Jul 11(Jun 11), Elisabeth Farnese (73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died. (MC, 7/11/02) 1766 France handed its settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain. (Econ, 7/15/06, p.36) 1767 Jun 25, Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. [1] …the Prussian king, for the Spanish throne had alarmed the French, who feared that the extension of Prussian influence into Spain would threaten France. [1] By 1814 the Spanish resistance forces and the British under Wellington had expelled the French, and Ferdinand VII was restored under a constitution drawn up in 1812 at Cdiz by the first national Cortes of Spain. [1] While the French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas (in 1810, a reconstituted national government fortified itself in Cádiz ) and proved unable to recruit, train, or equip effective armies, Napoleon's failure to pacify the people of Spain allowed Spanish, British and Portuguese forces to secure Portugal and engage French forces on the frontiers while Spanish guerrilleros wore down the occupiers. [1]

It might be said roughly to include the period of the last three Spanish Philips, from about the middle of the sixteenth century to the latter part of the seventeenth: the ages of Camoens in Portugal, and m Spain of Cervantes, of Lope de Vega, El Greco, Velazquez, and a host of only slightly less-endowed geniuses. [1] Hispaniola served as the first beachhead, used by the Spanish as a staging ground for armed incursions and reconnaissance missions, justified through the `Christianization' program; one year after Colombo's first voyage, Pope Alexander VI in his inter cetera divina papal bull granted Spain all the world not already possessed by Christian states, excepting the region of Brazil, which went to Portugal. [1] The French were the first foreign scientists to penetrate the interior of Spanish Peru: for centuries Spain had guarded the secrets of its American natural resources. [1] The second Rif War (1909-10) was initially a fiasco for the under-equipped and undertrained Spanish, until heavy artillery was brought in; in the aftermath of the war, Spain began to raise units of local Regulares. [1] Spanish Conquistadors wore armor made of steel that largely made Indian bows and arrows ineffective, and the Conquistadors arrived in New Spain equipped with domesticated war horses to ride and mules to carry their supplies in -- and the spoils of war out. [1] He allied himself informally with Hitler during the second world war, sending Spanish troops to fight in Russia, but not allowing Germans into Spain itself (Hitler refused to offer him the whole of Morocco which he demanded as a price for full support). [1] Resilience of the Spanish monarchy presents a fresh appraisal of the survival of Spain and its European and overseas empire under the last Spanish Habsburg, Carlos II (1665-1700). [1] With a relatively small Spanish force but also supported by around two hundred thousand Amerindian allies, he overran the Aztec empire in the campaigns of 1519-1521, bringing Mexico under Spanish rule as the colony of New Spain. [1] This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs, the fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish overseas empire, with New Spain, which later became Mexico, a major component. [1] Strong commercial links were established between Dutch and Spanish merchants after King Philip II of Spain became the ruler of the Dutch provinces in 1556. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL For a period in the seventeenth century, when the Spanish and Portuguese crowns were united, Spain did control Maluku, but the Dutch eventually proved stronger. [1] Long a sub-section of the province of Nueva Vizcaya, the two modern Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa were officially recognized by the Spanish Crown as the State of Sonora y Sinaloa in 1733, a recognition that the coastal part of northwest Mexico had mining, ranching and farming interests that were distinct from those of other parts of Nueva Vizcaya and the rest of colonial New Spain. [1] British America - - List of Hudsons Bay Company trading posts St and this was in response to intelligence that the Russians had begun to explore the Pacific Coast of North America, which the Spanish considered part of New Spain. [1] KEY TOPICS In the Spanish controversies, a century earlier, the question at hand was that of the concrete rights and obligations Spain his vis-à-vis its new subjects in the Americas. [1] In the light of the military omnipresence of the Spanish monarchy and the enormous extent of its realm, it is not astonishing that Spain became to a particular degree the starting point and node of cultural transfer processes in the 16 th century. [1] It is indefensible to say that the Spanish were a world power at any point in the nineteenth century, save for a brief spit in the 1870s when the capable Alfonso XII of Spain and his thoughtful ministers succeeded in restoring some vigour to Spanish politics and prestige. [1] Under a series of exceptionally able rulers, this form of government might have maintained Spanish prosperity and power, while repressing enlightenment, but it was the peculiar curse of Spain that the last three Hapsburg princes, whose reigns filled the whole of the sixteenth century, were weak, and their choice of favorites, ghostly and secular, was unwise. [1] The decline of Spanish power in Europe however, was blamed solely on external sources, from the early centuries where they chose to show how both domestic and foreigners sought to ruin the greatness of Spain and play down the successes of its history, resorting to holding them back with a demonized and negative version of their colonial power which Judrias supports as the cause of why Spain is considered a backwards nation. [1] The invasion and conquest of the Spanish Netherlands was necessary because these lands for too long had served as the basis from which Spain launched its attacks on France and the Republic and plotted the submission of Europe. [1] Wilkinson, unbeknownst to Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico. (ON, 12/08, p6) 1805 Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain. (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98) 1805 Oct 21, A British fleet commanded by Vice Adm. [1] Spanish conquest of Granada; expulsion of Jews from Spain; Columbus's first voyage to America. 1493. [1] As it was throughout the Americas, other Spanish colonies and territories, and within Spain itself: when the Jesuits were expelled the King of Spain and the Spanish monarchy confiscated the Jesuits accumulated wealth, including substantial landholdings, warehoused agricultural surpluses and massive numbers of livestock. [1] Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. [1] Centered around the northern part of South America, the Spanish Main was the cadre of colonies in the New World owned by Spain. [1] The Canary Islands and Spanish cities in the African mainland are considered an equal part of Spain and the European Union but have a different tax system without Value Added Tax. [2] The Spanish court ceremonial, which has with some justice been credited with a model function in European court culture, is of considerable interest to the question of the significance of Spain as the starting point in cultural transfers during the 16 th century. [1] Spanish settlement of the region continued, however, as the early 20th century saw a stream of immigration of poor people and political exiles from Spain to the former American colonies, especially Cuba, Mexico and Argentina. [1] The Spanish philosopher who is best known in the present epoch is Jose Ortega Gasset (1883- ), for many years professor of meta- physics in the University of Madrid, founder and director of the most important literary magazine in twentieth century Spain, the Revtsta de Occidente, If Ortega’s views are often pessimistic and his statements arbitrary, they are at least challenging and always gracefully expressed. [1] Through most of the twentieth century, Spanish society (unlike Spain's former colonies in the New World, Africa, and Asia ) was not ethnically diverse, except for the presence of Gypsies, who arrived in Spain in the fifteenth century. [1] The Dutch, who during the Twelve Years' Truce had increasingly made their navy a priority, (which showed its maturing potency at the Battle of Gibraltar 1607), struck a blow against Spanish maritime trade with the capture of the treasure fleet by captain Piet Hein, on which Spain had become dependent after the economic collapse. [5] The flota system was the method of trade that the Spanish used to send trade goods to their early colonies in South America and New Spain (Mexico). [1] Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats ( letrados ) for administrative positions in Spain and its overseas empire. [2] Other European commercial interests came to dominate supply, with Spanish merchant houses and their guilds ( consulados ) in Spain and the Indies acting as mere middlemen, reaping profits a slice of the profits. [2] That loss resulted in the bankruptcy of the Spanish crown and an extended period of economic depression in Spain. [2] Saint Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. [5] From there, the goods were transported across Mexico to the Spanish treasure fleets, for shipment to Spain. [5] The following decades of Franco-Spanish collaboration resulted in the establishment and extension of Spanish protectorates south of the city, and Spanish influence obtained international recognition in the Berlin Conference of 1884: Spain administered Sidi Ifni and Western Sahara jointly. [5] The Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, with Alessandro Malaspina and others sailing for Spain, came too late for Spain to assert its sovereignty in the Pacific Northwest. [2] Spanish settlers in the Indies in the very early period were few and Spain could supply sufficient goods to them. [2] In 1959, the Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea was established with status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. [5]

The remainder of Spain's then-four hundred year empire, namely Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and the Spanish East Indies, continued under Spanish control until the end of the 19th century, when most of these territories were annexed by the United States after the Spanish-American War. [1]

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8. (74) Capture of Guam - WikiVividly

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10. (59) Spanish Empire | American Revoluntionary War Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

11. (46) Spanish Empire - Academic Kids

12. (41) History of the Philippines (1521-1898) | World Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online

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16. (15) 2016-07-31 - Reformed Malaya


18. (4) The Principles of Sociology, vol. 2 (1898) - Online Library of Liberty

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