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Third Chinese Domination (Vietnam)

Third Chinese Domination (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • Second Chinese domination of Vietnam (43-544) ended by the revolt of Lý Nam Đế who led a rebellion taking advantage of internal disorder in China and the weakness of the waning Liang dynasty.(More...)
  • Vietnam and Chinese Colonization During Chinese colonial times, Vietnamese society was largely confined to what is today the northern third of Vietnam(More...)
  • Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and later political independence.(More...)
  • They are forever etched in the hearts of the Vietnamese for having led a rebellion against the first Chinese domination of the country.(More...)
  • One-third of Vietnam’s population lives along the coast, Chien tells me, and the marine sector accounts for 50 percent of the country’s GDP. Vietnam claims a line 200 nautical miles straight out over its continental shelf into the South China Sea (which Vietnamese call the "East Sea").(More...)
  • Although Au Lac people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over 1000 years.(More...)
  • The peripheralization of Vietnam was concentrated in the French colony of Cochin China, in part because it was a colony directly administered by the French rather than a protectorate administered indirectly through a Vietnamese government under French direction.(More...)
  • Plenty of women have been instrumental in resisting foreign domination throughout Vietnamese history.(More...)
  • China occupied Vietnam for 1,000 years and Vietnamese nationalism has its origins in resisting this domination.(More...)
  • The Vietnamese speak of four periods of Chinese domination; the first from about the year 100 BC. (More...)
  • The Han Dynasty conquered Nam Viet in 111 BCE, ushering in the "First Chinese Domination," which lasted until 39 CE. (More...)
  • Most notably, the Vietnamese noblewomen called the Trung Sisters managed to kick China out of Vietnam in 40 CE. However, the Han military returned three years later and reconquered the kingdom.(More...)
  • This is an important interaction to remember when you read about present-day Chinese actions in the South China Sea, and so forth.(More...)

  • From 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam.This began when the king of Early Lý dynasty ( Lý Nam Đế II ) surrendered to Emperor Wen of Sui in Sui-Former Lý War until Khúc clan seized the capital Đại La and install the autonomous state in Vietnam in 905.At that moment, the Emperor Ai of Tang lost the power to Zhu Wen and stayed as the figurehead.(More...)
  • Consequences of Vietnam War are huge to Vietnam, deep division in Vietnamese people, and disorder in the U.S and other countries and all over the world.(More...)
  • Vietnam followed suit in 1986 by choosing reform-minded Nguyen Van Linh to lead the Vietnamese Communist Party.(More...)
  • U.S. troops were gradually withdrawn while efforts to win the war continued by building up South Vietnamese forces and increasing the air war in South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (and North Vietnam in 1972).(More...)
  • Qiang Zhai argues that China's substantial support for the Vietnamese Communists in the 1950s and 1960s served to fuel the conflict in Vietnam and precipitate the U.S. escalation of war in Indochina.(More...)


Second Chinese domination of Vietnam (43-544) ended by the revolt of Lý Nam Đế who led a rebellion taking advantage of internal disorder in China and the weakness of the waning Liang dynasty. [1]

Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam (1407-1427) a 20-year occupation by the Ming dynasty army, from Vietnamese defeat in the Ming-Hồ War (1406-1407) to Vietnamese rebellion and Lê Lợi's defeat of the Chinese at the Battle of Tốt Động - Chúc Động and Battle of Chi Lăng - Xương Giang (1427). [1]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [2] During the period of Chinese domination, Vietnam was called An Nam (安南) by Chinese rulers (means Pacified South in expectation of China). [3] The second Chinese domination of Vietnam began in 43 AD. Lasting for about a half of century, this domination was brought to an end by a revolt of Ly Nam De who took advantage of internal disorder of China and the weakness of Liang Dynasty. [2] Do you consider France, UK, Germany, Spain as "ancient, inseparable part of Italy"? Before the first Chinese domination which was in 111 BC, Vietnam did own some areas which are parts of China now. [4] During Chinese domination period, Vietnam used to be an important port in the region, a bridge of sea routes between China and India. [2]

In 938, the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyn, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam. [5]

During the first three Chinese periods of domination, Vietnamese society was primarily in the northern part of modern Vietnam. [1] First Chinese domination of Vietnam (111 BC-39 AD) Chinese incursions, followed by Chinese victory in the Han-Nanyue War (111 BC), established Chinese rule in Vietnam. [1]

The first Chinese domination is a period in Vietnamese history during which Vietnam was under Chinese rule from the north. [6] Some Vietnamese considered this period under Trieu's rule a Chinese domination, because Trieu Da was a former Qin general who defeated An Duong Vuong to established his rule over the territory that is now Northern Vietnam. [3] This never happened in Vietnamese thinking, not in 4000 years ago, not during the 1000 years of Chinese domination period, and definitely not since Vietnam got the independence 1000 years ago. [4]

The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the Bc thuc periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, making up much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. [5]

From the reign of the first Hung king through the period of Chinese domination, there were two kinds of literature in Vietnam: an elaborate court poetry written [1] Giao Ch ( pinyin : Jiozh ) was the name for various provinces, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (c. [5] This victory ended China's long domination of Vietnam and began a period of Vietnam's independence until the conquest by Ming China. [5] To ensure domination, the Han feudalists advocated the creation of "military colonies"; military men, political or common-law prisoners and destitute people coming from China together with destitute Vietnamese and landless peasants were recruited to reclaim and exploit the land under the direction of officers or functionaries. [7]

Vietnam and Chinese Colonization During Chinese colonial times, Vietnamese society was largely confined to what is today the northern third of Vietnam [1] Before the third Chinese colonial period (603-939), Vietnam enjoyed nearly 60 years of sovereignty, from 544 to 602." [1]

The Chinese seized control of Vietnam again in the early 15th century, carting off the national archives and some of the country’s intellectuals to China - an irreparable loss to Vietnamese civilisation. [8] A number of famous Buddhist travelers passed through Vietnam en route to or from China, and by the early years of the Tang, Vietnamese monks were among those travelers. [9] Though the Vietnamese incorporated advanced and technical elements they thought would be beneficial to themselves, the unwillingness to be dominated by outsiders, the desire to maintain political autonomy and the drive to regain Vietnamese independence signified Vietnamese resistance and hostility to Chinese aggression, political domination and imperialism on Vietnamese society. [6] The Chinese vigorously tried to assimilate the Vietnamese peacefully either through forced sinicization or through brute Chinese political domination. [6]

The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty. [10] There is a dispute as to whether the period of the Triệu dynasty was part of the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. [6] It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, the first three of which are almost continuous and referred to as Bắc thuộc ("Northern domination"). [6] This rebellion ended the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. [5] This marked the end of the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. [6] This battle concluded the fourth invasion as well as ended 1000 - year Chinese domination in Vietnam. [2]

During the centuries of disunion in China, Vietnam fell under the domination of a succession of smaller states to the north. [9] Some people believe that the control of Triu Dynasty was the beginning of China's domination in Vietnam, as Triu à used to be a commander under dynastic China. [5] In the second century BC, Vietnam history witnessed the domination of China. [2]

The first of these was the introduction into the Red River delta of the more advanced civilization of China, including technical and administrative innovations and the more sophisticated level of Chinese learning, which made the Vietnamese the most advanced people of mainland Southeast Asia. [11] Many talented Vietnamese individuals with varying trades and backgrounds who could make significant contributions were allowed to become government officials in China where they served in the Chinese imperial government. [10]

Han rule and government administration brought new influences to the indigenous Vietnamese and the rule of Vietnam as a Chinese province operated as a frontier outpost of the Han Empire. [6] It was recorded that the union of Vietnamese women and Chinese (Ngô) men produced offspring which were left behind in Vietnam, and the Chams, Cẩu Hiểm, Laotians, these people, and Vietnamese natives who collaborated with the Ming were made into slaves of the Le government in the Complete Annals of Đại Việt. [10]

Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and later political independence. [1] The Bạch Đằng victory in 938 put an end to the period of Chinese imperial domination. [12]

Many of these elements of Chinese civilization were readily integrated into the indigenous local culture and ultimately benefited the Vietnamese people, but Sinicization never succeeded in reconciling them, especially their leaders, with Chinese political domination. [11] The most popular and influential Chinese sect in Vietnam was the Chan (in Vietnamese, Thiên). [9] The previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty. [10]

Soon after extending their domination over what is now northern Vietnam, the Chinese constructed roads, waterways, and harbours to improve access to the region and to ensure that they maintained administrative and military control over it. [11] A simple example would be the famous question on Quora -- "Why Chinese people think Taiwan is part of China, when PRC has never administered Taiwan?" I can tell you this question is pretty rediculous in the minds of the Chinese, because the question starter is using a sovereign state mentality when dealing with a civilization state like China. [4] If, say, in the middle of Antartica, there is a place called ABC, someday people are surprised to find out that there are people living in there, what’s more surprising, these people speaks Chinese, and actually celebrates Chinese New Year just as China does. [4] For those in Taiwan (and even in Hong Kong actually) who wants independence yet refuse to abolish Chinese culture, prepare to have China claiming you for another million years. [4] Chinese rule, although challenged several more times, remained secure so long as China itself was effectively controlled by its own emperors. [11]

Every time when a new Vietnamese dynasty was formed, the new Vietnam’s king had to show some respect to China by sending an emissary to China to ask the China’s king for acknowledging his title. [4] Vessels from many countries with which China developed commercial relations docked at the harbours along the Vietnamese coast, not only bringing new goods but also establishing contacts with a wider world and thus promoting the development of the country. [11]

They are forever etched in the hearts of the Vietnamese for having led a rebellion against the first Chinese domination of the country. [13] Vietnamese literature was "impregnated" with the classical heritage of China: Chinese used to be the language of scholarship in Vietnam, just as Latin used to be in Europe. [14] With the conflict viewed in this light, Thayer told BBC Vietnamese that China was the aggressor, not Vietnam, in the 1979 war. [15] The Vietnamese fear of China is profound precisely because Vietnam cannot escape from the embrace of its gargantuan northern neighbor, whose population is 15 times as large. [14] As one Vietnamese diplomat puts it to me: "China invaded Vietnam 17 times. [14] What spooks the Vietnamese Communist Party is less the specter of the Arab Spring than that of the student uprising in China in 1989, when inflation was almost as high in China as it has been in Vietnam until recently, and corruption and nepotism were perceived by the population to be beyond control--again, the case with Vietnam today. [14] "The overwhelming emphasis of official Vietnamese history is on resistance, almost always against China," Robert Templer writes in a pathbreaking 1998 book about contemporary Vietnam, Shadows and Wind. [14] Chien explains that Vietnam and China have largely settled the problems created by the Gulf of Tonkin--in which China’s Hainan Island largely blocks the northern Vietnamese coastline from the open sea--by dividing the energy-rich gulf in half. [14]

We Vietnamese all know Taiwanese hate China and don’t want to be part of China. [4] The Vietnamese forces, under the command of Trn Hng o (1228-1300), lay in wait for the invasion fleet, comprising 18,000 men and 400 vessels commanded by the Mongol general Omar Batur, knowing that they would have to return to China through the estuary at the mouth of the Bach Dang River. [5] The stelas erected by China should be protected carefully, while those erected by Annamese (Vietnamese currently), should be completely annihilated, do not spare even one character." [10] Ancient Vietnamese people learnt the architectural knowledge of Chinese and applied suitably in Vietnam. [2]

Although Chinese is the most spoken language in the world (about 1/5.5 people in the world speaks Chinese), no other countries, literally no, except China, speaks Chinese. [4] As long as Hong Kong is still culturally Chinese, there is no way you can convince the Chinese that Hong Kong is not part of China. [4] In the 7th century, V n-Ky brought home Chinese language Buddhist texts from China. [9]

Internal disturbances in China, caused mostly by peasant revolts, created favourable conditions for an open struggle against Chinese imperialist domination for secession - first temporary, then definitive. [7] The return of the Ming Chinese to China was commanded by the Ming and not Le Loi. [10] This is not a coincidence, because "not speaking Chinese" is the pre-condition of becoming "not China". [4]

The relatively more important roles women played throughout Vietnamese society mark a significant distinction with respect to China. [9] The second development during this period was the Vietnamese people’s resistance to total assimilation and their use, at the same time, of the benefits of Chinese civilization in their struggle against Chinese political rule. [11] During the entire history since 4000 years ago until now, we spoke our own language, we had our own writing system (i.e. Chữ Nôm since 13th to early 20th century), we had our own culture which is affected but definitely not identical to Chinese one, and most importantly the vast majority of population was Vietnamese. [4] The Han dynasty sought to assimilate the Vietnamese as the Chinese wanted to maintain a unified cohesive empire through a " civilizing mission " as what the Chinese regarded the Vietnamese as uncultured and backward barbarians and regarded their " Celestial Empire " as the supreme centre of the universe. [6] The Vietnamese language was largely borrowed from Chinese, but the words had been Vietnamized to become part and parcel of the language which was progressively enriched without losing its identity; popular literature kept its vigour while beginning to develop a learned literature written in Han (classical Chinese). [7] In the province of Giao Chau, one of the administrative units into which the Han Chinese rulers had divided the Vietnamese kingdom, local hereditary lords exercised control over the peasant population, just as they had while part of Nam Viet. [11] Han Chinese officials also seized fertile land conquered from Vietnamese nobles for newly settled Han Chinese immigrants. [6] Initially, the practice of indigenous Vietnamese was governed at the local level but was ruled out in favor of replacing indigenous Vietnamese local officials with newly settled Han Chinese officials. [6] Han Chinese bureaucrats sought to impose much of Chinese high culture onto the indigenous Vietnamese including bureaucratic Legalist techniques and Confucian ethics, education, art, literature, and language. [6] Almost all Vietnamese dynasties are named after the ruler's family name, unlike the Chinese dynasties, whose names are an attribute chosen by the first emperors. [3] The conquered and subjugated Vietnamese had to adopt the Chinese foreign writing system, Confucianism, veneration of the Chinese emperor at the detriment of the loss of their native spoken language, culture, ethnic and national identity. [6] Although Vietnamese territory was divided into military districts headed by Chinese governors, it remained, in fact, a leniently governed Chinese protectorate. [11] Ngo Quyen, a Vietnamese commander who defeated the Chinese in 939, became the first head of the new independent Vietnamese province. [11] As a Vietnamese, I cannot distinguish Taiwanese and Chinese except their governments. [4]

During the next several hundred years of Chinese colonization and domination, sinification of the newly conquered Nanyue was brought about by a combination of Han imperial military power, regular settlement and an influx of Han Chinese refugees, officers and garrisons, merchants, scholars, bureaucrats, fugitives, and prisoners of war. [6] In the almost uninterrupted 900 years of independence that followed China's domination, the Vietnamese thwarted a number of Chinese attempts at military reconquest, accepting a tributary relationship instead. [16] Yet, party officials also worry that political reform might take them down the path of pre-1975 South Vietnam, whose weak, faction-ridden governments led to that state’s collapse; or that of late-19th- and early-20th-century China, with its feeble central authority that led to foreign domination. [14]

There were many small-scale revolts against the cruel domination characterized by dictatorship, forcing labor, and insatiable tributes of China from the 3rd century to 6th century. [2] Vietnam's history is intimately tied, for better or for worse, to its long relationship with China. [9]

Mahayana Buddhism from China first appeared in the Red River Delta area in some time around 300 AD and Theravada Buddhism is believed to have come from India into Vietnam's Mekong Delta at some point between 300 and 600 AD. Most ethnic Vietnamese adhere to the Pure Land branch of the Mahayana school of Buddhism and some ethnic minorities in southern Vietnam follow the Theravada school of Buddhism. [17] No other Southeast Asian nation has been willing speak out or to stand up to Chinese incursions in the South China Sea to the degree that Vietnam or Vietnamese citizens have. [18] Anti-Chinese feelings can still be detected today throughout Vietnam, based partly on a centuries-long history of Vietnamese struggles against Chinese domination. [18] Islam is believed to have first made contact with Vietnam after its arrival in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907), since Vietnam was under their third period of Chinese domination at this time. [17]

One-third of Vietnam’s population lives along the coast, Chien tells me, and the marine sector accounts for 50 percent of the country’s GDP. Vietnam claims a line 200 nautical miles straight out over its continental shelf into the South China Sea (which Vietnamese call the "East Sea"). [14] Duong Danh Dy, first secretary of the Vietnamese embassy in China in 1979, wrote that Vietnam’s reticence to discuss the war was motivated by the greater cause of fostering amity between the neighboring nations. [15] I n fact, the survival of Communist rule in the face of Vietnam’s rampant capitalism is partly explained by the Vietnamese Communist Party’s nationalist credentials, now that it has governed the country during wars against the French, Americans, and Chinese. [14] The Vietnamese seized the initiative and launched a long overdue revolt against Chinese rule in Vietnam. [8]

Other ardent Chinese nationalists downplay the Khmer Rouge factor and instead justify the war by citing Vietnam's oppression of Hoa people (ethnic Chinese living in Vietnam), and Hanoi's supposed hegemonic dreams of dominating Indochina with the backing of the USSR. [15]

It allowed the country to regain independence, even if it was for a short moment in their 1000-year history of Chinese domination, and later, the French and the Americans. [13] For centuries, Vietnam resisted Chinese political domination, and often even Chinese influence. [19]

Although Au Lac people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over 1000 years. [2] Vietnamese tradition reveres the Trưng sisters who gave their lives in 43 AD in the first resistance movement against Chinese domination. [20] In this conflict, the insurgents--with logistical support from China and the Soviet Union--ultimately defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. [21] There were two types of correspondence that China sent to Vietnam: Those directed at the Vietnamese populace in North Vietnam, and those sent to the Viet Cong, operating in the south. [22]

The fierce desire of all Vietnamese to be separate from China was reinforced by their contact with the Chams and Khmers to the south, who were influenced by non-Chinese civilizations, particularly India’s. [14] Since the conflict was fought entirely on Vietnamese territory, it runs contrary to the ruling Communist Party’s prevailing narratives of a China that never threatens or attacks its neighbors. [15] Today, Vietnamese policy makers may look at China for lessons on market reform, but they determine their own political path. [19] Vietnamese civilisation is as sophisticated as that of its mighty northern neighbour China, from where it drew many of its influences under a thousand-year occupation. [8]

Vietnamese veterans, military enthusiasts, historians, and diplomats have also urged the government to reconsider their decades of deliberate silence; such advocates call on Hanoi to highlight the facts of the war to help people all over the world, including the Chinese, fully understand what really happened. [15] Apparently, both the Vietnamese and Chinese publics are looking forward to clear and straightforward information about the nature of the war from their respective governments. [15] "While information about Vietnam’s just defensive war against China’s 1979 aggression remains little and vague, the Vietnamese youth have long been surrounded by movies that advertise and diffuse Chinese culture and history. [15] China’s proximity and the fact that the U.S. is half a world away mean that the Vietnamese have to put up with such indignities as the environmental destruction that comes with Chinese bauxite mining of Vietnam’s lush Central Highlands--a project that, like others around the country, employs Chinese workers rather than Vietnamese ones. [14] The Chinese conquered the Red River Delta in the 2nd century BC. In the following centuries, large numbers of Chinese settlers, officials and scholars moved south to impose a centralised state system on the Vietnamese. [8] The two Trung sisters went on to rule the country for three years, and during their reign, the tax policies imposed by the Chinese that were crippling the Vietnamese were abolished, and a simpler form of government, more in line with traditional Vietnamese values was restored. [13]

Vietnamese are now prying their way into the developed world--for the sake of themselves and their families, obviously, but also to preserve their independence against an equally dynamic China. [14] Whereas America has been marginal to the Vietnamese past, China has been central. [14] Vietnamese tell me again and again that the South China Sea signifies more than just a system of territorial disputes: it is the crossroads of global maritime commerce, vital to the energy needs of South Korea and Japan, and the place where China could one day check the power of the U.S. in Asia. [14] Beijing’s rising assertiveness in the South China Sea in recent years and growing pressure from the Vietnamese public to assert sovereignty over contested maritime territories are no doubt key push factors behind the changed narrative. [23]

While the Vietnamese aristocracy clung to Chinese Confucianism, during most periods the common people embraced Buddhism, adapting it to fit their own indigenous religions and world view. [16] In 1789 Nguyen Hue’s armed forces overwhelmingly defeated the Chinese army at Dong Da in another of the greatest hits of Vietnamese history. [8] Ho Chi Minh, schooled in Confucianism, Vietnamese nationalism, and MarxismLeninism, patiently set about organizing the Vietnamese peasantry according to Communist theories, particularly those of Chinese leader Mao Zedong. [16] Vietnamese are in a situation similar to that of Chinese: they are governed by a Communist Party that has all but given up Communism, and have accepted an implicit social contract under which they agree not to protest too loudly as long as the party guarantees higher income levels. [14] Thereafter, Vietnamese dynasties like the Ly, Tran, and Le were great because they resisted Chinese control from the north, repelling waves of numerically superior armies. [14] Chinh is thus known as the first Vietnamese soldier who fell in Vietnam’s fight against the Chinese invasion. [15] During this period, learning and literature flourished as the Vietnamese expressed themselves both in classical Chinese written in Chinese characters and in Vietnamese written in chu nom, a script derived from Chinese ideographs. [16] In the city’s History Museum, maps, dioramas, and massive gray stelae commemorate anxious Vietnamese resistances against the Chinese Song, Ming, and Qing empires in the 11th, 15th, and 18th centuries. [14] Even for the Vietnamese elite, however, admiration for Chinese culture did not include any desire for Chinese political control. [16] The future is bright, but ultimate success depends on how well the Vietnamese can follow the Chinese road to development: economic liberalisation without political liberalisation. [8] They divided the country into smaller districts and assigned a puppet Vietnamese leader for each, all of whom were to answer directly to Chinese governor, To Dinh. [13] Then, at a time when the hostility between the aristocrats and the peasant populations was at an all-time high, the Chinese tried to impose a new unfair tributary tax policy demanding excessive taxation from the Vietnamese. [13] After a long, hard battle, that resulted in the sisters reclaiming 65 citadels from Chinese rule, in 40 A.D., it was a victory for the Vietnamese. [13] The Vietnamese did not, however, emerge unchanged by their millennium under Chinese rule. [16] Vietnamese news outlets, including Nhan Dan, recalled the sea clash, explicitly depicting it as a battle against "Chinese invasion forces" while respectfully referring to its casualties as "heroes" or "martyrs." [23]

The first major threat to Vietnam's existence as a separate people and nation was the conquest of the Red River Delta by the Chinese, under the mighty Han dynasty (206 B.C. -A.D. 220), in the first century B.C. At that time, and in later centuries, the expanding Chinese empire assimilated a number of small bordering nations politically and culturally. [16] If Chinese calculations that the South China Sea will ultimately yield 130 billion barrels of oil are correct, then the South China Sea contains more oil than any other area of the globe except Saudi Arabia. [14]

The peripheralization of Vietnam was concentrated in the French colony of Cochin China, in part because it was a colony directly administered by the French rather than a protectorate administered indirectly through a Vietnamese government under French direction. [24] Led by Ly Bi, northern Vietnam broke away from the Chinese again in 544, despite the southern Champa kingdom's alliance with China. [25]

Taoism is believed to have first been introduced to Vietnam by the Chinese during the first Chinese domination of Vietnam from 111 B.C. until 40 A.D. Under the Lý dynasty (1009-1225), it is known that King Lý Nh n Tông (1072-1127) had his officials take an examination during recruitment where they had to write an essay on the three doctrines of Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. [17] Vietnam would likely be a bulwark against potential Chinese expansion, given its long history of resistance to Chinese domination. [20]

Plenty of women have been instrumental in resisting foreign domination throughout Vietnamese history. [13] Because of geographical proximity, the Vietnamese people have been forced to cope with repeated Chinese invasions, followed by centuries-long suzerainty, in the course of history. [15]

China occupied Vietnam for 1,000 years and Vietnamese nationalism has its origins in resisting this domination. [26] When all military forces are compared, the NLF-NVA suffered three to four times the number of military deaths as the U.S.- GVN. Other soldiers who lost their lives fighting on the American side hailed from South Korea (4,400), Australia (500), Thailand (350), and New Zealand (83); and on the North Vietnamese side, from China (1,100), the Soviet Union (16), and North Korea (14). [20] Luu Huy Chao, a North Vietnamese fighter pilot trained in China, personally shot down four U.S. aircraft with his twenty-year-old MiG-17, which flew half the speed of American F-105s but was more maneuverable. [20]

In one such instance, they built a large road in Laos, which later turned out to have been planned to project force into Indochina in the case of a runaway North Vietnam. (This precaution was well-planned, as the Vietnamese actions against Cambodia in 1979 demonstrated, but the resulting Chinese punitive expedition was sent directly into Vietnam, rather than Laos.) [22] Vietnamese was written in Chinese characters until the 13th century when Vietnam developed its own set of characters, chu nom. [25] The aid continued through the war but paled in comparison to the aid delivered by the U.S. to South Vietnamese forces; nor did Chinese troops fight in the war. [20] Military experts tend to agree that Vietnamese troops performed better than the Chinese in the resulting border war. [18]

The Vietnamese speak of four periods of Chinese domination; the first from about the year 100 BC. [27] In most Vietnam towns and cities there is a "Lê Lợi Street;" in honor of the Vietnamese Emperor-hero who beat the Chinese, ending Ming Dynasty domination in 1427. [27]

The Han Dynasty conquered Nam Viet in 111 BCE, ushering in the "First Chinese Domination," which lasted until 39 CE. [25] The letters to the Viet Cong made a point of never referring to the North Vietnamese government and were written with the intent of cementing a direct connection with China. [22] Some experts had expected that the Vietnamese government would restrain Vietnamese press coverage of the carrier’s port call in order not to offend China. [18]

Stopping in Malacca, the Chinese recognized Paramesawara as the legitimate ruler of Malacca and gave him a tablet officially declaring that the city was a vassal state of China. [28] The rice was processed in plants owned by Chinese descendants of settlers of previous centuries, as Cochin China became the third largest rice exporter in the world. [24]

This sentiment is quite disparaging toward the ability of the Vietnamese to self-govern, but it is important to note that the decision-makers in Hanoi were sometimes resistant to Chinese directions on how to run the war. [22] During the Vietnam War, the Chinese took measures to weaken the Vietnamese communists at the same time they were sending aid and personnel to assist in the effort. [22] In addition to Vietnamese, some citizens speak Chinese, Khmer, French, or the languages of small mountain-dwelling ethnic groups. [25]

Most notably, the Vietnamese noblewomen called the Trung Sisters managed to kick China out of Vietnam in 40 CE. However, the Han military returned three years later and reconquered the kingdom. [29] In 2014, China's trade surplus with Vietnam approached $25 billion, and low-priced raw materials and machinery from China are still critical to Vietnamese exports. [30] Vietnam is not China, and the Vietnamese people are not Chinese. [29] Vietnam's dependence on Chinese investment and trade means that powerful stakeholders in Hanoi will be wary of taking decisive action against China. [30]

Close to 1,000 years of Chinese domination left an indelible influence on Vietnam, its culture, customs, and language. [31] After a Vietnamese kingdom first emerged in the Red River Delta over two millennia ago, the Chinese quickly conquered and occupied Vietnam for nearly one thousand years. [32] Sinicization had practical applications as well; the Chinese governors believed Vietnam was less likely to rebel if the people all thought of themselves as Chinese and gave up their Vietnamese identity. [29] In fact even the name "Vietnam" comes from the Chinese; "viet" is the Vietnamese version of the word the Chinese used to describe the people southeast of Yunnan Province. [33] In 939 CE, Vietnamese rebellions defeated the Chinese military and established an independent Vietnam. [29] In January, Vietnam protested a Chinese move to place an oil rig in alleged Vietnamese waters. [27] Did the sinicization bring many Chinese traditions into Vietnam? Yes, but did they make the Vietnamese start thinking of themselves as purely Chinese? No. [29]

This is an important interaction to remember when you read about present-day Chinese actions in the South China Sea, and so forth. [22] On May 14, 2014, when China moved an oil-drilling rig near Vietnam's central coast, it triggered anti-Chinese rioting. [18]

The war waged against the Vietnamese people was even more immoral because it did not serve the interest of either of the two belligerents; its only aim was to impose the domination of one nation over another, impose the ideology (way of thinking and way of life) of one group on another. [20]

China, which had been at war with Japan since 1937, was determined to help Vietnamese expatriates in southern China form a front organization. [32] "Oh, China," the driver declared in clear but halting English, "you know, we Vietnamese hate the Chinese. [27] The Vietnamese may have been influenced by China, but they sure aren't Chinese. [29] It would not be until the end of the T'ang dynasty that political disunity in China gave the Vietnamese a solid chance to rebel. [29] Therefore, most Vietnamese Communists chose to remain in China. [32]

Four years after the American war, the Vietnamese were using Chinese weapons to defend themselves against the invading donor. [27] Chinese and Vietnamese forces had just ended a 29 day border war there. [27]

Almost 1,000 years of Chinese domination followed, until 939 A.D. when an independent Ngô Dynasty was established. [31] Two years ago, the Philippines received the second-lowest total Chinese investment among ASEAN members, and China was only its third-largest trading partner. [30] That gave confidence to these governments about China's intentions, and about their ethnic Chinese populations, and rapidly accelerated their normalization of relations with China. [34] One of Deng's motives in reconfiguring China's relationships with the region and with ethnic Chinese abroad was to tap the wealth of overseas Chinese, to interest them in investing in China. [34]

China was very confident in its belief that it was the greatest society in the world, and attempted to convert all Vietnamese peoples into Chinese citizens, a process called sinicization. [29] China was a cultural epicenter of East Asia, so many Vietnamese people were already excited to try Chinese things. [29]

Vietnamese culture, while distinct from other cultures of East Asia, has been considerably impacted by China. [29]

If the story had ended there with the U.S. recognizing Vietnam's independence, then over 58,000 Americans and three million Vietnamese would not have died in the following two wars. [26] The Vietnam War was a result of the mutual misunderstanding between the DRV and the United States, American determination to intervene in Vietnamese affairs, and Soviet and Chinese schemes to postpone the reunification of Vietnam. [32] The nearly 1000-year period of Chinese rule had some profound impacts on Vietnamese culture, and this was no accident. [29] In this lesson, we'll explore how Vietnamese culture was impacted by Chinese rule. [29] In an ironic twist, a former Chinese general named Trieu Da formed a major Vietnamese kingdom called Nam Viet (sound familiar?) to fight off the Han emperors. [29] Confucianism defines society through relationships (parent to child, emperor to subjects, etc) and helped organize Vietnamese society along Chinese models. [29] Before the French conquest, 80 percent of the Vietnamese population were functionally literate in the Chinese ideographs used for written Vietnamese. [26] The French banned the Chinese characters and introduced either French or quoc ngu, the Latin alphabet for the Vietnamese language. [26] Granted Chinese sponsorship, Ho Chi Minh swiftly unified Vietnamese Nationalist movements not to the benefit of the Chinese but to the benefit of his own party. [32] The Chinese cosmological philosophy of Confucianism also became a major part of Vietnamese life. [29]

What is the origin of the war? Is it a civil war or Vietnamese resistance against foreign domination? This paper addresses the roots of U.S.-Vietnamese conflict with an emphasis on the Vietnamese side. [32] While gaining international recognition as the new leader in this area, China is also moving swiftly to assume primacy in the development and deployment of new green technologies, assuring future domination of a global market expected to grow by leaps and bounds in the decades to come. [35] Let's start by looking at the basic history of China and Vietnam's relationship. [29]

The consolidation of a shared Vietnamese identity can largely be traced back the common experiences of Vietnamese people in resisting Chinese rule for almost 1000 years. [29]

The contest for the perceptual domination of the South China Sea, for the Asean claimants and thereby Southeast Asia, is over. [36] Xi's failure to mention the long simmering South China Sea territorial dispute except obliquely prompted MP Duong Trung Quoc to remark: "Mr. Xi can speak of China's interests, but Vietnam's interests cannot be pushed aside." [27]

From 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam.This began when the king of Early Lý dynasty ( Lý Nam Đế II ) surrendered to Emperor Wen of Sui in Sui-Former Lý War until Khúc clan seized the capital Đại La and install the autonomous state in Vietnam in 905.At that moment, the Emperor Ai of Tang lost the power to Zhu Wen and stayed as the figurehead. [12] This secured 60 years of independence for Vietnam, but following regime change and consolidation of power in China, the new Sui dynasty sent an overwhelmingly large army south to reestablish control over northern Vietnam in 602. [1] The Tang Dynasty quelled three revolts in northern Vietnam between 722 and 728, using an army of natives pressed into service under the leadership of Chinese generals. [12] This period saw two Chinese imperial dynasties rule over an area of northern Vietnam roughly corresponding to the modern Hanoi region. [12] The four periods of Chinese colonization or occupation do not correspond to the modern borders of Vietnam but to Vietnam as a cultural entity. [1]

Against this the second period of Chinese colonization saw almost 500 years of revolt and war, though the third period (603-939) was more harmonious. [1] Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the loss of independence under French Indochina. [1] The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. [1]

Khuc Thua Du's son, Khúc Hạo, tried to set up a national administration; in 930 the Southern Han dynasty, which had taken power in southern China, again invaded the country and defeated Khúc Thừa Mỹ. [12] The Jiedushi Khúc Thừa Mỹ (Qu Changmei) chose to recognize the Later Liang in Northern Central China as the legitimate rulers and acknowledged themselves as part of the Later Liang and resisted and fought against the Southern Han. [12] The Emperors of Later Liang in Northern Central China and the Southern Han in Southern China both claimed to be the sole legitimate Emperors of China. [12]

After the Tang dynasty was ousted by the Later Liang (Five Dynasties) in northern China, China split in different Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. [12]

At high-tide a Vietnamese flotilla attacked the enemy then, pretending to escape, lured the Southern Han boats into the estuary beyond the stakes still covered by the tide. [12]

After millions of Vietnamese deaths, and the American withdrawal from Vietnam in March 1973, the war ended with the capture of Saigon by the North in April 1975. [3] Fearing the Chinese would directly enter the war with a massive army, as had occurred when U.S.-led United Nations forces approached the Chinese border during the Korean War, American ground troops were forbidden to enter North Vietnam. [3]

Since China government didn’t directly control Vietnam, only a small amount of Chinese was sent to this remote area to rule the local people. [4] He normalized U.S. relations with mainland China in 1972 (Sino-American relations) and entered into Détente with the USSR. With the Paris Peace Agreement of 1973, American military forces withdrew from Vietnam. [3] During the French colonization, Vietnam was divided into: Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ or North Vietnam), Annam (Trung Kỳ or Central Vietnam), and Cochin China (Nam Kỳ or South Vietnam). [3] In 214 B.C.E. the newly unified Qin empire of China sent a military expedition south to conquer northern Vietnam. [9] Others consider it an era of independence, because the Trieu family ruled Nam Viet were assimilated with the locals, and they ruled independently of what then constituted as China (Han dynasty) until 111 BC, when the Han troops invaded Nam Viet, and incorporated its territory into the Han empire, including what is now part of Northern Vietnam turned into Giao Chi (Giao Chỉ/Jiaozhi) commandary. [3] While for much of its history, Vietnam remained a tributary state to the much larger neighbor China, it repelled repeated attempts by China to make it once again part of the Middle Kingdom empire, including the three invasions by the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, when China was under Mongolian rule. [3]

…other side of the peninsula, Vietnam, reconquered by China, fell more and more under the influence of Chinese culture. [11] When China was reunified under the Sui and Tang dynasties, Vietnam fell again under Chinese control. [9]

After that, a large number of Chinese people including ordinary people, mandarins and scholars moved to the south to live and impose the centralized state system to Vietnam. [2] Three years later a powerful army sent by the Han emperor reestablished Chinese rule; the local aristocracy was deprived of all power, Vietnam was given a centralized Chinese administration, and Sinicization was resumed with increased intensity. [11] Much of northern Vietnam (from the Red River delta down to about the region of modern Thanh Hóa province) was incorporated into the Chinese prefecture/commandery of Jiaozhi, or Giao Chỉ, through much of the Han dynasty and the period of the Three Kingdoms. [3] In 111 BC, the powerful Chinese Han dynasty conquered the Nam Việt (which in Chinese translates to "land of the southern barbarians") kingdom during its expansion southward and incorporated what is now northern Vietnam, together with much of modern Guangdong and Guangxi, into the expanding Han empire. [6] Northern Chinese dynasties of Zhou, Han, Wu, Jin, Tong, Qi, Liang, Chen, Sui, Tang, Hau Luong, and Southern Han conducted to plunder natural, human and material resources in Vietnam. [5]

South Vietnamese who opposed Diệm's rule and desired the reunification of Vietnam under the Hanoi government of Hồ Ch' Minh organized the National Liberation Front, better known as the Việt Cộng. [3] The Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam and a groups ethnic minority Protestant people in the northern and central highlands (T y Nguyên) who want to secede are also suppressed, the Vietnamese government claims this is a result of their political involvement rather than their religious beliefs. [3] Only France and the North Vietnamese government (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) had signed the document. [3] Although being colonized over 1000 years, the main population in Vietnam was still Vietnamese (or more specifically, the Kinh people ), the language was still Vietnamese. [4] History Vietnam, according to Vietnamese legends, dates back more than 4,000 years. [3] History of Vietnam from late 1850s to 1949 witnessed two invasions of French and Japan, along with many uprisings and campaigns of Vietnamese patriots. [2] French invasion in Vietnam officially ended with the victory of Vietnamese armed forces in Dien Bien Phu. [2] When the T’ang dynasty (618-907) went into decline in the early 10th century, a series of uprisings broke out in Vietnam, which led in 939 to the restoration of Vietnamese independence. [11] From 939 to 1945, Vietnam history experienced autonomous and wealthy feudal Vietnamese dynasties from Dinh Dynasty to Nguyen Dynasty. [2] Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40AD and briefly ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han army in 43AD. [6] Similar to the defeat of Champa, Vietnamese military victories in these territories initiated the large-scale colonization of what is now southern Vietnam by Kinh settlers in an area previously populated mainly by Khmers. [3] Despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, populations of Cham nevertheless remained in Vietnam and now comprise one of the minority peoples of modern Vietnam. (The modern city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood). [3] With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. [3]

In 1941 Hồ Ch' Minh, a trained Communist revolutionary, returned to Vietnam and joined the Việt Minh, which means "Vietnamese Allied." [3] The modern name of Vietnam is known officially came under the Emperor Gia Long's reign, but recently historians have found that this name has been existed in older books in which Vietnamese called their country name Vietnam. [3] In 1976, Vietnam was officially reunited under the current Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. [3] The Vietnamese government announced in 2007 that there was a new public holiday in Vietnam called the Hùng Kings' Festival at the Hùng Temple. [5] During the broad sweep of Vietnamese history, Vietnam has had several capitals. [5] Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [6]

The first Hùng king came to power in 2879 BC, ruling an area covering what is now North Vietnam and part of southern China. [5] An Indian traveler in China in the 6th century had proceeded to Vietnam and launched the first Thiên sect. [9]

During the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently and indirect with no immediate change in indigenous policies. [6] When China’s ruling in Vietnam was put to an end and no dynasty had ever managed to recover it, following Chinese dynasties and states lost the right to inherit that ruling position. [4] During the Wang Mang era (9-23 C.E.), a noteworthy number of elite Han families fled to Vietnam, strengthening the Chinese official stratum already there. [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(38 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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3. (48) The Vietnam Solution - The Atlantic

4. (41) History Vietnam: From early ages to the Independence

5. (29) China ruled Vietnam for over 1,000 years, why is Vietnam not an ancient, inseparable part of China like Taiwan is? - Quora

6. (27) The Bitter Legacy of the 1979 China-Vietnam War | The Diplomat

7. (24) Vietnamese History - VIETNAMESE CULTURAL GARDEN

8. (23) How Chinese Rule Changed the Vietnamese |

9. (21) First Chinese domination of Vietnam - Wikipedia

10. (20) Chinese domination of Vietnam

11. (20) Don’t forget China’s role in the Vietnam War

12. (18) Vietnam | History, Population, Map, & Facts - Vietnam under Chinese rule |

13. (18) The History of Vietnam: Origins to 1009 C.E. Thousand Years of Chinese Occupation | About History

14. (16) Vietnam - History

15. (14) US Carrier Visit to Vietnam Strong on Symbolism, But Follow-up To Be Gradual

16. (14) Echoes from the Past: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Vietnam War - Armstrong Undergraduate Journal of History

17. (13) Chinese domination of Vietnam - Wikipedia

18. (12) Hai Bà Trưng: The Story of Vietnam's Elephant-Riding Warrior Princesses

19. (11) Vietnam Facts, History and Profile

20. (10) Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam - Wikipedia

21. (10) Religious Beliefs In Vietnam -

22. (10) Vietnam and China: Then & Now -- President Obama Goes Hanoi | HuffPost

23. (9) Third Chinese domination of Vietnam - Wikipedia

24. (9) Is Vietnam Another China? - The Finance Professionals' Post

25. (9) Vietnam - 1858-1975 - Colonial Period, Independence, and War

26. (9) 27 Days of Hell: When China and Vietnam Went to War | The National Interest Blog

27. (9) Chinese domination period (1st century, BC - 10th century, AD) - Viet Nam-Country and People - National Administration of Tourism

28. (8) International Socialist Review

29. (6) French colonialism in Vietnam - Global Learning

30. (6) How China Is Challenging American Dominance in Asia - The New York Times

31. (5) Vietnam Overview of economy, Information about Overview of economy in Vietnam

32. (4) Chinese Trade in the Indian Ocean | Asia Society

33. (3) How China Uses Trade to Influence the South China Sea

34. (2) Why 40% of Vietnamese People Have the Same Last Name - Atlas Obscura

35. (2) China's Role in East Asia: Now and the Future

36. (2) China First, Russia Second, America Third: Trump’s Real Foreign Policy | The Nation

37. (1) Beijing now calls the shots in the South China Sea, and the US and Asean must accept this for lasting peace | South China Morning Post

38. (1) Malaysia, Korea and Vietnam dominate U.S. solar imports (w/ chart) pv magazine USA

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