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The Stone Age

The Stone Age

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • They were derived from the previous Paleolithic tools, hence the term Epipaleolithic, or were intermediate between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, hence the term Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age).(More...)
  • We call this period the Stone Age because many of the tools from that time were made from stone - but they were also made from flint, bone, and antler.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • This final culture of the Upper Paleolithic is noted for the dominance of bone and antler tools over those of flint and stone and for the very remarkable works of art that were produced at this time.(More...)
  • The earliest stone toolmaking developed by at least 2.6 million years ago.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
They were derived from the previous Paleolithic tools, hence the term Epipaleolithic, or were intermediate between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, hence the term Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). [1] The Stone Age is usually divided into three separate periods--Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period--based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools. [2] The Stone Age, whose origin coincides with the discovery of the oldest known stone tools, which have been dated to some 3.3 million years ago, is usually divided into three separate periods-- Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period --based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools. [3] Paleolithic or Old Stone Age : from the first production of stone artefacts, about 2.5 million years ago, to the end of the last Ice Age, about 9,600 BCE. This is the longest Stone Age period. [4] The Palaeolithic (or Old Stone Age ) period, ranging from c. 2,6 million years ago until c. 12,000 years ago. [4]

The earliest global date for the beginning of the Stone Age is 2.5 million years ago in Africa, and the earliest end date is about 3300 BCE, which is the beginning of Bronze Age in the Near East. [4] The Stone Age is the first of the three-age system of archaeology, which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. [5] The basis of this framework is technological: it revolves around the notion of three successive periods or ages: Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, each age being technologically more complex than the one before it. [4] The transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age was a period during which modern people could smelt copper, but did not yet manufacture bronze, a time known as the Copper Age, or more technically the Chalcolithic, "copper-stone" age. [1]

In time, bronze became the primary material for tools and weapons, and a good part of the stone technology became obsolete, signaling the end of the Stone Age. [4] The Stone Age lasted from 30,000 BCE to about 3,000 BCE and is named after the main technological tool developed at that time: stone. [5] Stone Age artifacts include tools used by modern humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, and possibly by the earlier partly contemporaneous genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus. [1] Tools and weapons during the Stone Age were not made exclusively of stone: organic materials such as antler, bone, fibre, leather, and wood were also employed. [4] The Stone Age is contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo, the only exception possibly being the early Stone Age, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools. [1] In the past, it was thought that Early Stone Age tools evolved alongside language. [6] The Stone Age is divided in three distinct periods: the Paleolithic Period or Old Stone Age (30,000 BCE-10,000 BCE), the Mesolithic Period or Middle Stone Age (10,000 BCE-8,000 BCE), and the Neolithic Period or New Stone Age (8,000 BCE-3,000 BCE). [5] Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age : In purely scientific terms, the Mesolithic begins at the end of a period known in geology as the Younger Dryas stadial, the last cold snap, which marks the end of Ice Age, about 9,600 BCE. The Mesolithic period ends when agriculture starts. [4] The term " Stone Age " was coined in the late 19th century CE by the Danish scholar Christian J. Thomsen, who came up with a framework for the study of the human past, known as the "Three Age System". [4] The term Neolithic Period refers to the last stage of the Stone Age - a term coined in the late 19th century CE by scholars. [4] The dates of the Early Stone Age, or Paleolithic, and Late Stone Age, or Neolithic ( neo new), were fairly solid and were regarded by Goodwin as absolute. [1] The Early Stone Age in Africa is not to be identified with "Old Stone Age", a translation of Paleolithic, or with Paleolithic, or with the "Earlier Stone Age" that originally meant what became the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. [1] The Stone Age is divided into two contrasting periods: the Old Stone Age, a long era of stagnation; and the New Stone Age, a brief period of swift progress. [3] The Americas notably did not develop a widespread behavior of smelting Bronze or Iron after the Stone Age period, although the technology existed. [1] The Middle East and southeastern Asian regions progressed past Stone Age technology around 6000 BCE. Europe, and the rest of Asia became post-Stone Age societies by about 4000 BCE. The proto-Inca cultures of South America continued at a Stone Age level until around 2000 BCE, when gold, copper and silver made their entrance. [1] Neolithic or New Stone Age: begins with the introduction of farming, dating variously from c. 9,000 BCE in the Near East, c. 7,000 BCE in Southeast Europe, c. 6,000 BCE in East Asia, and even later in other regions. [4] The Neolithic (or New Stone Age ), lasting from the start of agriculture between c. 9000-c. 4000 BCE until the beginning of bronze use c. 3300 BCE. [4] The Stone Age begins with the first production of stone implements and ends with the first use of bronze. [4] In 2017, scientists found the first signs of this understanding in the bones of Stone Age humans. [6] The art of the Stone Age represents the first accomplishments in human creativity, preceding the invention of writing. [5] Stone Age art illustrates early human creativity through small portable objects, cave paintings, and early sculpture and architecture. [5] Stone Age - Ancient History Encyclopedia Stone Age Cristian Violatti From the dawn of our species to the present day, stone-made artefacts are the dominant form of material remains that have survived to today concerning human technology. [4] The Stone Age holds an enormous slice of human history, starting roughly 3.3 million years ago until around 3300 BC. [6] If so, Stone Age weddings would be the earliest human marriages. [6] It is now believed that activities of the Stone Age humans went beyond the immediate requirements of procuring food, body coverings, and shelters. [1] Human beginnings in South Africa: uncovering the secrets of the Stone Age. [1] The transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BCE and 2500 BCE for much of humanity living in North Africa and Eurasia. [1] The Stone Age lasted roughly 3.4 million years, from 30,000 BCE to about 3,000 BCE, and ended with the advent of metalworking. [5] The settlements of Dimini and Sesklo show that that stone age peoples of Greece had reached a high level of development by 3000 BCE with advanced economies and complex social structure. [7] Modern studies and the in-depth analysis of finds dating from the Stone Age indicate certain rituals and beliefs of the people in those prehistoric times. [1] Stone Age, prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. [3] The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of stone tools in use. [1] The Early Stone Age therefore is contemporaneous with the Lower Paleolithic and happens to include the same main technologies, Oldowan and Acheulean, which produced Mode 1 and Mode 2 stone tools respectively. [1] Since then Radiocarbon dating has shown that the Middle Stone Age is in fact contemporaneous with the Middle Paleolithic. [1] The Middle Stone Age would not change its name, but it would not mean Mesolithic. [1] Middle Stone Age, period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period. [2] There has been a tendency to drop the comparative degree in favor of the positive: resulting in two sets of Early, Middle and Late Stone Ages of quite different content and chronologies. [1] The Later Stone Age (LSA, sometimes also called the Late Stone Age ) refers to a period in African prehistory. [1] The Stone Age is also divided into three different periods. [4] Study of the Stone Age has never been mainly about stone tools and archaeology, which are only one form of evidence. [1] Stone tool manufacture continued even after the Stone Age ended in a given area. [1] A 2003 documentary series showing the evolution of humans through the Stone Age was called Walking with Cavemen, but only the last programme showed humans living in caves. [1] Near the end of the Stone Age in the modern Republic of Georgia, villages whipped up the first wine. [6] In 1859 Jens Jacob Worsaae first proposed a division of the Stone Age into older and younger parts based on his work with Danish kitchen middens that began in 1851. [1] While the Mycenaean is considered the first "Hellenic" civilization, the various settlements testify that the territory that defines modern Greece was a hub of cultural activity since the Stone Age. [7] "old stone", coined by archaeologist John Lubbock and published in 1865) is the earliest division of the Stone Age. [1] The Palaeolithic ('Old Stone Age') makes up the earliest chunk of the Stone Age - the large swathe. [4] The Stone Age of Europe is characteristically in deficit of known transitions. [1] The Stone Age must have begun there to be carried repeatedly to Europe by migrant populations. [1] In 2017, ancient skeletons showed that the plague entered Europe during the Stone Age. [6] In regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the Stone Age was followed directly by the Iron Age. [1] Other depictions of the Stone Age include the best-selling Earth's Children series of books by Jean M. Auel, which are set in the Paleolithic and are loosely based on archaeological and anthropological findings. [1] The Neolithic, or New Stone Age, was approximately characterized by the adoption of agriculture. [1] The Stone Age symbols are historic but were ignored for years despite countless visitors trooping into the caves every year. [6] With the introduction of Bronze metallurgy, the Stone Age came to an end. [4] Stone Age cultures produced breathtaking galleries of art and wide social networks, but they also engaged in warfare. [6] Clearing away the sand, the scientists found a heavily pregnant Stone Age woman. [6] Innovation of the technique of smelting ore ended the Stone Age and began the Bronze Age. [1] As a description of people living today, the term stone age is controversial. [1] Since the chronological limits of the Stone Age are based on technological development rather than actual date ranges, its length varies in different areas of the world. [4] Clay is another material which is abundant in the bulk of Stone Age material remains. [4] The terms "Stone Age", "Bronze Age", and "Iron Age" were never meant to suggest that advancement and time periods in prehistory are only measured by the type of tool material, rather than, for example, social organization, food sources exploited, adaptation to climate, adoption of agriculture, cooking, settlement and religion. [1] The three-stage system was proposed in 1929 by Astley John Hilary Goodwin, a professional archaeologist, and Clarence van Riet Lowe, a civil engineer and amateur archaeologist, in an article titled "Stone Age Cultures of South Africa" in the journal Annals of the South African Museum. [1] "It was early realized that the threefold division of culture into Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages adopted in the nineteenth century for Europe had no validity in Africa outside the Nile valley." [1] Megalithic tombs, multichambered, and dolmens, single-chambered, were graves with a huge stone slab stacked over other similarly large stone slabs; they have been discovered all across Europe and Asia and were built in the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. [1]


We call this period the Stone Age because many of the tools from that time were made from stone - but they were also made from flint, bone, and antler. [8] Known as prehistory, or the Stone Age, most of what we know is not from written accounts, but from the tools our ancestors used to survive. [8] It was during the Neolithic period - also known as the New Stone Age - that humans learned to farm. [8] The Early Stone Age includes the most basic stone toolkits made by early humans. [9] Some archaeologists believe there were no more than one million people worldwide at any one time during the Old Stone Age. [8] On top of the packed stone, Stone Age people placed the bones in a certain order. [10] The Mesolithic period (the Middle Stone Age) began when the last ice sheet over Great Britain melted. [8] The Stone Age is divided into three periods: the Paleolithic period, the Mesolithic period, and the Neolithic period. [8] Overall, historical evidence strongly suggests that farming is chiefly responsible for our advancement out of the Neolithic period, and out of the Stone Age. [8] They already knew that medieval and Stone Age artifacts had been found in the area. [10] The Stone Age burial site held the remains of at least 11 adults and one infant. [10] The obvious way to make an El-P / Queens of the Stone Age mashup would be to slap the rapper's verses over the band's slinky stoner rock riffs. [11]

Having lain waste to grateful capacity crowds from Chicago’s Riot Fest to Denver’s Red Rocks to the 30,000+ strong throng at the recent CalJam 17, Queens Of The Stone Age announce the first 2018 installment of the ongoing and ever intensifying Villains North American touring campaign. [12] Queens of the Stone Age left many devoted fans feeling uneasy last year when they announced that pop singer-songwriter Mark Ronson would produce their forthcoming album. [13] Look up any press Josh Homme did regarding the latest Queens of the Stone Age album, Lullabies to Paralyze, and. [14] Josh Homme of Queens of the Stone Age performs last month at The Forum in Inglewood. [15] In the case of Josh Homme -- frontman for heavy rockers Queens of the Stone Age -- the issue in question occurred in December, when he kicked a female photographer in the face during KROQ’s Almost Acoustic Christmas in Los Angeles. [16] Opening the show were the Eagles of Death Metal, a band that shares Homme with Queens of the Stone Age and which is no stranger to controversies of their own. [16] With their riff-heavy hard rock, California’s Queens of the Stone Age have become torchbearers for the brand of distorted, head-banging rock popularized by bands like The Smashing Pumpkins and Foo Fighters. [12] It’s fitting that Queens of the Stone Age broke into mainstream success with an album called "Songs for the Deaf," as many of us who banged our heads along with the band’s two-hour Fresno performance definitely heard a slight ringing in our ears as we left. [15] His rise from cult favorite with sludge kings Kyuss to full-blown arena rocker as leader of Queens of the Stone Age is almost as improbable as withstanding the supposed drug binge he may have hinted at in one of his most famous songs. [17] When you're in hard-rock party monsters Queens of the Stone Age, the week is one long blur anyway. [18] For those who came to Bill Graham on Thursday night eager to ditch their shirts and damage their ear drums, Queens of the Stone Age delivered all that was desired. [16]

Queens of the Stone Age's Josh Homme goes grumpy old man on us, getting nostalgic for his old bands' material, bemoaning the death of the record shop, and refusing to buy an iPhone. [14] On this episode of All Songs Considered, Queens of the Stone Age, Sean Lennon's new project, Sarah Blasko and the distinctive voices of Isobel Campbell and Mark Lanegan. [19] Making their Beale Street Music Festival debut, Queens of the Stone Age is based around singer-songwriter and guitarist Josh Homme and is one of the most interesting and critically acclaimed hard rock bands. [20] Queens of the Stone Age just wrapped up a slew of South American dates with Foo Fighters and are celebrating their return to the states with a brand new video for Villains ’ highlight "Head Like a Haunted House". [21] Stone Age man hunted the woolly mammoth to extinction 13,000 years ago. [22] This has contributed to the perception that they are a strange, Stone Age people with undeveloped sensibilities. [22] Some evidence indicates that Stone Age hunter-gatherers were healthier than early farmers. [22]

The rock legend's new album with Queens Of The Stone Age's Josh Homme is all sharp angles, hard muscles and decadent ecstasy. [19]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
This final culture of the Upper Paleolithic is noted for the dominance of bone and antler tools over those of flint and stone and for the very remarkable works of art that were produced at this time. [3] Although no such fossil tools have yet been found, it is believed that H. erectus probably made tools of wood and bone as well as stone. [1] Many important inventions appeared, such as needles and thread, skin clothing, hafted stone and bone tools, the harpoon, the spear thrower, and special fishing equipment. [3] As chimpanzees sometimes naturally use percussion to extract or prepare food in the wild, and may use either unmodified stones or stones that they have split, creating an Oldowan tool, the tradition may well be far older than its current record. [1] Alongside the hand-axe tradition there developed a distinct and very different stone-tool industry, based on flakes of stone: special tools were made from worked (carefully shaped) flakes of flint. [1]

Lower Paleolithic stone industries of the early species of humans called Homo erectus include the Choukoutienian of China and the Clactonian, Chellean-Abbevillian, Acheulian and Levalloisian represented at various sites in Europe, Africa, and Asia, from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. [2] Paleolithic small sculptures are made of clay, bone, ivory, or stone and consist of simple figurines depicting animals and humans. [5]

Fractured stones called eoliths have been considered the earliest tools, but it is impossible to distinguish man-made from naturally produced modifications in such stones. [2] It may not always be the best in relation to regions such as some parts of the Indies and Oceania, where farmers or hunter-gatherers used stone for tools until European colonisation began. [1] The oldest recognizable tools made by members of the family of man are simple stone choppers, such as those discovered at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. [2] The tools were formed by knocking pieces off a river pebble, or stones like it, with a hammerstone to obtain large and small pieces with one or more sharp edges. [1] On the basis of the techniques employed and the quality of the tools, there are several stone industries (sometimes referred to as "lithic" industries). [4] Some larger tools, of ground stone (e.g., club heads) have appeared. [3] Ground-stone axes and adzes, bored stones (digging-stick weights?), and normal-sized chopping and scraping tools of chipped stone also occurred. [3] Due to the increased need to harvest and process plants, ground stone and polished stone artifacts became much more widespread, including tools for grinding, cutting, and chopping. [1]

Around 2 million years ago, Homo habilis is believed to have constructed the first man-made structure in East Africa, consisting of simple arrangements of stones to hold branches of trees in position. [1] It covers the greatest portion of humanity's time (roughly 99% of "human technological history", where "human" and "humanity" are interpreted to mean the genus Homo ), extending from 2.5 or 2.6 million years ago, with the first documented use of stone tools by hominans such as Homo habilis, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000BCE. The Paleolithic era ended with the Mesolithic, or in areas with an early neolithisation, the Epipaleolithic. [1]

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (from Greek: παλαιός, palaios, "old"; and λίθος, lithos, "stone" lit. [1] The Upper Paleolithic is marked by a relatively rapid succession of often complex stone artifact technologies and a large increase in the creation of art and personal ornaments. [1] In the manufacture of stone implements, four fundamental traditions were developed by the Paleolithic ancestors: (1) pebble-tool traditions; (2) bifacial-tool, or hand-ax, traditions; (3) flake-tool traditions; and (4) blade-tool traditions. [2]

Often in western Europe, and occasionally in Greece and Cyprus, celts were mounted with the aid of antler sleeves inserted between the stone head and the wooden handle--a device that was already employed in the northern European Mesolithic. [3] The former includes finger tracings, paintings, engravings, bas-reliefs, and sculptures on the walls of caves and rock shelters; the latter is characterized by small engravings and sculptures on stone and bone found in the occupation layers. [3] The artifactual record of this exceedingly long interval is very incomplete; it can be studied from such imperishable objects of now-extinct cultures as were made of flint, stone, bone, and antler. [2] These figurines were carved from soft stone (such as steatite, calcite, or limestone), bone or ivory, or formed of clay and fired. [5] They certainly knew how to perforate stone, using a tubular borer (a reed or bone with sand as an abrasive). [3]

The process of cultural formation and modification during the Neolithic may be studied with the help of the different kinds of pottery and stone artifacts. [3] Carved entrance stone to a Neolithic chamber tomb (c. 3200 bc ) at Newgrange, County Meath, Ireland. [3]

Stone rings revealed that the earliest housing was tents, probably made of animal skins and secured by the rings. [6] A structure with a roof supported with timber, discovered in Dolni Vestonice, the Czech Republic, dates to around 23,000 BCE. The walls were made of packed clay blocks and stones. [1] Microliths, the typical stone implements of the Mesolithic period, are smaller and more delicate than those of the late Paleolithic period. [2] The archaeological record, however, is biased in favour of items made of stone because these are far more durable than the organic materials, which are easily obliterated by the many processes of decay that they are subject to and can only survive under rare circumstances such as cold temperatures or very dry climate. [4] The flakes, which have large, high-angle (greater than 90°), plain striking platforms, as well as prominent bulbs of percussion, were detached from roughly prepared, discoidal cores by the stone -hammer or stone-anvil technique. [3] The original stone is called a core; the resultant pieces, flakes. [1] Then large flakes are struck off the blank and worked into bifaces by hard-hammer percussion on an anvil stone. [1]

A Petroglyph is an intaglio abstract or symbolic image engraved on natural stone by various methods, usually by prehistoric peoples. [1] Examples of Solutrean art are comparatively rare; they consist of sculpture in low relief and incised stone slabs. [3] Dwelling houses in Greece, Sicily, and the Iberian Peninsula were built, as in the Middle East, of pisé, or mud brick, on stone foundations. [3]

The first evidence of human metallurgy dates to between the 5th and 6th millennium BCE in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac, and Pločnik in modern-day Serbia ( a copper axe from 5500 BCE belonging to the Vinca culture ), though not conventionally considered part of the Chalcolithic or "Copper Age", this provides the earliest known example of copper metallurgy. [1] Fragments of Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus aethiopicus and Homo, possibly Homo habilis, have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools. [1] In any case, the oldest recognizable tools are found in horizons of Lower Pleistocene Age. [2]

It possibly forced modification in the dietary habits of the humans of that age and with the emergence of agricultural practices, plant-based foods also became a regular part of the diet. [1] "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia". [1]

A comparison of art in the two ages leads some theorists to conclude that Neolithic cultures were noticeably more hierarchical than the Paleolithic cultures that preceded them. [1] The Abbevillian has been reported from deposits of lower Pleistocene (First Interglacial) age. [3] In Athirampakkam at Chennai in Tamil Nadu the Acheulean age started at 1.51 mya and it is also prior than North India and Europe. [1] According to the age and location of the current evidence, the cradle of the genus is the East African Rift System, especially toward the north in Ethiopia, where it is bordered by grasslands. [1]

In the sequel, cattle raising combined with hunting proved to be the most productive pursuit among the deciduous forests with a Neolithic equipment; cultivation was relegated to an increasingly secondary place, until in the late Bronze Age more efficient tools for clearing land became generally available. [3] Six individuals from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age tested positive for plague. [6] Save in the taiga, where a Mesolithic economy persisted until the end of the Bronze Age, the basis of life everywhere was subsistence farming, supplemented by some measure of hunting and fishing--fish being a source of food curiously neglected in western and central Europe during the earlier phases of the Neolithic. [3] Towards the end of the Neolithic era, copper metallurgy is introduced, which marks a transition period to the Bronze Age, sometimes referred to as Chalcolithic or Eneolithic era. [4] The Neolithic was characterized primarily by herding societies rather than large agricultural societies, and although there was copper metallurgy in Africa as well as bronze smelting, archaeologists do not currently recognize a separate Copper Age or Bronze Age. [1] The Chalcolithic by convention is the initial period of the Bronze Age. [1] The period starting from the end of the last ice age, 10,000 years ago, to around 6,000 years ago was characterized by rising sea levels and a need to adapt to a changing environment and find new food sources. [1] From 50,000 to 10,000 years ago in Europe, the Upper Paleolithic ends with the end of the Pleistocene and onset of the Holocene era (the end of the last ice age ). [1] This variety may be the result of adaptations to changed ecological conditions associated with the retreat of glaciers, the growth of forests in Europe and deserts in N Africa, and the disappearance of the large game of the Ice Age. [2] In Spain, the British Isles, and northern Europe axheads were simply stuck into or through straight wooden shafts, but adz heads must always have been mounted on a knee shaft (a crooked stick), a method regularly used for axheads, too, by the Bronze Age. [3] In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age by 3500 B.C. Between 6000 B.C. and 2000 B.C. Neolithic culture spread through Europe, the Nile valley (Egypt), the Indus valley (India), and the Huang He valley (N China). [2]

The advent of metalworking in the Bronze Age brought additional media available for use in making art, an increase in stylistic diversity, and the creation of objects that did not have any obvious function other than art. [5]

The term neolithic is used, especially in archaeology and anthropology, to designate a stage of cultural evolution or technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely dependent on domesticated plants and animals, and the presence of such crafts as pottery and weaving. [2] The oldest indirect evidence found of stone tool use is fossilised animal bones with tool marks; these are 3.4 million years old and were found in the Lower Awash Valley in Ethiopia. [1] The earliest documented stone tools have been found in eastern Africa, manufacturers unknown, at the 3.3 million year old site of Lomekwi 3 in Kenya. [1] The oldest stone tools were excavated from the site of Lomekwi 3 in West Turkana, northwestern Kenya, and date to 3.3 million years old. [1]

A wealth of stone tools found in sites in Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, and the Peloponnesse reveal the existence of flourishing Paleolithic and Mesolithic communities in the Greek mainland. [7] Prior to the discovery of these "Lomekwian" tools, the oldest known stone tools had been found at several sites at Gona, Ethiopia, on the sediments of the paleo- Awash River, which serve to date them. [1] Although no stone tools that old have been found, some bones showing signs of striations and gouges have been found in Ethiopia, which might represent cut marks made with stone tools. [4] Stone tools of this period are of the flake tradition, and bone implements, such as needles, indicate that crudely sewn furs and skins were used as body coverings. [2] Stone tools of this period are of the core type, made by chipping the stone to form a cutting edge, or of the flake type, fashioned from fragments struck off a stone. [2]

The shift from food gathering to food producing, in itself one of the most revolutionary changes in human history, was accompanied by the so-called Neolithic Revolution : the development of pottery, polished stone tools, and construction of more complex, larger settlements such as Göbekli Tepe and "atal Hüyük. [1] The main types of evidence are fossilized human remains and stone tools, which show a gradual increase in their complexity. [4] There is evidence suggesting that the 2.5 million year limit for stone tool manufacture might be pushed further back. [4] Globally, societies were hunter-gatherers but evidence of regional identities begins to appear in the wide variety of stone tool types being developed to suit very different environments. [1]

The most abundant remains of Paleolithic cultures are a variety of stone tools whose distinct characteristics provide the basis for a system of classification containing several tool making traditions or industries. [2] The Paleolithic era is characterized by the emergence of basic stone tools and stone art in the archaeological record. [5]

Prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. [2] The reason is that the capacity of tool use and even its manufacture is not exclusive of our species: there are studies indicating that bonobos are capable of flaking and using stone tools in order to gain access to food in an experimental setting. [4] Flint and chert were shaped (or chipped ) for use as cutting tools and weapons, while basalt and sandstone were used for ground stone tools, such as quern-stones. [1] Some species of non- primates are able to use stone tools, such as the sea otter, which breaks abalone shells with them. [1]

The wide variety of bone tools include javelin points, barbed bone points (or harpoons), eyed needles, b tons de commandement (often elaborately decorated), perforators, spear throwers, chisels, etc. The flint and stone tools include a variety of special forms, among which small geometric forms, denticulated blades, scrapers with steeply retouched edges, and the parrot-beak graver are especially distinctive. [3] The end of Oldowan in Africa was brought on by the appearance of Acheulean, or Mode 2, stone tools. [1] ". the earliest stone tool makers were skilled flintknappers. [1] It involves the measurement of the stone tools to determine their typology, function and the technology involved. [1] In the 1920s, South African archaeologists organizing the stone tool collections of that country observed that they did not fit the newly detailed Three-Age System. [1]

An example is the Near East, where agriculture was developed around 9,000 BCE, right after the end of the Ice Age. [4]


The earliest stone toolmaking developed by at least 2.6 million years ago. [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(22 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (71) Stone Age - Wikipedia

2. (26) Stone Age - Ancient History Encyclopedia

3. (20) Stone Age | anthropology | Britannica.com

4. (16) The Stone Age

5. (11) Top 10 Rare Facts About Stone Age People - Listverse

6. (10) The Stone Age | Boundless Art History

7. (7) The Stone Age: Period & Overview - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

8. (3) Photos: Stone Age Skulls Found on Wooden Stakes

9. (3) Queens of the Stone Age Bury Context with Noise - February 5, 2018 - SF Weekly

10. (3) Stone Age definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary

11. (3) History of Greece: The Stone Age

12. (2) Queens of the Stone Age: Villains World Tour 2018 - Rose Quarter :Rose Quarter

13. (2) Queens of the Stone Age - Albums, Songs, and News | Pitchfork

14. (2) Queens of the Stone Age Fresno concert review | The Fresno Bee

15. (2) Queens of the Stone Age : NPR

16. (2) Early Stone Age Tools | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

17. (1) Queens of the Stone Age and El-P Approve of This Unofficial Mashup Album | SPIN

18. (1) Five reasons to catch Queens of the Stone Age at the Chelsea - Las Vegas Weekly

19. (1) Queens of the Stone Age returns to its birth city for a ferocious concert at Seattle's KeyArena | The Seattle Times

20. (1) Queens of the Stone Age Battle Sound Issues and Their Own Fatigue at Memorial Coliseum - Willamette Week

21. (1) Queens of the Stone Age - Memphis in May International Festival

22. (1) Queens of the Stone Age share video for "Head Like a Haunted House" | Consequence of Sound


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