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Trần Dynasty (Vietnam)

Trần Dynasty (Vietnam)

C O N T E N T S:

  • The Later Trần Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Trần) period of 1407 till 1413 in the history of Vietnam is characterized by two revolts, centered around Trần Ngỗi (Giản Định Đế) and Trần Quý Khoáng (Trng Quang Đế).(More...)
  • After the first Tran Dynasty's defeat of the Mongols, the world's most mighty army in the XIIIth century led by Koubilai-a grandson to Gengis Khan, in 1258, a newly coronated King of Trần Dynasty, Trần Thánh Tông ordered homeless and poor Viet people to go reclaining waste and virgin soil in various delta areas in the North, expanding the cropland for farmers.(More...)
  • The Vietnamese emperor repeatedly ignored demands to attend the Yuan court, nevertheless, according to the history of the Yuan dynasty, the Trần court sent tribute every three years and received a darughachi.(More...)
  • When Hồ Dynasty (1400-1407) usurped the throne from the Trần, Hồ Quý Ly also implemented some economic changes, including unifying the weight and volume measure system, improving river-transporting means, establishing administrative system for collecting taxes and fees from merchants, building foodstuff reserve to intervene when market rice prices fluctuating too much, etc. Like previous kings of Trần, he perhaps pursued an improved government budget and arms force.(More...)
  • In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương.(More...)
  • The economic development policies adopted by early Trần's kings inherited the idea formulated by one of the most well-known senior general of Vietnam's history-Trần Thủ Độ-who had decided to bolster the economic development of the capital city by more economic reform so that savings and wealth could help contribute to a bolstered military force.(More...)

  • Ly and Tran are considered as the most powerful dynasty in Vietnam history.(More...)
  • The economic life of an independent Vietnam should perhaps started with Lê Hoàn(941-1005)-the founding king of the First Lê Dynasty-who was rising to the kingship during the context of the demise of Đinh Tiên Hoàng and the threat of invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty in 982.(More...)


The Later Trần Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Trần) period of 1407 till 1413 in the history of Vietnam is characterized by two revolts, centered around Trần Ngỗi (Giản Định Đế) and Trần Quý Khoáng (Trng Quang Đế). [1] Trần literature had a special role in the history of Vietnamese literature for its introduction and development of Vietnamese language (Quốc ngữ) literature written in chữ nôm, before the Trần dynasty, Vietnamese language was only used in oral history or proverbs. [2] These were some of the heaviest cavalry fielded by the Vietnamese 陳 Trần dynasty which resisted the three massive Mongol invasions. [3]

Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. [4]

The rest of Ming armies, Chinese rebels, and Manchu Qing Dynasty quickly followed suit, and Vietnamese matchlock became the most common handheld firearm during Ming-Qing transition period. [5] Le Loi, who shortly thereafter declared himself emperor under the name of Le Thai To, became the founder of the third great Vietnamese dynasty, the Later Le (sometimes simply referred to as the Le). [6] The failure of their last campaign in 1673 was followed by a 100-year truce, during which both the Nguyen and the Trinh paid lip service to Vietnamese unity under the Le dynasty but maintained separate governments in the two halves of the country. [6] Known as Zua Wa Chong (爪哇銃, Java arquebus), Vietnamese matchlock entered Chinese arsenal during the last years of the Ming Dynasty through border conflicts between the dying Later Mạc dynasty and local Tu Si (土司, government-sanctioned native chieftain) of Guangxi and Yunnan provinces. [5] The Tran dynasty replaced the Later Ly dynasty (1009-1225), which started the process of Vietnamese expansion south from the Red River region at the expense of the Indianized kingdom of Champa. [7] In 1225 the Tran family, which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriage between one of its members and the last Ly monarch, an eight-year-old princess. [8]

Due to the maneuvering of Trần Thủ Độ, Queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng abdicated the throne in favor of her husband Trần Cảnh (Trần Thái Tông), beginning a dynasty that lasted 175 years. [9]

When the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) invaded in 1407, they destroyed the country, burnt all Vietnamese books on history and culture. [5]

After the first Tran Dynasty's defeat of the Mongols, the world's most mighty army in the XIIIth century led by Koubilai-a grandson to Gengis Khan, in 1258, a newly coronated King of Trần Dynasty, Trần Thánh Tông ordered homeless and poor Viet people to go reclaining waste and virgin soil in various delta areas in the North, expanding the cropland for farmers. [10] His base first centered in the province of Ninh Binh and was supported by Tran Trieu Co, a mandarin under the late Trần Dynasty. [1] Each tael could be exchanged for 70 quan -the formal coin minted and circulated by the Trần Dynasty in the first half of the XIIIth century (from 1225-1253). [10] The Trần Dynasty was best known for its three triumphant defeats of the formidable and mighty arm forces of the Mongols-in 1258, 1285 and 1288-which had swept through many Asian and European borders in XIIIth century. [10] Being engaged in series of border wars with its southern neighbor, Champa, Trần Dynasty did at times showed its military strength, supported by economic wealth, and gradually implemented a southward expansion. [10] Under Trần Dynasty (1225-1400), Thăng Long continued to be an economic and industrial hub, and reached a somewhat higher level of development, perhaps thanks to a reasonably long period of peace and the reputation of a commercial city. [10]

The Vietnamese emperor repeatedly ignored demands to attend the Yuan court, nevertheless, according to the history of the Yuan dynasty, the Trần court sent tribute every three years and received a darughachi. [2] One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the T y Sơn, and the Nguyễn. [11]

The first tam khôi of the Trần dynasty were trạng nguyên Nguyễn Hiền, who was only 12 at that time, bảng nhãn Lê Văn Hưu who later became a royal historian of the Trần dynasty, and thám hoa Đặng Ma La. [2] Many laureates from these examinations later became prominent officials in the royal court or well-known scholars such as Lê Văn Hưu, author of the historical accounts Đại Việt sử ký, Mạc Đĩnh Chi, renowned envoy of the Trần dynasty to the Yuan dynasty, or Nguyễn Trung Ngạn, one of the most powerful officials during the reign of Trần Minh Tông. [2] Seven years after the establishment of the Trần dynasty, the Emperor Trần Thái Tông ordered the first imperial examination, in the second lunar month of 1232, for royal students with the purpose of choosing the best scholars in Đại Việt for numerous high-ranking positions in the royal court. [2] Anh Tông was the first Trần emperor to reign without facing attacks from the Mongol Empire, despite the deaths of the two most important generals of the early Trần dynasty, Trần Quang Khải in 1294 and Trần Quốc Tuấn in 1300, the Emperor was still served by many efficient mandarins like Trần Nhật Duật, Đoàn Nhữ Hài, Phạm Ngũ Lão, Trương Hán Siêu, Mạc Đĩnh Chi, and Nguyễn Trung Ngạn. [2] Due to the firm faith of Emperor Thái Tông, grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ, and talented generals such as Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn and Lê Phụ Trần, the Trần dynasty was able to drive back the invasion and ultimately re-established the peace in Đại Việt in the twelfth lunar month of 1257. [2] The campaign was ended by a disastrous defeat of Đại Việt's army at the Battle of Đồ Bàn, when the Emperor himself, along with many high-ranking madarins and generals of the Trần dynasty, were killed by the Cham forces, the successor of Duệ Tông, Trần Phế Đế, and the retired Emperor Nghệ Tông, were unable to drive back any invasion of Chế Bồng Nga in Đại Việt. [2] In 1257 the Trần dynasty was faced with the first Mongol invasion of Đại Việt, at the beginning of the war, the Đại Việt army suffered several defeats by an overwhelming force that had already conquered a vast area in Asia. [2]

Mongol invasions of Vietnam - Although ultimately a failure for the Mongols, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in order to avoid further conflicts. [2] The Trần dynasty ( Nhà Trần, 陳 朝, Trần triều ) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt ) from 1225 to 1400. [2] The people of the Trần dynasty and later Hồ dynasty were not satisfied with the imported technology and continued to improve their firearms using gunpowder, the development of Đại Việt technology in using gunpowder resulted in weapons of superior quality to their Chinese counterparts. [2] Achievements in science during the Trần dynasty were not detailed in historical accounts, though a notable scientist named Đặng Lộ was mentioned several times in Đại Việt sử k' toàn thư, it was said that Đặng Lộ was appointed by Emperor Minh Tông to the position of national inspector ( liêm phóng sứ ) but he was noted for his invention called lung linh nghi which was a type of armillary sphere for astronomic measurement. [2] The most famous teacher of the Trần dynasty was probably Chu Văn An, an official in the royal court from the reign of Trần Minh Tông to the reign of Trần Dụ Tông, who also served as royal professor of Crown Prince Trần Vượng, during the reign of Trần Thánh Tông, the emperor also permitted his brother Trần Ích Tắc, a prince who was well known for his intelligence and knowledge, to open his own school at the prince's palace. [2] After the death of the Retired Emperor Trần Minh Tông in 1357, the Trần dynasty began to fall into chaos during the reign of Trần Dụ Tông. [2] Several high-ranking officials of the Trần dynasty were so fearful that Prince Kh m Thiên Trần Nhật Hiệu, the younger brother of Thái Tông, even suggested to the Emperor that they might escape from Đại Việt to the Song dynasty. [2] As Buddhism was de facto the national religion of the Trần dynasty, there were many works of Trần literature that expressed the spirit of Buddhism and Zen, notably the works of the Emperor Trần Nh n Tông and other masters of Trúc L m School. [2] Trần Nghệ Tông died on the 15th day of the twelfth lunar month, 1394 at the age of 73 leaving the royal court in the total control of Hồ Quý Ly, he began to reform the administrative and examination systems of the Trần dynasty and eventually obliged Thuận Tông to change the capital from Thăng Long to Thanh Hóa in January 1397. [2] In 1400, Hồ Quý Ly overturned the Trần Dynasty, established himself as emperor and killed many of their descendants upon building the Hồ Dynasty. [12] Towards the end of the Trần dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly held absolute power in the royal court, and he began to carry out his ideas for reforming the economy of Đại Việt, the most significant change during this time was the replacement of copper coins with paper money in 1396. [2] Near the end of the Trần dynasty the technology of gunpowder appeared in the historical records of Đại Việt and was responsible for the death of the King of Champa, Chế Bồng Nga, after the Trần general Trần Khát Ch n fired a cannon at his battleship in January 1390. [2] At the southern border, Trần Quang Khải also had to retreat under the pressure of Sogetu's navy and the defection of the governor of Nghe An, this critical situation for the Trần dynasty began to change after their victory in the fourth lunar month of 1285 at the Battle of Hàm Tử, where the troops commanded by Trần Nhật Duật, Prince Chiêu Thành, Trần Quốc Toản, and Nguyễn Khoái were finally able to defeat the fleet of general Sogetu. [2] Besides Trần Quốc Tuấn, other notable generals of the Trần dynasty during this time were Prince Nh n Huệ Trần Khánh Dư, who destroyed the logistics convoy of the Yuan navy at the Battle of V n Đồn, and general Phạm Ngũ Lão, who took charge of ambushing prince Toghan's retreating troops. [2]

Therefore, in 1237 Trần Thủ Độ decided to force Prince Hoài Trần Liễu, Thái Tông's elder brother, to give up his wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, for the Emperor when she had been pregnant with Trần Quốc Khang for three months, after the royal marriage, Thuận Thiên was entitled the new empress of the Trần dynasty, while Chiêu Thánh was downgraded to princess. [2] He is regarded as a war hero from the 13th century Trần Dynasty. [13] Trần Cảnh was chosen as her successor, as a result, the 216-year reign of the Lý dynasty was ended and the new Trần dynasty was created on the first day of the twelfth lunar month (Gregorian: December 31), 1225. [2] During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions. [14]

When Hồ Dynasty (1400-1407) usurped the throne from the Trần, Hồ Quý Ly also implemented some economic changes, including unifying the weight and volume measure system, improving river-transporting means, establishing administrative system for collecting taxes and fees from merchants, building foodstuff reserve to intervene when market rice prices fluctuating too much, etc. Like previous kings of Trần, he perhaps pursued an improved government budget and arms force. [10] In 1225 Tran family, which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriage between one of its members and the last Ly monarch, an eight-year-old princess. [15] The Secret of early Vietnamese Coin Styles: Chinese Kai Yuan style on early Tran dynasty coins. [16]

In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. [4] Champa troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt's capital Thăng Long in 1377 AD and again in 1383 AD. However, the Trần Dynasty was successful in gaining two Champa provinces, located around present-day Hue, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Tr n to a Cham king. [4] The Trần Dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new kings: as a king aged, he would relinquish the throne to his crown prince, yet holding a title of August Higher Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor. [4] Art and architecture during the Lê Dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần Dynasty. [4]

The economic development policies adopted by early Trần's kings inherited the idea formulated by one of the most well-known senior general of Vietnam's history-Trần Thủ Độ-who had decided to bolster the economic development of the capital city by more economic reform so that savings and wealth could help contribute to a bolstered military force. [10] Trần Hưng Đạo remains alive in Vietnam but his powers are challenged by more recent heroes such as president Hồ Ch' Minh and general Võ Nguyên Giáp, a military commander who led Vietnamese forces against the U.S. and the French. [13] Chinas province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family from which Hồ Dynasty founder in Vietnam, during these 7 years the two Hồ emperors asserted Vietnamese culture and language and banned use of Chinese language and writing in government. [2] After the defeat of the Trung sisters, the Eastern Han dynasty strengthened its control over the region in 43, as the Han dynasty weakened, the prefect of Giao Chỉ, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese Emperors. [2]

It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407, the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnams history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was eventually ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty, there was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. [2] Vietnamese independence was interrupted by the Chinese Ming dynasty and after 10 years of war, the Ming Empire officially acknowledged Vietnam as an independent state. [14]

Generally speaking, the worldview and life outlook of the Nguyn Dynasty, especially of the high stratum of king, officials, and intellectuals were those of Confucianism, which were applied, improvised, and localized in the Vietnamese society in the first half of the 19th Century. [17] The same type of currency circulated in China, Japan and Korea for centuries, the first Vietnamese coins were cast under the rule of the Đinh Dynasty. [2] The Lý Dynasty, beginning in the 11th century is viewed specifically as the golden age of Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across East and Southeast Asia. [18] Various Lý dynasty cash coins on display at the National Museum of Vietnamese History, Hanoi. [2]

The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty, the final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly. [2] According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Thái Tông and his wife, the Empress Chiêu Thánh, did not have their first son for some time, this situation worried the grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ because he had profited from similar circumstances with the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông in overthrowing the Lý dynasty. [2] In the third lunar month of 1287, the Yuan dynasty launched their third invasion of Đại Việt, this time, unlike the second invasion, commander-in-chief Prince Hưng Đạo (Trần Quốc Tuấn) assured the Emperor that Đại Việt's army could easily break the Yuan military campaign. [2]

After their usurpation of power from the Lý dynasty, however, Trần emperors and other princes and marquises always attached special importance to culture, especially literature. [2]

Their descendants established the Tran dynasty, which ruled Vietnam (Dai Viet), some of the mixed-blooded descendants and certain members of the clan could still speak Chinese, as when a Yuan dynasty envoy met with the Chinese-speaking Tran Prince Trần Quốc Tuấn in 1282. [2] Fujian was the origin of the Trần ancestors who migrated to Vietnam under Trần Kinh along with a large amount of other Chinese during the Ly dynasty where they served as officials. [2]

Under the rule of the Emperor Trần Nh n Tông, the Vietnamese language was used for the first time as the second language in official scripts of the royal court, besides Chinese, it was Hàn Thuyên, an official of Nh n Tông, who began to compose his literary works in the Vietnamese language, with the earliest recorded poem written in chữ Nôm in 1282. [2] The achievement of Vietnamese language literature during the Trần era was the essential basis for the development of this language in the subsequent literature of Vietnam. [2] The ancestors of the Trần clan originated from the province of Fujian and later migrated to Đại Việt under Trần Kinh 陳京, a Vietnamese woman and a Chinese man were the parents of Phạm Nhan. [2] To commemorate the victory of Đại Việt against the second Mongol invasion the grand chancellor Trần Quang Khải composed a poem, named Tụng giá hoàn kinh ( Return to the capital ), which was considered one of the finest examples of Vietnamese patriotic literature during the dynastic era. [2] Another Trần person and fellow countryman of Phạm Công B n was the monk Tuệ Tĩnh, one of the most famous physicians in Vietnamese history, who was called "Father of the Southern Medicine" for creating the basis of Vietnamese traditional medicine with his works Hồng nghĩa giác tư y thư and Nam dược thần hiệu. [2] He was considered the pioneer who introduced chữ nôm in literature, after Hàn Thuyên, chữ Nôm was progressively used by Trần scholars in composing Vietnamese literature, such as Chu Văn An with the collection Quốc ngữ thi tập ( Collection of national language poems ) or Hồ Quý Ly who wrote Quốc ngữ thi nghĩa to explain Shi Jing in the Vietnamese language. [2] Patriotism in Trần literature was also represented by the proclamation Hịch tướng sĩ ( Call of Soldiers ), written by general Trần Quốc Tuấn, which was the most popular work of the hịch (appeal, call) form in Vietnamese literature. [2] Today, Trần Hưng Đạo is present in many different forms in the daily lives of Vietnamese people. [13]

The Vietnamese dynasties reached their zenith in the Lê dynasty of the 15th century. [14]

In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam. [19] Within French Indochina, Cochin China had the status of a French Colony, Annam was a Protectorate where the Nguyen Dynasty still ruled in name, and Tonkin had a French Governor yet local governments were run by Vietnamese officials. [4] Imperial City, Huế: During the reign of the Nguyen dynasty, a new imperial citadel in Huế was built, based on the Chinese Forbidden city in Beijing, and also called the Purple forbidden city but employing many Vietnamese characteristics in its design. [20] The Hng Bàng dynasty was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dng Vng in 258 BC. [19] Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Later Lê dynasty early period (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Later Lê dynasty warlord period (1533 to 1788) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords. [19] Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. [11] Actually, the early Nguyễn Dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Vietnamese dynasties did (like building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos, etc), except those feats were not enough in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics. [4]

The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). [4] Lê Li then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái T and establishing the Lê dynasty (1428-1788). [19] Harivarman IV, who in 1074 founded the ninth Cham dynasty, was able to stave off further Vietnamese and Cambodian attacks, but in 1145 the Khmers, under the aggressive leadership of Suryavarman II, invaded and conquered Champa. [19] The largest foreign influence on nhã nhạc came from the Ming dynasty court of China (the name Nhã nhạc derived from the Chinese characters 雅樂, meaning "elegant music"), later on a few elements from the music of Champa, which the Vietnamese court found intriguing, were also adopted. [20]

The Period of Division with many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ng m) by Đặng Trần Côn (Chinese script version) and Đoàn Thị Điểm (Nôm version), and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xu n Hương. [4] The Comintern sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1930, in Hongkong, with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. [4] During the 1930s, the Vietnamese Communist Party was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Trần Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ. [4]

Toward the end of the Lý Dynasty, a powerful court minister named Trần Thủ Độ forced king Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông's young daughter, to become queen. [4] After defeating many revolutions for two years, Mạc Đăng Dung adopted the Trần Dynasty's practice and ceded the throne to his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh, and became Thái Thượng Hoàng. [4]

Ly and Tran are considered as the most powerful dynasty in Vietnam history. [5]

The Yuan (Mongol) dynasty, which had come to power in China in 1279, sent armies estimated at more than 300,000 soldiers to restore the Red River delta to Chinese rule. [6] Yuan dynasty, dynasty established by Mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of China from the early 13th century to 1368. [7]

In 907, the Later Liang dynasty emerged and China separated into smaller kingdoms in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. [5] It was succeeded, after a period of civil strife, by a new dynasty called the Tran, which reigned from 1225 to 1400. [7]

Is it true that after the Han dynasty, the only 100% Han Chinese dynasties were Song and Ming? I heard that the Tang dynasty was Xianbei and T. [21] The Yuan (name of the Mongol dynasty) annals relate: "The Chiao Chih (Dai Viet) population hid their rice and fled". [22] In 1400 General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself founder of the Ho dynasty (1400-07) and changed the country’s name to Dai Ngu, meaning peace in the ancient language. [23]

The lack of land was one of the reasons rulers during the Le dynasty pursued a policy of territorial expansion, which was aimed initially at driving the Chams (of Champa) from the small but fertile deltas to the south. [6]

In 1257, 1284, and 1287, the Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam, sacking the capital at Thang Long (renamed Hanoi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese had anticipated their attacks and evacuated the city beforehand. [8] Emperor Tran Thai Tong commanded the Vietnamese army to fight back and only took about 2 weeks for them to defeat the Mongols. [23] This time, the commander of Vietnamese army was Emperor Tran Nhan Tong, also a devout Buddhist. [23] A Vietnamese army under the command of Tran Quang Khai was beaten off when it tried to block his way in Nghe An Province. [22] The general who commanded the Vietnamese forces, Tran Hung Dao, is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese history. [6] The third Mongol invasion, of 300,000 men and a vast fleet, was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadership of General Tran Hung Dao. [8] The bulk of the Vietnamese forces threw themselves into battle against Toa Dos army, which was crushed at Tay Ket in July 1285; the Mongol general was killed and 50,000 of his men captured. [5]

By the beginning of the 15th century, any attempt to force the Vietnamese people to become Chinese served only to strengthen their nationalist sentiments and their determination to throw off the Chinese yoke. [6] Vietnamese matchlock gun enjoyed a very high reputation during seventeenth century among not just the Chinese, but also European observers (witnessing the ongoing Trịnh-Nguyễn War ) as well. [5] By the end of the 17th century, however, the two rival Vietnamese domains (under the Nguyen family in the south, and the Trinh family in the north) had lost interest in maintaining relations with European countries; the only window left open to the West was at Faifo, where the Portuguese retained a trading mission. [6] Soldiers in the advancing Vietnamese army settled in newly established villages from Da Nang to the neighbourhood of Nha Trang, in what became the first great Vietnamese push to the south. [6] Saigon ( Ho Chi Minh City ) became Vietnamese shortly before 1700, and the rest of the south followed during the next 60 years. [6] They had then effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years (1225-1400), of which the country prospered and flourished. [23] Through the 900 years of independence, from the end of Chinese domination until the beginning of French colonial rule, the Vietnamese economy remained almost exclusively agricultural. [6] Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat an invading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River (located in northern Vietnam in present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung, and Quang Ninh provinces), and then, with a small Vietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. [23] For those familiar with Chinese history, he can be regarded as the Vietnamese version of Sima Qian. [5] In 1788 the Chinese tried to exploit the Vietnamese crisis, but the Tay Son rulers--who had abolished the Later Le dynasty--were able to defeat the Chinese invaders. [6] Ming Chinese considered Vietnamese matchlock to be "the finest gun in the world", surpassing even the Turkish matchlock. [5] By late Ming period, Vietnamese matchlock was considered "the best in the world", surpassing Japanese, European, and even Ottoman matchlocks. [5]

The Vietnamese kingdom was subsequently divided twice during the next 150 years, and its partitioned governments were in each case at war with each other for decades. [6] The Vietnamese force, totaling a mere 200,000 men, was unable to withstand the first onslaught. [22] In 1284, Toa Do began withdrawing his troops, regrouping them in the northern part of Champa near the Vietnamese frontier, and awaiting further developments. [22] The best-known of these was the French Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes, who completed a transcription of the Vietnamese language into Roman script that later was adopted by modern Vietnamese as their official writing system, Quoc-ngu ("national language"). [6] Under his strongly anti-Western successor, Minh Mang (ruled 1820-41), all French advisers were dismissed, while seven French missionaries and an unknown number of Vietnamese Christians were executed. [6]

From the 11th century, Dai Viet remained a centralized kingdom headed by a monarch whose absolute powers were said to derive from a mandate from heaven--one aspect of the thoroughly Confucian character of the Vietnamese state. [6]

Since Im biased for fashion, Lê Dynasty costume was Vietnams first national clothing, and it was beautiful. [5] …Vietnam, the emperors of the Tran dynasty (13th-14th century) were themselves poets and patronized a new literature--which, nevertheless, was still written in Chinese and was therefore national rather than vernacular. [7] Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400), the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive land reform, improved public administration, and encouraged the study of Chinese literature. [8] Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming reasserted Chinese control in 1407. [8]

Of this period two works of religious tendency remain: Viet Dien U Linh, a collection of texts on genii, divinities, and deified famous men, which was attributed to Ly Te Xuyen, and Thien Uyen Tap Anh, a collection of texts and biographies of bonzes up to the Tran Dynasty. [22] Tran Tan wrote Viet Chi, a monograph which the great historian Le Van Huu often referred to in 1272 when he compiled the Dai Viet Su Ky (History of Dai Viet) in 30 chapters covering the period from Trieu Da to the end of the Ly dynasty. [22] At the close of the Tran Dynasty, the Dai Viet Su Luoc (Short History) was written by an anonymous author. [22] In 1400 the young Tran dynasty, heir to the Dai Viet throne, had been deposed and a new dynasty proclaimed. [7]

China, by then ruled by emperors of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), seized this opportunity to invade Dai Viet again in 1407. [6] This name only lasted for very short time, until April 1407, when threatened landowners appealed to China's Ming Dynasty to intervene. [23] By the time of its conflicts with Champa and the Khmer, the Ly dynasty was already in decline. [7]

The Tran dynasty, who succeeded the Ly in 1225, continued this work of unification and nation-building until the end of the 14th century. [5]

The 12 Trần kings were: Trần Thái Tông (1226-1258); Trần Thánh Tông (1258-1278); Trần Nh n Tông (1278-1293); Trần Anh Tông (1293-1314); Trần Minh Tông (1314-1329); Trần Hiến Tông (1329- 1341); Trần Dụ Tông (1341-1369); Trần Nghệ Tông (1370-1372); Trần Duệ Tông (1372-1377); Trấn Phế Đế (1377-1389); Trần Thuận Tông (1389- 1398); and Trần Thiếu Đế (1238- 1400). [9]

The economic life of an independent Vietnam should perhaps started with Lê Hoàn(941-1005)-the founding king of the First Lê Dynasty-who was rising to the kingship during the context of the demise of Đinh Tiên Hoàng and the threat of invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty in 982. [10] Since Nguyen dynasty is the last feudalist administration in Vietnam, many people with this surname are still alive until today, avoiding the tragic fate happening to Ly genealogy, Tran genealogy and Le genealogy. [24] The Nguyen Dynasty was still allowed to rule over Vietnam but had to follow French requests. [25]

The dynasty was capped when Lý Chiêu Hoàng took the throne at 6 years old, becoming the only reigning empress in the history of Vietnam. [26] Resistance against Ming rule continued where Le Loi led a successful uprising and pushed foreign soldiers out of Vietnam, thus forming the Le Dynasty. [25]

Ruled over by a direct heredity line, it saw the founding of the still-standing Temple of Literature (Vietnam’s first university), a reorganization of the government bureaucracy, defeat of an aggressive invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty, and moves south into what was then the territory of the Champa civilization. [26] By the time the Triệu Dynasty came around in 207 BCE, Vietnam - then known as Nam Việt and comprising basically what is now northern Vietnam - was thoroughly intertwined with the powerful Han Chinese. [26]

The boom of trade in Vietnam this time even led to the first attempt of romanization of Vietnamese language by Alexandre de Rhodes (1591-1660)-the French Roman Catholic missionary and scholar living in the East Indies in this period, circa 1627-evidenced by his publication Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum (viz. Vietnamese - Latin - Portuguese Dictionary), published in Rome in 1651. [10] Throughout this time period, Europeans missionaries introduced Christianity to Vietnam and were successful in converting many Vietnamese. [25]

Written while living in Asia, the author presents the more accurate Asian view of Vietnamese numismatics based on earlier works from Vietnam, Japan, and China while correcting misconceptions that have propagated from early Western works. [16] Despite France modernizing Vietnam with railroads and other technology, many Vietnamese resisted French authority and rebelled. [25]

Throughout this 1000 years of rule, the Vietnamese people managed to retain their identity yet at the same time integrated a lot of Chinese culture. [25] The Vietnamese victory under General Tran Hung Dao in the last of these encounters is one of the most celebrated in the annals of the country's history. [15] In most works, when writing this part of the history, Vietnamese historians usually extol Quang Trung Nguyễn Huệ of the T y Sơn with flowery words on his brilliant military victories over Siamese and Qing invading forces. [10] One of the defining factors of this period of Vietnamese history is the Dong Son culture where large bronze drums were made. [25]

World War I slowed things down though, as 140,000 Vietnamese were drafted into the French war effort. [26] During his rule, he started to expand Vietnamese territory south by invading the Champa Kingdom. [25] He had set himself to be an early example of a king participating in rice cultivating in Spring, right after Tết Holiday, an act that many later kings followed, to show that agricultural economy is very important to all Vietnamese. [10]

Nguyễn Huệ, later becoming King of the Nguyễn T y Sơn Dynasty in 1788, defeated Siamese naval troops in 1785 and the Qing army, whose military assistances had been invited by Nguyễn Ánh and the last King of Lê Dynasty-Lê Chiêu Thống-in 1789. [10] After King Gia Long, the Nguyễn Dynasty was not able to hold firm grip of power for long. [10] Not long after, the young emperor was assassinated and leaders of the Nguyễn and Trịnh factions were executed, which is when Mạc Đăng Dung decided to make his play, declaring the Mạc Dynasty open for business in 1527. [26] After the Trịnh broke apart and fled into China, the Nguyễn Dynasty was established in 1802. [26] The Nguyễn T y Sơn Dynasty lasted for only 14 years, put to an end by the rise to kingship of Lord Nguyễn Ánh in 1802. [10] After a war of ten years he expelled them, and reestablished the dynasty of Ly. [15]

Weakened by war, Vietnam was soon conquered by the Ming Dynasty from China and overthrew the Ho Dynasty. [25] After being replaced by Ho dynasty, Tran genealogy was nearly vanished due to a genocide launched by Ming dynasty (the Chinese dynasty who ruled Vietnam after Ho dynasty). [24]

A large number of them must escape to other countries (It is said that people with Lee surname in Korean nowadays are originally from Ly dynasty of Vietnam). [24] A huge number of Le people were killed by Nguyen dynasty after their success in throne at 19th century. [24] In Nguyen dynasty, Nguyen people were offered more advantages than others, thus many people changed their surname into Nguyen. [24]

Dinh Bo Linh would eventually be successful to unify the country once again, beacme Emperor Dinh Tien Hoang, and founded the Dinh Dynasty where he renamed the country from Tinh Hai Quan to Dai Co Viet. [25] After a while tempers flared, and in 111 BCE the Han Dynasty conquered the Triệu, leading to a period called the First Chinese Domination. [26] His triple victories over the mighty Mongol Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan are considered among the greatest military feats in world history. [27]

After 20 years of Chinese rule a noble by the name of Lê Lợi raised an army and booted them out, founding the Later Lê Dynasty in 1428. [26] One typical example is the case of Lê Thái Tổ (1385-1433), the first King of the Second Lê Dynasty coronated in 1428, who redistributed land to not only his subordinates, serving him during the 10-year war with the Ming Dynasty's troops. [10] Even with the weakness of foreign trade under the Lê Dynasty, Lê Thánh Tông was still able to maintain a very busy foreign trade port of V n Đồn, one of the five major ports in the entire premodern history of the country. [10] The Tran Dynasty was forced to resign where Ho Quy Ly became the next ruler and changed the name of the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. [25] Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the the Ming dynasty (1368-1662) took advantage of the situation to usurp the throne, thereby giving of China the occasion to intervene on the pretext of restoring the Tran dynasty. [15] The Tran dynasty held the throne for 175 years of repeated military crisis, including prolonged conflict with the Kingdom of Champa. [15] The Tran Dynasty faced continuous border conflicts with the Champa in the south. [25]

Ly dynasty was destroyed by Tran dynasty, and after that many people with Ly surname were killed. [24]

Nguyen Trai (1380-1442) was a brilliant Đại Việt Confucian scholar, a noted poet, a skilled politician and a master tactician under Later Lê dynasty. [27]

Nôm scripts were invented and used in the first place in XIIIth century under Trần Nh n Tông (1258-1308). [10] Not long after they took power, the Trầns had to deal with the first of three invasions by the fearsome Mongols, but it was relatively smooth sailing after that. [26]

A younger son of the late emperor Tran Nghe Ton, Trần Ngỗi rises his banner in 1406, proclaimed himself Giang Dinh emperor and started a revolt. [1] They found Trần Quý Khoáng, a nephew of the late emperor Trần Nghệ Tông. [1] Trần Quý Khoáng on his side waged war against the Ming invaders. [1]

Trần Hưng Đạo is the only figure in Vietnam to be the head of a wide religious sect that includes his family members and even his close army generals. [13] Under foreign rule, the Vietnamese people had to adopt foreign writing system, but lost much of their spoken language, during the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently, and the Lạc lords maintained their feudal offices. [2] In the first century A. D. However, modern Vietnamese now believe that the information is true, Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam. [2] Between 1804 and 1813, the name was used officially by Emperor Gia Long and it was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Ch us History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party. [2] First Chinese domination of Vietnam - The first Chinese domination is a period in Vietnamese history during which Vietnam was under Chinese rule from the north. [2] It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40 AD and briefly ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han army in 43 AD. The Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and taxes to the Hans, the Han mandarins tried to occupy large areas of land and changed them into Chinese style farms and brought Chinese peasants to work them. [2]

This was the first time that Vietnamese nationalists in the northern, central, when France had finished its conquest of Vietnam in 1885, only southern Vietnam was made a direct colony under the name of Cochinchina. [2] In August 1945 they declared Vietnamese independence and extended the war, known as the First Indochina War, in Saigon, the anti-Communist State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was granted independence in 1949. [2] Travel restrictions imposed on the Vietnamese during France's 80-year rule of Vietnam and the long period of war for national independence meant that very few Vietnamese artists were able to train or work outside of Vietnam. [18] Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War, the war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. [2] The northern part of Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, an independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. [2] In 1306, the king of Champa, Chế M n, offered Vietnam two Cham prefectures, Ô and Lý, in exchange for a marriage with the Vietnamese princess Huyền Tr n. [2] By the 19th century, the influence of French art took hold in Vietnam, having a large hand in the birth of modern Vietnamese art. [18] The founders and rulers of these governments, however, were not native to Vietnam, from the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations. [2] For those people who have visited Vietnam or those who are familiar with the Vietnamese culture and its people, it’s a safe guess that they have encountered several people who have the surname Nguyễn. [12] This changed on 9 March 1945 when Japan officially took over, to gain the support of the Vietnamese people, Imperial Japan declared it would return sovereignty to Vietnam. [2] The fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam was quite short-lived, lasting only about 2 decades but it caused huge lost for Vietnamese culture. [18] Vietnamese art has a long and rich history, the earliest examples of which date back as far as the Stone Age around 8,000 BCE. With the millennium of Chinese domination starting in the 2nd century BC, Vietnamese art undoubtedly absorbed many Chinese influences, which would continue even following independence from China in the 10th century AD. However, Vietnamese art has always retained many distinctively Vietnamese characteristics. [18]

According to Tran Dinh Huou, although Confucianism entered Vietnam rather early (during the period of domination by the Eastern Han), it was not fully appreciated until the nation’s independence was declared (Ly Dynasty, 11th century). [28] Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty. [2] There is a dispute as to whether the period of the Triệu dynasty was part of the first Chinese domination of Vietnam, the Trưng Sisters incited a victorious armed revolt against Han authorities, took over 65 cities. [2]

Only 90 years later, Vietnam was faced with the South-North Dynasty war, followed by the divisive civil war of the Trnh and Nguyn feudal loards. [17] I know that the last Southern Dynasty (of the North and Southern dynasty was named Chen and controlled all the way up to the verge toward central Vietnam) They even engaged wars with the Chams before both agreed to a normalized trade relationship. [3] From 602-618, this area was under the late Sui Dynasty, from 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam. [2] As these developmental processes were about to take place, the Ch'in Dynasty, followed by the Hn Dynasty, invaded Vietnam and placed it under their subjugation and domination for over 1,000 years. [17] In the official history of Vietnam, the Mc Dynasty was not considered an official imperial court. [17] The Nguyen Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, saw a renewed interest in ceramics and porcelain art. [18]

For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. [2]

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