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Tarumanagara History (358-723)

Tarumanagara History (358-723)

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  • To give you a teaser as to why, a complete history of Indonesia would require talking about the Sudanese Indianised Tarumanagara (4th 7th Century) in Java, Kallinga Kindgom (6th 7th Century) and its successeors the Javanese Hindu-Budddhist Medang Kingdom (8th-10th Century).(More...)

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  • Period of Maurya Empire: Ruling India in between the time of 322 BC and 185 BC, the Maurya Empire is regarded as the first main kingdom in the ancient history of India who was geographically extensive as well as politically powerful.(More...)



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To give you a teaser as to why, a complete history of Indonesia would require talking about the Sudanese Indianised Tarumanagara (4th 7th Century) in Java, Kallinga Kindgom (6th 7th Century) and its successeors the Javanese Hindu-Budddhist Medang Kingdom (8th-10th Century). [1] These are primarily clustered in the area of Cikarang, Bekasi is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia, and has a history of being the capital city of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara. [2] Early history • 350-400 - Kutai - the Martadipura phase - earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia • 5th century: Stone inscriptions in west Java announce decrees of Purnavarman, king of Tarumanagara. • 683: Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa performed Siddhayatra as the journey to expand his influence. [1]

It was the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai and Tarumanagara are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history. [2]

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries) Tarumanagara (358-723) Sailendra (8th 9th centuries) Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579) Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045) Pagaruyung Kingdom Kediri (1045-1221. [1] If you want to remove it as a group, in this template we shall mention Tarumanagara (358-723 AD) which provided us with early historical texts. [1]

There are also Chinese history sources, since Tarumanagara maintained extended trade and diplomatic relations in the territory stretching between India and China. [1] Between the period 528 to 669, Tarumanagara sent their embassy to Chinese court. : 105 The kingdom was mentioned in the annals of the Sui dynasty, the king of To-lo-mo (Taruma) has sent diplomatic mission, which arrived in China in 528 and 535. [1] Buni culture clay pottery flourished in coastal northern West Java and Banten around 400 BCE to 100 CE. The Buni culture was probably the predecessor of the Tarumanagara kingdom, one of the earliest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia, producing numerous inscriptions and marking the beginning of the historical period in Java. [1] According to the inscription, Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa launched a military campaign against Java in the late 7th century, a period which coincides with the decline of Tarumanagara in West Java and the Kalingga Kingdom in Central Java. [1] One such early kingdom was Tarumanagara, which flourished between 358 and 669 CE. Located in West Java close to modern-day Jakarta, its 5th century king, Purnawarman, established the earliest known inscriptions in Java, the Ciaruteun inscription located near Bogor. [1] One such early kingdom was Tarumanagara, which flourished between 358 and 669 AD. Located in Sunda in West Java close to modern-day Jakarta, its fifth-century king, Purnawarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions in Java. [1]

Indian scholars have written about Dwipantara or Dwipa Javanese Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. Initial physical evidence of the existence of two kingdoms mentioned patterned Hinduism in the 5th century, namely: The Kingdom Tarumanagara which controls the West Java coast and the kingdom of Kutai in the Mahakam River, Borneo. [1] An ideal climate and the development of wet-field rice cultivation led to the first human settlements c. 8th century BC, and the initial "kingdoms" - little more than collections of villages with common ethnic and linguistic backgrounds - arose during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. By the end of the 8th century, many western Javanese kingdoms, such as Tarumanagara and Kalingga, were within the Srivijayan sphere of influence. [1] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. By the end of the 8th century, many Javanese kingdoms, such as Tarumanagara and Holing, were within the Srivijayan sphere of influence. [1] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. When you view the historical record or inscription that is, there is no definitive explanation or notes about who first established the kingdom of Tarumanagara. [1] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. Wretikandayun, (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate the small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. [1]

After the collapse of the Tarumanagara kingdom, due to an attack by Srivijaya, the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua mentioned that in the early 13th Century, Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java. [1] Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom is a kingdom that once ruled in western Java in the 4th century until the 7th century AD Taruma is one of the oldest kingdoms in the archipelago that leave the historical record. [1]

At the time of the European Renaissance, Java and Sumatra has had its heritage of civilization thousands of years old and along the two great empires of Srivijaya and Majapahit in Java, Sumatra and the western part of Java Island, inherited the Tarumanagara Kingdom of civilization and the Sunda Kingdom. [1] KEY TOPICS Early sovereignties that thrived include Srivijaya Empire (3rd-14th centuries), Tarumanagara (358-732), Sailendra (800-900), Sunda Kingdom (669-1579), the Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045), Kediri (1045-1221), Singhasari (1222), and Majapahit (1293-1500). [1]

In the 4th century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu kingdoms are Mataram, famous for the construction of the majestic Prambanan temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. [1] Early Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia are 4th century Kutai that rose in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java and Kalingga in Central Java. [3] According to the Kota Kapur Inscription discovered in Bangka Island, the empire conquered most of Southern Sumatra, neighboring island of Bangka, as far as Lampung, also according to this inscription, Jayanasa has launched a military campaign against Bhumi Java in late 7th century, a period which coincides with the decline of Tarumanagara in West Java and Holing (Kalingga) in Central Java. [1] In the 5th century, Banten was part of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara, the inscriptions speak of the courage of king Purnawarman. [1] This legend suggested the Parahyangan highland as the playland or the abode of gods, the earliest historical polity appeared in Sundanese realm in Western part of Java was the kingdom of Tarumanagara, flourished between 4th to 7th century. [1] The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. [1] Better documented is the Tarumanagara or Taruma (Hindu) Kingdom (358-669 AD), and early Sundanese kingdom under the 5th Century ruler Purnavarman who was a Brahmin and was associated with Vishnu. [1] Some people have an opinion that the year of the inscription must be read as 854 Saka (932 AD) because they think it is not possible that the Sunda kingdom existed in 536 AD, in the era of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara (358-669 AD). [1] The inscription chandrasengkala ( chronogram ) written 458 Saka, however some historians suggested that the year of the inscription must be read backward as 854 Saka (932 AD) because the Sunda kingdom could not have existed in 536 AD, in the era of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara (358-669 AD). [1]

It is today known as Ciaruteun inscription, dated from the 5th century, written in Vengi letters and this is the earliest inscription that clearly mentioned the kingdoms name Tarumanagara. [1] Galuh got a support from Kalingga kingdom (the first kingdom in Java island) to separate from Tarumanagara because Galuh and Kalingga had made an alliance through dynastic marriage; a son of King Wretikandayun married Parwati (a daughter of Queen Sima) from Kalingga and Sana alias Bratasenawa alias Sena (a grandson of King Wretikandayun) married Sanaha (a granddaughter of Queen Sima). [1] Finding himself in an unfortunate position and unwilling to risk a civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun's demand; in 670 AD, Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: the Sunda Kingdom in the west, and the Galuh Kingdom in the east, separated by the Tarum (Citarum) River. [1] Wishing to restore the glory of King Purnawarman, who reigned from the Purasaba (capital city) of Sundapura, in 670 AD Tarusbawa renamed Tarumanagara to the Sunda Kingdom. [1]

According to the book Nusantara, Maharshi Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman founded the Tarumanagara kingdom in 358 AD. Jayasingawarman originated from Salankayana, India that collapsed after the invasion of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire. [1] Because the influence of Tarumanagara in Tarusbawa era declined as a result of severance by its vassal states as well as due to the attacks by Srivijaya, he wished to return the greatness of the kingdom as was in the era of Purnawarman controlling the kingdoms from Sunda Pura. [1] This event was made as a reason by king Wretikandayun (Monarchic founder of Galuh) to dissociate the small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara and asked King Tarusbawa to divide Tarumanagara territory into two parts. [1]

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Period of Maurya Empire: Ruling India in between the time of 322 BC and 185 BC, the Maurya Empire is regarded as the first main kingdom in the ancient history of India who was geographically extensive as well as politically powerful. [2]

Egyptian, New Kingdom, ca. 1550 B.C.-1070 B.C." was captured using 123D Catch at The Field Museum, Chicago IL USA. The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. [2] During the New Kingdom period some of the most familiar names in pharaohs ruled over Egypt, including Ramses, Tuthmose, and the heretic king Akhenaten The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between 1550-1070 BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. [2]

The First Intermediate Period of Egypt, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially from the early part of it. [2] Historians place the rise of the first major period of Ancient Egypt's history, known as the Old Kingdom, at around 2686 BC and say that it lasted until 2134 BC. It was during this period that the first pyramid was built by Djoser and Cheops built the Great Pyramid which is the only remaining seven wonders of the ancient world. [1] Han Dynasty (漢朝, Japanese Kan-chō, Chinese Hàn cháo): A Chinese dynasty which reigned from 206 BC to 220 AD. The first recorded written record of Japan dates from the Han Dynasty, and was written in 54 AD. For the first time, Japanese people could write their own poetry, their own courtly records, their own letters, their own history and, for the first time, their own name--no longer was the kingdom known as Wa, but would for all time be known as Nihon. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL This work is a vast general history of China which covers a period of over 2,000 years, from the mythical times of the Yellow Emperor (the founder of the first Chinese dynasty, the Xia) to his own time during the reign of Emperor Wu (also known as Wu Di) who reigned between 141 and 87 BCE. The opening of the Silk Road was probably the major economic achievement of the Han Dynasty. [1] KEY TOPICS The Tang Dynasty saw the Reign of the First and Only Female Emperor of China and the introduction of the Imperial Examination System which lasted through all succesive Dynasties until 1905 AD. It contained a history about the State of Lu (capital at Qufu ) between 722 and 479 BC. Although the Zhou Dynasty maintained nominal control over China, the period actually reflected a checkerboard of smaller quasi-independent states ruled by feudal princes. [1] Spoon (Bi) China, Western Zhou dynasty B. Medium:Bronze, L. The Eastern Zhou, the second part of the Zhou Dynasty ruled from 770 to 256 BC. Belt hook Period: Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period B. Ritual Wine Vessel (Bianhu) Period: Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period B. The Zhou Dynasty ruled Ancient China from 1045 BC to 256 BC. It was the longest ruling dynasty in the history of China. [1] This was the name of a dynasty that ruled parts of China and Vietnam in 207 BC. The Anarchy of the 12 Warlords ( Vietnamese : Loạn 12 sứ qu n or Loạn Thập nhị sứ qu n ), also the Period of the 12 Warlords, was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of Vietnam, from 966 to 968 during the Ngô Dynasty, due to a conflict of succession after the death of King Ngô Quyền. [1]

Tutankhamun : An Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332 BC-1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. [2] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL A mature culture with writing and art was developed by this time. (eawc, p.4) 1.35k BC - 1336k BC Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) ruled during the 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt The period in Greek history from the death of Alexander the Great until the rise of the Roman empire and its conquest of Egypt in 30 BC is known as the Hellenistic period. [1]

Yu Gong is in reference to the Chinese deity described in the geographical chapter of the Classic of History, dated 5th century BCE. The findings at Anyang include the earliest written record of Chinese past so far discovered: inscriptions of divination records in ancient Chinese writing on the bones or shells of animals -- the so-called " oracle bones ", dating from around 1500 BC. "History of Chinese Martial arts: Jin Dynasty to the Period of Disunity". [1] Let’s start with Twenty-Four Histories, the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century and History of Yuan is part of the collection. [1]

Eleventh century historians like Ouyang Xiu and Sima Guang made the official pedigree of rulers flow through the northern Five Dynasties of the period because they were based in the north, the 'traditional' birthplace of Chinese culture and rule and downplayed the history of the Ten Kingdoms of the south, even though by this period the majority of the population of China lived in their territory in the south. [1] KEY TOPICS POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL The Northern and Southern dynasties ( Chinese : 南 北 朝 ; pinyin : Nán-Běi Cháo ) was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states. [1]

It was so called, to indicate the period of five continuous but short lived dynasties, with ten prevailing kingdoms, ruling Ancient China from 907 AD to 960 AD. There were also two Dynasties that overlapped with this period and the Song Dynasty as follows: Liao 916-1125 A.D.; Western Xia 1038 -1227 A.D. China's history can be divided into different dynasties alternating between periods of political unity and disunity at intervals. [1] It was so called, to indicate the period of five continuous but short lived dynasties, with ten prevailing kingdoms, ruling Ancient China from 907 AD to 960 AD. The history of Christianity and Adventism is divided into periods according to political or national events in China and the World, such as wars, political movements, changes of dynasties, and major civil events. [1] The Southern and Northern Dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589 AD. Though an age of civil war and political chaos, it was also a time of flourishing arts and culture, advancement in technology, and the spreading of Mahayana Buddhism and Daoism. [1]

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors - The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC. Today they are considered culture heroes, the dates of these mythological figures may be fictitious, but according to some accounts and reconstructions, they preceded the Xia Dynasty. [1] The Classic Age of Ancient India roughly corresponded, in the chronology of world history, to that of Ancient Greece 700 BC to 350 BC. Under a line of kings of the Nanda dynasty (reigned c. 424-322 BC), the kingdom dramatically expanded, to cover a large part of northern India. [2] The ancient kingdoms of Singapore and Palembang are no myth; the latter, at least, must have played a great part in history. the accounts of Chinese trade with Sumatra that the kingdom of Palembang was a powerful State, certainly as far back as the year 900 AD, perhaps even as far back as the year 450 AD. There are even the names (often mutilated beyond recognition by Chinese transcribers) of a large number of the old kings of Palembang. [2] Dynasty history Saylendra Ruler Ancient Mataram Kingdom, the term Sailendra dynasty was first found in Indonesia in the year 700 Saka Kalasan inscription (778 CE).Then this term appears also in the inscription of the village Kelurak Saka year 704 (782 AD). [2] Japan built her first large ocean-going warships at the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period During the Yayoi period, the Yayoi tribes gradually coalesced into a number of kingdoms, the earliest written work of history to mention Japan, the Book of Han completed around 82 AD, states that Japan, referred to as Wa, was divided into one hundred kingdoms. [1] China's long imperial era began when Ying Zheng, the leader of the State of Qin, conquered the neighboring kingdoms of the Warring States period and brought China under a united banner for the first time in history. [1] Well known figures: this is when a lot of Japanese mythology is set; for example, Japan was supposedly founded by Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Shinto sun goddess Amaterasu, in 660 BC. You're welcome! I love history so it was fun I actually checked out Sangokuren Senki (Rensenki? who knows) but I'm pretty sure it's set in China, during the Sangoku Jidai in China which is quite early, from ~180-280AD. It's the period of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. [1] It was also during this period that the Trần kings waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Chiêm Thành (Champa), continuing the Viets' long history of southern expansion (known as Nam Tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence from China. [2] The century following the death of Jayavarman I, the last known king of the kingdom, in the second half of the 7th century, was a dark period in the history of Chenla. [2] Islam in Southeast Asia In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Malay Archipelago, the Chola Navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman, Kadaram (Kedah), an important fortified city in the Malayan peninsula was sacked and the king was taken captive. [2]

It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties and it was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. [2] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS We don't have "Kingsdoms of Sumatra" or "Javanese Kingdoms", why should this be different? Furthermore because its a grouping of "kingdoms" over a very long time period it doesn't belong in the pre-Islam history section. ( Caniago ( talk ) 16:25, 11 February 2008 (UTC)) At first time I saw the term "Kingdoms of Sunda" eases us to enter into articles about kingdoms in this Sundanese/West Javanese area. [4] The history of the Period of Disunion is often divided up into three different time periods: the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty, and the Southern and Northern Kingdoms. [2] The Ten Kingdoms was a period in the history of Southern China that followed the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907. [2] The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. The Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 220), lasting 400 years, is commonly considered within China to be one of the greatest periods in the entire history of China. [1] An Osiris statue of Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. The period comprises two phases, the Eleventh Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes, and then the Twelfth Dynasty, whose capital was Lisht. [1] The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. The Thirtieth Dynasty was established in 380 BC and lasted until 343 BC. Nectanebo II was the last native king to rule Egypt. [1] The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. This period lasted from 1550-1070 BC. During this period Egypt became an empire when Thutmose III conquered Palestine, Syria, and Nubia this empire lasted to Amenhoptep VI who ended Egypt's worship of many gods in favour of one god Aton. [1] KEY TOPICS The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. This vast complex, situated about 2 miles (3.5 kilometers) from the Temple of Luxor, was originally established during the Middle Kingdom (1991-1633 BC), and various dynasties over the next 1,300 years continued to expand it. [1] The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. As early as the Old Kingdom (c.2686-2160 BC) Egypt used specific military units, with military hierarchy appearing in the Middle Kingdom (c.2055-1650 BC). [1] The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. The pharaohs of the 4th dynasty constructed the pyramids of El G"za, which culminated in the massive Great Pyramid of the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) c. 2550 BC. This period lasted from 1500 - 500 BC. So, it lasted roughly 1000 years. [1] The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. The Akkadian conquered large areas of the Levant and were followed by the Amorite kingdoms, c. 2000 -1600 BC, which arose in Mari, Yamhad, Qatna, Assyria. [1]

The history of the Chinese language can be divided into three periods, pre-Classical ( c. 1500 bc - c. ad 200), Classical ( c. 200- c. 1920), and post-Classical Chinese (with important forerunners as far back as the Tang dynasty). [1] Signing all matters of State over to the Empress laid the foundations for a fresh new intermediate period in the Tang Dynasty history, as for the first time the entire Chinese State was effectively ruled by a woman. [1] For the first time, was an undisturbed royal tomb of the Liao Dynasty (916-1125) that dated from a little understood period in history when the semi-nomadic Khitan people ruled over a large part of northeast China. [1] It contained a history about the State of Lu (capital at Qufu ) between 722 and 479 BC. Although the Zhou Dynasty maintained nominal control over China, the period actually reflected a checkerboard of smaller quasi-independent states ruled by feudal princes. [1] Under the Han agriculture continued to improve partly due to an increasing number of irrigation schemes, partly due to the increasing use of buffaloes to pull plows and partly due to crop rotation which was introduced into China about 100 BC. It begins at the earliest legendary times (the Yellow Emperor) and extends to the Warring States Period (5th century BC-221 BC), particularly the history of the State of Wei. [1] History had it that as China ended with the Spring and Autumn Warring Period (春秋戰國, 770 BC - 221 BC), subjects of several states that were defeated by the Qin State (秦國) fled southwards to China South (華南), among whom were those of the Yue indigenous people - who were recorded in different Chinese characters such as 鉞, 粵, 越 (Việt), etc., and had long established their rightful aforementioned Yue states by then. [1] The military history of China stretches from roughly 2200 BC to the present day, Chinese armies were advanced and powerful, especially after the Warring States period. [1]

Internally, Han dynasty rule has been the most tranquil period in the history of ancient China, but externally the Chinese empire has expanded greatly. [1] In doing so, he set a new precedent in China, one which would continue all throughout the entire 319 years of the Song Dynasty, which would go down in History as the most civilized Empire of China, a period which defies all the stereotypes which non-Chinese people often associate today with Ancient China. [1] The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC - 481 BC) about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war. [1] The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC. Classical antiquity - broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. [4] The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture Classical Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. [1]

It lasted around 500 years and was defeated by the Shang around 1600 BC. Eannatum, the Sumerian king of Lagash, established one of the first verifiable empires in history in 2500 BC. The neighboring Elam, in modern Iran, was also part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period. [1] Roman Republic 509 BC - 27 BC Time period after the rule of kings in Rome and before the rule of Emperors, when Rome was ruled by the Senate and other assemblies Roman Empire 27 BC- AD 476 Time period in Rome's history when Rome was Ruled by an Emperor and not the Senate. [1] English: The Yayoi period (Japanese 弥生時代, Yayoi-jidai ) is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. The Yayoi Period lasted from about 400 or 300 BC to 250 AD. It's known as after Yayoi town, the subsection of Bunkyo, Tokyo where archaeological investigations uncovered its first respected traces. [1] The Yayoi period (弥生時代, Yayoi-jidai ? ) is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. It was first used to refer to post- Holocene but pre- agricultural material in northwest Europe about 10,000 to 5000 BC but is also applied to material from the Levant (about 20,000 to 9500 BC); in Japan the Jōmon period (about 14,000 to 400 BC) is sometimes called Mesolithic and it is also applied to some cultures from the Indian sub-continent. [1] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS English: The Yayoi period (Japanese 弥生時代, Yayoi-jidai ) is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. Ancient Japanese Clothing, Yayoi Period (400 B.C. - 250 A.D.). [1] In China, the use of iron reaches far back, to perhaps 4000 years BC. The Yayoi period is an era in the history of Japan from about 300 BC to AD 300. [1] Historians disagree about the best way to classify eras of history, but many people use the term "middle ages" to identify the period between ancient times and modern times, a thousand years from approximately 500 AD to 1500 AD. Although civilization was in decline at the beginning of this period, a powerful new Islamic civilization was about to arise in the Middle East, and older civilizations would eventually revive. [1] Humankind's First 3 Million Years. 4th ed., Oxford, 1999 43 Rauh, Short History Chapter 4: Ancient Religious World Views What have we learned? that archaic humans or hominids evolved from African primates approximately 6.5 million BP. that human evolution was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene era (2 million to 9500 BP), a geological time period characterized by variable climate punctuated by extreme changes between colder and warmer weather across the globe. [1]

The different kingdoms were often at war with one another, and echoes of these violent times can still be heard in one of the greatest epics of ancient India, the "Mahabharata", which has come down to us from this period of history. [2] In India, ancient history includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty. [2] China, Ancient Chinese Neolithic Pottery painted with brown swirl and dots motif, Neolithic period ca. "Cycladic Goddess Sculptures Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately BCE. Brooch, Vendel Copper alloy with gilding; cm) This brooch is from the Vendel period in Swedish history, which precedes the Viking age. [1] It surveys selected works of poetry, history and philosophy from the period of roughly the eighth through to the second century BCE, including Homer's Odyssey, the ancient Chinese Classic of Poetry, Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, Sima Qian's Records of the Historian, Plato's Symposium, and Laozi's Dao de Jing and the writings of Zhuangzi. [1] History books do have records of Wu Taibo sending 4000 males and 4000 females to Japan, the first major naval contacts occurred in the Yayoi period in the 3rd century BCE, when rice-farming and metallurgy were introduced, from the continent It was in this period that Japan first gained Buddhism, the Chinese writing system, and law system. [1] The term Asuka period was first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and it was proposed by fine-arts scholars Sekino Tadasu and Okakura Kakuzō around 1900 The Japanese contact with the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) began when China was renewed during the Muromachi period after the Chinese sought support in suppressing Japanese pirates in coastal areas of China. [1] It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407, the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnams history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty, there was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. [1] From the reign of the first Hung king through the period of Chinese domination, there were two kinds of literature in Vietnam: an elaborate court poetry written Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam - The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty. [1] The war lasted from 1406 to 1407, resulting in the Ming conquest of Đại Ngu and the capture of the members of the Hồ Dynasty.Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam: a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was ruled by Ming dynasty administrators. [1] KEY TOPICS The year of tiger in 966, the 12 Lords Rebellion (Loạn 12 Sứ Qu n) was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of Vietnam, from 966 to 968 AD during the Ngo Dynasty, due to a conflict of succession after the death of King Ngo Quyen. [1]

The new history of the T'ang dynasty mentions a kingdom of the name of Kalinga in Central Java and describes embassies which came from this kingdom and from Bali in the period 637-649. [2] The Kelantan theory may not be far-fetched, since Chinese Sui Dynasty annals of the 7th century describe an advanced kingdom called Chi Tu or Raktamrittika (as in Kelantanese history) as being in Kelantan, which the name was later changed to "Sri Wijaya Mala". [2] Chinese records tell us that a Hinduised kingdom of Palembang existed in Sumatra in the 5th century A. D. A learned French savant, M. CrodGs, has made a most remarkable contribution to our knowledge of the ancient history of Further India by identifying Palembang with Shrivijaya, the San-fot-si of the Chinese. [2] Mahajanapada - A Mahājanapada is one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth centuries BCE to fourth centuries BCE. Two of them were most probably ganas i. e. republics, the 6th century BCE is often regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history. [2] With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences - adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary - flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture. [2] Known as the golden age of ancient Indonesian civilization, the era of Medang in Bhumi Mataram kingdom has left an everlasting mark and legacy in Indonesian culture and history. [2] Celebrated as the golden age of ancient Indonesian civilisation -- more precisely classic Javanese civilisation -- the era of Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom has left an everlasting mark and legacy in Indonesian culture and history ; their monuments. [2]

Nyai Roro Kidul - Origin and History. mostly linked to 16th century Javanese Mataram Sultanate, the older manuscript traced her legendary origin to the era of Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran. the Queen of Southern Seas as the protector and spiritual consort of the kings of Mataram Sultanate. [2]

POSSIBLY USEFUL The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region The place has a long history behind it and reminds one of the horrifying times that the people of Cambodia have gone through during the reign of Khmer and after. [2] Our formal history book tell us that the oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia was Kutai Kingdom di East Kalimantan, 4 century AD. But when we find a new site which is predicted to be older than 4 century AD, most of the time we identified it as as Hindu sites. [3] This is the language of the New Kingdom, which was the best time in Egypt's history The history of the 18,307 islands that comprise the Indonesian archipelago is actually that of hundreds of city-states, small kingdoms, and occasional empires Kuninda Kingdom - The history of the kingdom is documented from around the 2nd century BCE. They are mentioned in Indian epics and Puranas, the Mahabharata relates they were defeated by Arjuna. [2] With the fall of the Gupta empire in the 6 th century, no state has been able to win control of much of the subcontinent for any length of time; this stage in India's history has been characterised by the emergence of powerful regional kingdoms. [2] The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671 CE, and states that it was "absorbed" by Srivijaya by 692 CE, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua. [2] Kuning is preparing to exhibit a body of work that focuses on the history and culture of the nomadic communities along the coasts of Indonesia's Riau Islands Province, as well as on historical figures such as Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasathe first maharaja of the Southeast Asian kingdom of Srivijaya, which was founded as early as 200 BCE and dissolved in the fourteenth century. [2] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300. 2nd Edition, Stanford: Stanford University Press. [3] Cambodia has an ancient and bloody history In the First Century A.D. an Indian Brahmin ( a nobleman) married a local princess and founded a kingdom called the Phnom. [2] Book Description This volume contains twelve studies on the history and archaeology of the Koguryo kingdom, which existed from the first century B.C. to 668, its territories encompassing the northern part of the Korean peninsula and much of southern Manchuria. [2] Over much of its 700 years of documentable history, the island has been part of some larger entity, including: the kingdom of Srivijaya (modern day Sumatra, seventh to 13th century), the kingdom of Sukothai (modern-day Thailand, late 14th century), the Melaka Sultanate (1400 to 1510) and the Johor Sultanate (1511 to 1819), the British Empire (1867 to 1963), and independent Malaysia (1963 to 1965). [2] Insight Indonesia is Indonesian prehistory and early history, Pre-Colonial civilization, Kingdom of Mataram, Srivijaya empire and Sultanate of Mataram. [2] The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur, by 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and later of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. [4] As in much of early Javanese history, there is uncertainty about the precise role of Mataram's founder, Senapati (r. 1584-1601), and its greatest ruler, Sultan Agung (r. 1613-1646) in expanding the state, but there is no doubt that Mataram came to exercise closer control over a larger part of Java than any preceding kingdom. [2] KEY TOPICS The history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is also part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava (the land of Java ), and the classical Javanese civilisation. [2] This has spurred the archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation, the history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is also part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava, and the classical Javanese civilisation. [2] The difference lies in the telling of the history of ancient Javanese before the advent of the forerunner of the Mataram kingdom. [2]

The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History, using the dates 1575 and 1275, still skips the period of the height of Mitanni power, but then it does correct the misrepresentation of the later surival of the Kingdom. [2] King Sanna and Sanjaya also known in Carita Parahyangan, a book from later period which mainly tell the history of Pasundan (Sunda Kingdom). [2] Reference to the Sri Lankan materials, king Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja is one of Javakan kings from Tambralinga kingdom, one the kingdoms in the prehistory period of Thai history, who had invaded Sri Lankan in 1247. [2] The "Old Kingdom" is a period of time during the history of Ancient Egypt. [2] The Late Jōmon covered the period of history from around 2000 to 1000 BC, while the Final Jōmon spanned from around 1000 to 300 BC. The first line comes around 400 to 300 BC. This is the time when wet rice culture and iron processing came to the Japanese Islands, and the way of life there changed. [1] Indus Valley Civilization, spread in the north western side of the nation during the period of c. 3300 BC to 1300 BC being India's first civilization, is marked as the main beginning of the ancient history of India. [4] The history of the Nalanda Mahavihara "falls into two main divisionsthe first, one of growth, development and fruition from the sixth century to the ninth, when it was dominated by the liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age; the second, one of gradual decline and final dissolution from the ninth century to the thirteentha period during which the Tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Palas. [4] In this period Kyoto was the center of Japanese culture.It was also in this period that the first known novel was published.It's author was a woman.Poetry was very popular in Heian-kyo at the time The Japanese revisionists have attempted to deny and hide the true history of Japan in the first half of the 20th century from the public as it was an infamous one in which Japan launched aggressive wars against other nations and committed numerous atrocities. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL JORMON PERIOD (14,000 BCE-300 BCE) Jinmu becomes the first human emperor of the Japanese islands in 660 BCE. The Japanese revisionists have attempted to deny and hide the true history of Japan in the first half of the 20th century from the public as it was an infamous one in which Japan launched aggressive wars against other nations and committed numerous atrocities. [1] The final ruler of dynasty, and the final native ruler of Egypt until nearly 2,300 years later, was Nectanebo II. There was a Second Achaemenid Period of the Thirty-First Dynasty, and consisted of four pharaohs, Artaxerxes III, Artaxerxes IV, Khababash, gozzoli, The Writing of History in Ancient Egypt During the First Millennium BCE. Trend and Perspectives, London 2006, ISBN 0-9550256-3-X Lloyd, Alan B.2000, the Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. [1] The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 4,050 to 3,800 years ago, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. [1] Scarab Ring Period: Middle Kingdom Dynasty: Dynasty late-early 13 Date: ca. Middle Kingdom • The "Middle Kingdom" is a period of time during the history of Ancient Egypt. [1]

The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, the Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history. [4] The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the " Five Barbarians " who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. [2] The Sixteen Kingdoms is considered to be one of the most chaotic periods in Chinese history, from the late Han Dynasty to the early Jin dynasty, large numbers of non-Han Chinese peoples living along Chinas northern periphery settled in northern China. [2]

It was he who gained control over the border states, and established one of the most successful periods in Chinese history, the Han dynasty, in 202 B.C.E. First of all, there are several times in Chinese history that more than one states or kingdoms existed concurrently. [2] After having annexed six other independent kingdoms of the Warring States Period, in 221 B.C. he founded the first unified feudal empire in Chinese history and began the Qin Dynasty. [2]

The Vietnamese people which made up the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has had a long and complicated history with the people of China dating back as far as 300 B.C. when the two people's first encountered each other during China's Warring States Period. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(10 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (131) Kingdom Of Mataram History (752-1045)

2. (130) Tarumanagara History (358-723)

3. (55) Sailendra History (8th & 9th Centuries)

4. (20) Srivijaya History (Indonesia, 3rd Century to 14th Century)

5. (6) List of time periods - Wikipedia

6. (6) Daftar periode waktu - WikiVisually

7. (3) A List of Historical Time Periods to Take You Through the Past

8. (3) Outline of Indonesia - WikiVividly

9. (2) legend and myth: Majapahit, Ancient Kingdom Of Javanese

10. (2) Medieval Times - Traveling within the World


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