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Western Xia Dynasty (China)

Western Xia Dynasty (China)

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • After its conquest war, the Mongolia () Empire founded by Genghis Khan couldn't conquer China (Nansong, Empire) until it collapsed other dynasties, including the Western Xia Dynasty (), because Nansong Empire lying in the Chinese Continent resisted the Mongolia fiercely.(More...)
  • After Jingzongs death, Yizong became the emperor at the age of two and his mother became the regent and during Yizongs reign, the Liao dynasty launched an invasion of Western Xia, causing Western Xia to submit to the Liao dynasty as a vassal state.(More...)
  • China in various works depicting the life of Genghis Khan is of this period, mostly of Western Xia and Jin empires.(More...)
  • As Yu neared death he passed the throne to his son, Qi, instead of passing it to the most capable candidate, the Xia dynasty began a period of family or clan control.(More...)
  • The Western Xia Mausoleum is the Western Xia Dynasty's imperial graveyard located in the western suburbs of Yinchuan, the provincial capital of Ningxia, around 35 kilometers from the city center near Helan Mountain.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • In 1044 the Xia and Song came to a truce with the Xia recognizing the Song ruler as emperor in return for annual gifts from the Song as recognition of the Tangut state's power.(More...)
  • However Xixia was so thoroughly destroyed by the Mongol forces of Genghis Khan that the language became forgotten until scholars in the mid-20th century began to study it from dual language (Chinese and Tangut) inscriptions on surviving stones and from documents recently excavated.(More...)
  • Only in 1038 did the Tangut chieftain Li Yuanhao named himself emperor of Da Xia, the Song court recognised Li Yuanhao as governor but not as emperor, a title it regarded as exclusive to the Song emperor.(More...)



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS
After its conquest war, the Mongolia () Empire founded by Genghis Khan couldn't conquer China (Nansong, Empire) until it collapsed other dynasties, including the Western Xia Dynasty (), because Nansong Empire lying in the Chinese Continent resisted the Mongolia fiercely. [1] Western Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 西夏; pinyin: Xī Xià) The Empire was established by Tangut tribes and existed almost 200 years in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia. [1] KEY TOPICS The Western Xia dynasty, also called Xi-Xia, the Tangut Empire, or Minya, emerged in 1038, and eventually covered what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia. [1] In what are now the north-western Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, the Tangut tribes founded the Western Xia dynasty from 1032 to 1227. [1] An further tribe founding a dynasty after Chinese pattern were the Tanguts (Chinese: Dangxiang 黨項), relatives to the Tibetians, who founded a Western Xia Dynasty ( Xixia 西夏) in 1038. [1] With the reputation of "Chinese Pyramid", the Imperial Mausoleums of the Western Xia Dynasty is the mausoleum for all the emperors in the Western Xia Dynasty, located at the east foot of Mountain Helan, about 30 kilometers west of Yinchuan City proper. [1] Chinese Xi Xia dynasty (Western Xia) 1002-1227 A.D. Tian-sheng coin of the emperor Ren Zong cast between1149-1169 A.D. Chinese Xi Xia dynasty (Western Xia) 1002-1227 A.D. Guang Ding coin of the Emperor Shen cast between 1211 - 1223 A.D. If you are interested in Chinese history and have chance to visit Yinchuan, you might as well take a visit of this Western Xia Dynasty Museum. [1] The Western Xia Dynasty (1038 -1227) is the Tangut Empire in the Chinese history. [1] If you are interested in Chinese history and have chance to visit Yinchuan, you might as well take a visit of this Western Xia Dynasty Museum. [1]

In China, remnants of the Western Xia persisted into the middle of the Ming dynasty. [2] Tibetans, Uyghurs, Han Chinese, and Tanguts served as officials in Western Xia. [2] Aside from founding the Western Xia, Li Yuanhao also ordered the creation of a Tangut script as well as translations of Chinese classics into Tangut. [2]

After the Jin dynasty attacked the Song and took parts of the northern territories from them, initiating the Southern Song period, Western Xia also attacked and took several thousands square miles of land. [2] After their defeat in 1210, Western Xia attacked the Jin dynasty in response to their refusal to aid them against the Mongols. [2]

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS While Mongols have been at war with various empires of China since the time of Genghis Khan himself and had already conquered much of China (including all of Western Xia and Jin Empires), they did not establish a Chinese style dynasty until 1271 when Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, declared himself the Chinese emperor as well as the great khan of the Mongols. [1] In 1959, a site located in the city of Yanshi was excavated containing large palaces that some Chinese archaeologists have attributed as capital of the Xia Dynasty; though Western archaeologists were reluctant to make this claim on the grounds that no written records exist to confirm the name of the dynasty and its sovereigns. [1] Many modern scholars, both Western and Chinese, have questioned the existence of the Xia, noting that many of the characteristics associated with Xia Dynasty are merely the opposite of the Shang, thus leading to the belief that the Xia were created as a sort of foil for the Shang. [1]

During the Song dynasty, many groups threatened China's northern borders, namely by the Khitans of the Liao dynasty, the Tanguts of the Western Xia dynasty, and the Jurchens of the Jin dynasty. [1] The Western Xia state came into being in CE 1038 – though the Tangut, who eventually founded the "break-away" state of Western Xia, had lived in the area at least as far back as the Tang (CE 618-907) Dynasty, when they were known by the Chinese as the Dangxiang. [1] The Mongol conquest of Western Xia was a series of conflicts between the Mongol Empire and the Western Xia ( Chinese : 西夏 ; pinyin : Xī Xià ) dynasty, also known as the Tangut Empire, or Minya. [3]

Ancient CHINA, 1000 years old bronze cash, Western Xia Dynasty 1038-1227 AD 白高大夏國 Tangut script Authenticity guaranteed for all items! Reference: Hartill 18.101 AD 1170-93 Emperor Ren Zong, Qian You Obv: Tangut: Ts-hee-oo-h 'Oo Lee Ndzen Qian You Bao Qian WESTERN HSIA DYNASTY This was a dynasty of the Tangut people. [1] The Shang Dynasty (c.1600-1046 BCE) was the second dynasty of China which succeeded the Xia Dynasty (c. 2700-1600 BCE. Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia -- Emperor Xixia Chongzong of Western Xia (西夏崇宗) (1084-1139), or Li Qianshun (李乾順)1, was a Tangut emperor of Western Xia (one of the four kingdoms that made up China, along with Song dynasty, Liao dynasty and Jin Empire) from 1086 until 11392. [1] The Western Xia dynasty (also known as Tangut Empire), existed between 1038 and 1227, when it was finally conquered by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. [1] Yinchuan, the capital of present-day Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (aka Ningxia) and the capital of the former Western Xia (CE 1038-1227) Dynasty of the Tanguts, which dynasty was toppled by Genghis Khan and his Mongol hordes, was one of China's early outposts of civilization. [1] At the time of the political rise of Genghis Khan in 1206 CE, the Mongol Empire shared its western borders with the Western Xia Dynasty of the Tanguts. [1] Modern studies find that the oldest sources credit the Mongol scouts with burning Rgyal-lha-khang only, the bKa’-brgyud-pa monasteries of sTag-lung and ’Bri-gung, with their old link to the Western Xia dynasty, were spared because Doorda himself was a Tangut Buddhist. [1] The Western Xia dynasty (also known as Tangut Empire) is from 1038 to 1227. [1] The government structure of the Western Xia dynasty was a combination of Tangut and Song systems. [1] The creation and use of Western Xia Dynasty characters to spread and interpret Buddhism not only followed the developments of the Tang and Song Dynasties, but also developed a unique Western Xia Dynasty culture. [1] Based on the historical events of the Western Xia, 18 groups of artistic scenes and 160 figure statues in the Western Xia History Art Museum inside the Western Xia imperial cemetery represent the glorious civilization of the Western Xia Dynasty, recalling the years when the Dangxiang Clan expanded the frontiers of their country, abolishing slavery, reforming the civil system, and creating their writing characters. [1] It is the first museum which uses the imperial tombs of Western Xia Kingdom as the background and displays the history and vicissitudes of Western Xia Dynasty truly. [1] The Western Xia dynasty were very first built by the founder of the Western Xia Kingdom (1038 to 1227), Li Yuanhao, exactly who built about 70 tombs; among which, one was for himself, and a few tombs for his relatives and much more to be kept empty in order to prevent theft. [1] Notably, apart from the mulitude of simalr looking eroded earthen mounds, the nearby Baisikou - one hundred temple pass, some ways North of the Tomb Site, once served as the summer resort of Emperor Li Yuanhao and succeeding rulers of the Western Xia Dynasty. [1] The Western Xia Imperial Tombs are the burial site of the 9 emperor mausoleums, 254 subordinate tombs in Western Xia Dynasty. [1] The Western Xia dynasty existed between 1038 and 1227, when it was conquered by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. [1] The Mongol Empire, created by Genghis Khan in 1206, was bordered on the west by the Western Xia Dynasty. [1]

The Huns at one time set up this kingdom called 'Xia' along the western Yellow River bend, and the Tanguts, in the same place, proclaimed their 'Xixia' or Western Xia Dynasty as well. [1] The Tangut part of the collection has played a major role in deciphering the script and language of the Tanguts who between 1038 and 1227 ruled part of northern China as the Western Xia dynasty. [1] The Western Xia Dynasty (also known as the Xi-Xia Dynasty) was located in what is modern-day northern China and sat along the southern border of the Mongol territories. [1] The Mongols eradicated the Western Xia culture, and the Mausoleum of the Western Xia Dynasty contains some of the few ruins that remain. [1] Mongols was responsible group that inflicted heavy destruction to the Western Xia Dynasty. [1] In 1038 he declared himself the emperor of the Western Xia Dynasty whose capital was situated in Xingqing. [1] Tangut script - The Tangut script was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia Dynasty. [1] Completely different, the mounds of Imperial Mausoleums of the Western Xia Dynasty look like squat buddhist pagodas, round or octagonal and about 20 meters high. [1] The unique characteristics of Imperial Mausoleums of the Western Xia Dynasty are clearly visible on the spiritual terraces. [1] Nine imperial cemeteries of the Western Xia Dynasty are constructed along mountain topography, with more than 200 graves accompanied. [1] The mausoleums hold the remains of the imperial leaders of the Western Xia Dynasty. [1] Xi Xia Book of Dead or Death of the Book of the Western Xia Dynasty (西夏死书) is an upcoming modern drama exploring an ancient city. [1] One of Genghis Khan's earliest decrees in preparation to attack the Western Xia Dynasty was the creation of the 'Yam' and was one of the earliest supply and messenger routes. [1] Intriguingly enough, radiocarbon dating has revealed that the walls were mostly constructed in between the 11th and 12th century AD - a period which pertains to the Western Xia dynasty. [1] The Western Xia Dynasty Museum is located in the Western Xia Imperial Tomb zone, where nine imperial tombs and over 200 others are located. [1] Like other imperial tombs, Imperial Mausoleums of the Western Xia Dynasty were composed of two architectural units, the mausoleum gardens above ground and underground palaces. [1] Of the 9 imperial tombs, the Tomb No.03 is the largest one, which was attributed to the founder of Western Xia Dynasty - Mr.Li Yuanhao. [1]

In 1227 the Mongols extinguished the Western Xia empire, and the death of the great Khan only prolonged the life of the Jin Dynasty for some years although the monk-general Wanyan Chen 完顏陳 was able to obtain several victories against the Mongol armies. gödei (Chinese: Wohuotai 窩闊台) and Tolui (Chinese: Tuolei 拖雷) personally lead the conquest of Jin, and in the battle of Sanfeng Mountain 三峰山 near Junzhou 鈞州 the Jin army was totally defeated. [1]

"Western Xia" is the literal translation of the state's Chinese name. [2] Infuriated, Genghis swore vengeance and left to invade Khwarazm while Western Xia attempted to create alliances with the Jin and Song against the Mongols. [2] Chongzong submitted to the Jin demand for the Liao emperor and Western Xia became a vassal state of Jin. [2] In the same year Xiangzong's nephew Li Zunxu seized power in a coup and became Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia. [2] In the same year, Huanzong was killed in a coup by his cousin Li Anquan, who installed himself as Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia. [2] After Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia died in 1048, his son Li Liangzuo became Emperor Yizong of Western Xia at the age of two and his mother became the regent. [2] However he died soon after in 1086 and was succeeded by his son Li Qianshun who became Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia at the age of two. [2] Renzong died in 1193 and his son Li Chunyou became Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia. [2] Shenzong abdicated in 1223 in favor of his son Li Dewang, who became Emperor Xianzong of Western Xia. [2]

At this point, Emperor Xianzong died, leaving his relative Emperor Mozhu of Western Xia to deal with the Mongol invasion. [2] The following year, the Mongols joined Western Xia and began a 23-year-long campaign against Jin. [2] The Mongols then pillaged Yinchuan, slaughtered the city's population, plundered the imperial tombs west of the city, and completed the effective annihilation of the Western Xia state. [2] In August 1226, Mongol troops approached Wuwei, the second-largest city of the Western Xia empire, which surrendered without resistance in order to escape destruction. [2] Asha, commander of the Western Xia troops, could not afford to meet the Mongols as it would involve an exhausting westward march from the capital Yinchuan through 500 kilometers of desert, and so the Mongols steadily advanced from city to city. [2] Genghis reached Yinchuan in 1227, laid siege to the city, and launched several offensives into Jin to prevent them from sending reinforcements to Western Xia, with one force reaching as a far as Kaifeng, the Jin capital. [2] According to John Man, Western Xia is little known to anyone other than experts in the field precisely because of Genghis Khan's policy calling for their complete eradication. [2] The Xi Xia Bronze Gun is a 108.5kg hand cannon dated to the Western Xia period. [2] A small Western Xia state was established in Tibet along the upper reaches of the Yalong River while other Western Xia populations settled in what are now the modern provinces of Henan and Hebei. [2] At the Battle of the Yellow River, the Mongols destroyed a force of 300,000 Western Xia that launched a counter-attack against them. [2] In 1207, Genghis led another raid into Western Xia, invading the Ordos Loop and sacking Wulahai, the main garrison along the Yellow River, before withdrawing in 1208. [2] In 1219, Genghis Khan launched his invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran and requested military aid from Western Xia. [2] Between the death of Tooril Khan, leader of the Keraites, until Temujin's Mongol Empire in 1203, the Keraite leader Nilqa Senggum led a small band of followers into Western Xia. [2]

In the Song Dynasty, the northern nomadic groups became so powerful that they founded their own empires called Liao Dynasty (907 - 1125 AD) of Khitan, Western Xia Dynasty (1038 - 1227 AD) of Tangut, and Jin Dynasty (1115 - 1234 AD) of Jurchen, respectively. [1] In the ensuing years, the territory and population of China were divided between the Song dynasty, the Jin dynasty and the Western Xia dynasty. [1] Liao dynasty - China in year Clockwise from top: Liao dynasty, Song dynasty, Western Xia dynasty. [1]

After Zhao Kuangyin reunified China to create the Song dynasty, he and his descendants contended with rival states controlling territory in whats now China, organized along Chinese imperial administrative style, in the Khitan (Qidan) Liao dynasty (AD 907 to 1125) in North China straddling the line of the Great Wall; and the Tangut Xixia (Western Xia) dynasty, 1038 to 1227, in whats now Chinas Gansu province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. [1] For the next two centuries the Xi (Western) Xia (as the dynasty became known to distinguish it from its ancient Chinese namesake) maintained an uneasy three-way truce with the Song and with the Liao dynasty (907-1125), established by the Inner Asian Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen) tribes in North China. [4]

Western Xia Dynasty was founded by Tangut ethnic group in 1038 and destroyed in 1227 by the Mongols which later established Yuan Dynasty ( 1279 - 1368 ). [1] This period was contiguous with the Mongol conquest of the Western Xia Dynasty and Jurchen Jin Dynasty in northern China. [1] Under the leadership of. gedei Khan (r.1229-1241), Mongol forces conquered both the Jin dynasty and Western Xia dynasty. [1] Genghis Khan led merciless conquests of the Western Xia Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty in 1234, the Kara-Khitan Khanate, and the Khwarazmian Empire. [1] Under Genghis Khan and his son. gedei, the Mongol Empire conquered both the Western Xia Dynasty and the Jin Dynasty to the west. [1]

The history of China recognized the Western Xia dynasty retained the Tang dynasty court, music and Confucian ideology. [1] The Shang Dynasty (c.1600-1046 BCE) was the second dynasty of China which succeeded the Xia Dynasty (c. 2700-1600 BCE. The Western Xia occupied the area round the Hexi Corridor, a stretch of the Silk Road, the most important trade route between North China and Central Asia. [1] The Western Xia state - not to be confused with the much older Xia (BCE 2000 ca. - 1500) Dynasty, China's first dynasty, or the end of the prehistoric and the beginning of the historic period in China - was an area of northern China that comprised parts of present-day Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (aka Inner Mongolia), Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (aka Ningxia), and Gansu, Shanxi, and Qinghai Provinces. [1] Later, the Jin Dynasty continually started wars against the Southern Song Dynasty and the Western Xia Dynasty (1032 - 1227), and finally forced the Southern Song and Western Xia Dynasties to submit to them. [1] Facing that situation, the Jin Dynasty wrongly chose to break off communication with the Western Xia Dynasty and attack the Southern Song Dynasty and the Mongolian People. [1] Western Xia dynasty, Jin/Jurchen dynasty, Song dynasty and Kingdom of Dali in 1142. [1] The Song coexisted with the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) in the northeast and the Western Xia Dynasty (1038-1227) in the northwest. [1]

Note that the concept of 'west' for the Xia dynasty derived from the fact that the Tanguts built the Grand Xia dynasty along the Western Yellow River Bend, i.e., about the area where Helian Bobo's Huns launched the Hunnic Xia dynasty at the capital city of Tongwan-cheng (Jingbian, Shenxi). [1] Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi recorded that the rice culture people living on the western coast of Japan around the 2nd-3rd centuries were recorded to have tattoos over their body, in a similar fashion to the Zhejiang people in the Yangtze Delta where the descendants of King Shaokang of Xia Dynasty had lived. (My speculation is that the ancient Wa Japanese with the Tai-Bo lineage had been wiped out or assimilated into the later immigrants from Korea. [1] Consensus would be to treat the Longshan Culture in today's Shanxi and western Henan as equivalent to the Xia Dynasty timeframe or at least 'xian xia'. [1]

According to traditional Chinese histories, "sometime between 2200 B.C.E. and 2000 B.C.E., a legendary hero named Yu tamed Yellow River flooding and earned a mandate to become the founding emperor of the Xia dynasty, the country's first." [1] With no known contemporaneous written records (the first known Chinese script, oracle bone script, had not yet emerged), the Xia dynasty is recorded mostly retrospectively though the early Chinese classics. [1] According to the study, restoring order after the chaos earned "him the divine mandate to establish the Xia dynasty, the first in Chinese history." [1] Sima Qian's SHI JI, in the section on Xia Dynasty, systematically described the ancient nine Chinese prefectures in details, covering the grade or quality of soil, the minerals, animals, plants and agricultural products, the rivers and mountains, and the tributes from the local prefecture to the central court (i.e., Chinese dynasties). [1] Radiocarbon dating places the site at ca. 2100 to 1800 B.C.E., providing physical evidence of the existence of a state contemporaneous with the Xia Dynasty as described in Chinese historical works. [1] Therefore, despite efforts by Chinese archaeologists to link the Xia with Bronze Age Erlitou archaeological sites, the Xia dynasty was described in classic texts such as the Classic of History, the Bamboo Annals, and the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian. [1] The much-later ancient Chinese historian Sima Qian mentioned the Xia Dynasty and another ancient historical text known as the Bamboo Annals also mentions the existence of the Xia. [1] Traditional histories trace the development of the Xia to the legendary Three Sovereigns, according to ancient Chinese texts, before the Xia dynasty was established, battles were frequent between the Xia tribe and Chi Yous tribe. [1] In the 1960s and 1970s archaeologists uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the possible existence of the Xia Dynasty at locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. [1] Although lack of strong archaeological evidences, Xia Dynasty is presented in so many different ancient Chinese historic records or texts. [1]

For nearly a decade the Western Xia served the Mongols as vassals and aided them in the Mongol-Jin War, but when Genghis invaded the Islamic Khwarazmian dynasty in 1219, Western Xia attempted to break away from the Empire and ally with the Jin and Song dynasties. [3] Despite aiding the Mongols against Jin, in 1217 when Genghis Khan requested help for his Central Asian campaigns, Western Xia refused to commit troops, and as a warning the Mongols besieged the capital before withdrawing; in 1219, Genghis Khan launched his campaign against the Khwarazmian dynasty in Central Asia, and requested military aid from Western Xia. [1]

Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia -- Emperor Xixia Chongzong of Western Xia (西夏崇宗) (1084-1139), or Li Qianshun (李乾順)1, was a Tangut emperor of Western Xia (one of the four kingdoms that made up China, along with Song dynasty, Liao dynasty and Jin Empire) from 1086 until 11392. [1] Still another dynasty carrying the Xia name would be the later Xixia Kingdom (i.e., Western Xia, AD 1032-1227) led by the Dangxiang (i.e., Tanguts). [1] Attack came from the Western Xia (or XiXia) in the north-west ; the Qidan Khitan WG (Liao dynasty) and the Jin (Jurchen) nomadic peoples of Manchuria. [1] Western Xia (西夏) Dynasty ("Western Xia") or the Tangut Empire. [1]

The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people and the Tibetans as Minyak, was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometers. [1] Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia (1003-1048), born Li Yuanhao (Chinese: 李元昊 ), or Tuoba Yuanhao (Chinese: 拓跋元昊 ), was the first emperor of the Western Xia Empire located in northwestern China, reigning from 1038 to 1048. [1] It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties and it was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. [1] This relatively complex period of Chinese history begins with the divisive period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960 CE) which led into the diplomatically tense period from 960-1279 when the Chinese Song, Kitan Liao, Jurchen Jin, and Tangut Western Xia dynasties jockeyed for power in East Asia before struggling against and falling to the onslaught of the Mongol Empire. [1]

YUAN DYNASTY (1271 1368) - The Mongol Empire rose and went on to absorb the Southern Song and the Jin Dynasties, the Western Xia as well as the other independent states in China. [1] Chongzong submitted to the Jin demand for the Liao emperor and Western Xia became a vassal state of Jin, after the Jin dynasty attacked the Song and took parts of the northern territories from them, initiating the Southern Song period, Western Xia also attacked and took several thousands square miles of land. [1] In contrast with the late 'xi-xia' (i.e., Western Xia) concept, there was an earlier terminology of 'dong-xia' (i.e., Eastern Xia) for the Dong-xia-zhou Prefecture, that was designated by Western Wei Dynasty Emperor Feidi in A.D. 554 for the locality of Yanzhou (Yan'an, Yenan). [1]

Visitors are briefed on the layout model of the Western Xia Dynasty and the location of the tombs and Helan Mountain. [5] Move from Western Xia Dynasty Museum, and walk on the path leading to the Tomb No.03. [5]

In 1038, Yuanhao formally assumed the imperial title, and his dynasty, the Great Xia, also known as the Western Xia. [1] In 1219, Genghis Khan launched his campaign against the Khwarazmian dynasty in Central Asia, and requested military aid from Western Xia. [3] It was believed that these guang ding yuan bao coins cast towards the very end of the dynasty were the only Western Xia coins produced with a Seal script inscription. [1] The dynasty of the Western Xia lasted for several hundred years. [1] The Western Xia was a feudal dynasty established in the early 11th century ruled by the Dangxiang Clan. [1]

His wife, together with the wife of last Xia Lord Jie in the past and the wife of King Youwang of Western Zhou Dynasty in the future, would be condemned as the "female disaster water" that is ironically the immortal topic of all decadent dynasties in China's history. [1] The Shang Dynasty (c.1600-1046 BCE) was the second dynasty of China which succeeded the Xia Dynasty (c. 2700-1600 BCE. First posited in the records of the Zhou dynasty nearly one thousand years later, the Xia is thought by some to be China's oldest dynasty. [1] Through the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts regarding Xia; at a minimum, the era traditionally denoted as the Xia dynasty marked an evolutionary stage between the late Neolithic cultures and the urban civilization of the Shang dynasty. [1] The earliest historically attested dynasty is the Shang Dynasty, which arose around 1600 B.C.E. However, traditional Chinese histories speak of a Xia Dynasty that existed before the Shang. [1] The most important prefecture they settled in was Xia (Hsia), the name of China's first dynasty and a hallowed name to the Chinese. [1]

We walked for more than 7km before reaching the cave, which was inaccessible to the public by now as it has been taken over by archeologists appointed by the Chinese government since 2016, to study the historical relics originated from the Xi Xia Dynasty. [1]

Until very recently, Chinese numismatists were aware that the coins of the Western Xia had inscriptions written in the native Tangut script ( xi xia wen 西夏文 ) or one of the calligraphic styles of Chinese with the notable exception of Seal script. [1] The Tangut people of the Western Xia kingdom did not adopt Chinese customs and habits as quick as the Liao-Khitan ruling class had done; the main part of their ruling class remained to be nomads. [1] Western Xia Tombs (Chinese name: 西夏王陵), or West Xia Imperial Tombs, located at the foot of the Helan Mountains in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of northwestern China, cover an area of about 50 km². [1] From the scale of the Western Xia Mausoleum, we know that Tangut rulers were proud and saw themselves in an almost pharaoh-like light - indeed, in 1993 a journalist writing for the Chinese newspaper, People's Daily, referred to the the Imperial Tombs of Western Xia as "Chinese Pyramids". [1] The cash coins produced under the Western Xia were cast in either Tangut or Chinese. [1] Western Xia was a state that controlled some areas of todays Mongolia, parts of Chinese inner Mongolia, parts of Chinese Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, areas of Ningxia Autonomous Region( PRC), and Chinese provinces such as parts of Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai. [1]

In the ensuing years China was divided between the Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and the Tangut Western Xia. [1] The Western Xia 西夏 Dynasty was a Tangut dynasty which formed one of the tripartite powers of China during the Song Dynasty after the fall of the Tang. [1] The military campaigns of Emperor Renzong against the Western Xia and Khitan kingdoms proved extremely costly; as well as paying for an army, a peace treaty placed crippling financial reparations on Song dynasty China. [1] During the tumultuous twilight years of the Tang Dynasty, a group of Tibetan people called the Tanguts wrested the western frontier garrisons from the Tang soldiers and started to carve out a kingdom of their own called the Xi Xia or Western Xia. [1] The first part, the Northern Song, rose after the Tang Dynasty but was in constant war against the Liao, Western Xia and Jin Dynasties. [1] He ended wars with both Liao and Song and focused on domestic reform, in 1115, the Jürchen Jin dynasty was established and the Liao emperor fled to Western Xia in 1123. [1] After the Empire was established Genghis Khan quickly noticed the vulnerability in Western Xia’s western corridor which linked its territory with Jin Dynasty, this led to his decision of invading Western Xia in 1207 CE in an attempt to cut the communication between the country and Jin; Western Xia lost several important forts along the border but successfully repelled further Mongol attacks. [1] By this time the Mongol army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty. [1] The Mongol Empire, at last successful in defeating Western Xia despite the death of Genghis, now, under Genghis Khan's successors, concentrated on subduing the rest of China, the Jin dynasty, already reeling from great losses of land and troops due to the ongoing Mongol campaign since 1211, finally collapsed in 1234. [1] It spanned six decades in the 13th century and involved the defeat of the Jin dynasty, Western Xia, the Dali Kingdom, the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan started the conquest with small-scale raids into Western Xia in 1205 and 1207. [1] Genghis Khan first planned for war with the Western Xia, correctly believing that the young, more powerful ruler of the Jin Dynasty would not come to the Western Xia Dynasty's aid. [1] In 1209, Genghis undertook his campaign to actually conquer Western Xia, Li Anquan requested aid from the Jin dynasty, but the new Jin emperor Wanyan Yongji refused to send aid, stating that It is to our advantage when our enemies attack each other. [1] During the reign of Emperor Shizong and Emperor Zhangzong, the national strength of the Jin Dynasty was at its zenith, with the Xixia ( western Xia, a regime founded by another ethnic minority called the Dangxiang ) made into a subordinate country and the weak Southern Song forced to make peace by paying tribute. [1] Two years later the Song court united with the Western Xia empire (Xixia 西夏) to extinguish the Jin Dynasty. [1] In 1210, Western Xia attacked the Jin dynasty as punishment for their refusal to aid them against the Mongols, the following year, the Mongols joined Western Xia and began a 23-year-long campaign against Jin. [1] The era ended with the Mongol conquest, as Western Xia fell in 1227, the Jin dynasty in 1234, and finally the Southern Song dynasty in 1279. [1] The Song Dynasty, known for its development of China's economy and trade, had a history of building the Great Wall to prevent invasions of Liao, Western Xia and Jin in the north and northwest. [1] The Song Dynasty had treat from its neighbors, the Liao (907-1125), Western Xia (1032-1227) and Jin (1115-1234), but it did not build any fortification walls. [1]

The first Western Xia coinage had inscriptions only in Tangut but the Song dynasty custom of casting "Matched Coins" (dui qian 对钱 ), where two or more different calligraphy styles were used on coins of the same period title, continued during the Western Xia. [1] The Western Xia rulers submitted to the Jurchens and became their vassals, and the Tanguts took over much new land as the Song Dynasty retreated across the Yangtze River. [6]

To the north, Liao Dynasty established by Khitan people and the Western Xia established by Tangus people coexisted with Northern Song. [1] When the Jin dynasty emerged in 1115 and displaced the Liao, aiding Jin in their wars against the Song, Western Xia gained thousands of square miles of former Song territory. [1] In 1115, the Jürchen Jin dynasty defeated the Liao, the Liao emperor fled to Western Xia in 1123. [1] When the Jin dynasty emerged in 1115 and displaced the Liao, Western Xia eventually accepted vassal status to the new empire. [3] Upon reaching Yinchuan in 1227 and setting siege to the city, Genghis prepared to invade the Jin dynasty in order to neutralize any threat of them sending relief troops to Western Xia as well as setting the stage for a final conquest of the Jin empire. [3] In 1210, Western Xia attacked the Jin dynasty as punishment for their refusal to aid them against the Mongols. [3] It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty. [1] The Western Xia state – not to be confused with the much older Xia (BCE 2000 ca. – 1500) Dynasty, China's first dynasty, or the end of the prehistoric and the beginning of the historic period in China – was an area of northern China that comprised parts of present-day Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (aka Inner Mongolia), Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (aka Ningxia), and Gansu, Shanxi, and Qinghai Provinces. [1] A fairly small state, Western Xia struggled for dominance with its larger and more powerful neighbors, the Liao dynasty to the east and northeast, and the Song dynasty to the southeast. [3] While Western Xia was still there, Song Dynasty lost most of Yellow River valley in 1127 to the new comer, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, who destroyed Liao Dynasty in 1125. [1]

Xia dynasty - The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese history. [1] Naming his new dynasty for the ancient Chinese state of Xia, Zhao embarked on a campaign to conquer all of China. [4] One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. [1] In 534 General Gao Huan set up an Eastern Wei emperor hostile to Chinese culture that in 550 became the Northern Qi dynasty, while general Yuwen Tai created a Western Wei puppet depending on the Chinese aristocracy at Chang'an. [1] The title of Usi Hsia, "Western Hsia," which tho Chinese give to the dynasty. [1] The J"n Dynasty, was a dynasty in Chinese history, lasting between the years 265 and 420 CE. There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin and the second Eastern Jin. [1] Established by the last of the Western Jin and governing a limited area lying to the South of Yangtze River, this dynasty was recorded as a single dynasty in Chinese history. [1] Western Jin is a major dynasty of Chinese history, but for some reasons, it is less familiar to many people. [1]

KEY TOPICS Prior to the Western Jin dynasty and the reunification of China by the Western Jin emperors, there was 25 years of fighting among the Chinese people. [1] During the Western Han dynasty, Zhang Qian, a Chinese imperial envoy, was sent to Central Asia (traditionally known as the Western Regions) in the 2nd century BC. His mission provided the Chinese with knowledge about Central Asia and beyond, and opened up a trade network linking China to Central, West and South Asia, North Africa and areas lining the Mediterranean coast. [1]

The earliest known gold artifacts found in China include earrings, nose rings and the like, dating to the late of Xia Dynasty, discovered at Huoshaogou, near Yumen in Gansu province - an area of contact between Yellow River or Asian heartland agriculturalists and ancient nomadic peoples. [1] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty, with thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the worlds oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization. [1] Finding Xia: Cultural Relics of the West Xia Dynasty by National Museum of China, Department of Culture of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region: China Social Sciences Press 9787500447535 Soft cover, 1st Edition - Jorge Welsh Books abebooks.com Passion for books. [1] Whereas earlier cultures in China engaged in totemism, a form of shamanism, where animal spirits were associated with particular tribal or clan or family groups, it was during the Xia dynasty that the worship of the totems of one particular family transformed into a royal ancestral cult. [1] When the Dong-yi tribes disobeyed Qi(3), Qi sent the armies to defeat the You-hu-shi clan at Gan (Zhenzhou of Henan Province, but do note that the ancient Gan-shui was closer to Luoyang of Henan Prov, i.e., the heartland of Sinitic China) and hence solidified the Xia Dynasty rule. [1] Beginning in 1038, the Xia Dynasty was extremely powerful until 1227 when Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies swept in from the North, wiping out any trace of the former empire. [1] It was thought that historians, especially the famous Sima Qian, created the Xia Dynasty as a model precedent to explain and justify dynastic change in China. [1] It is recorded that Yuanmou man is the oldest hominoid in China and the oldest dynasty is Xia Dynasty. [1] For example one of the excavations causes archaeologists to believe that the foundations of China were created during the Xia dynasty. [1] In the early period of the West Xia Dynasty, its territory comprised of Ningxia, northewestern Gansu Province, northeastern Qinghai Province, part of Inner Mongolia, and northern Shaanxi Province, stretching for over 20,000 li (6,213 miles). [1] There were 17 kings of 14 generations during Xia Dynasty from Yu the Great to Jie of Xia according to Sima Qian and other earlier records in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period. [1] In ZUO ZHUAN's Lu Lord Xigong 15th year, a statement was made to the effect that the Xu state, which was commonly taken to be Xu-yi or the eastern Xu barbarian state, was what the ancient 'zhu-xia' was, meaning that the Xu had descended from the ancient Xia Dynasty states. [1] The Tangut Xia Dynasty was stable and prosperous for over two hundred years. [1] In 1038, the chief of the Dangxiang tribe Yuanhao declared himself the emperor and established the West Xia Dynasty (1038-1044) with the capital in Xingqing (the present Yinchuan). [1] According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. [1] Preceded by the only vaguely known (and semilegendary) Xia Dynasty (c. 2100 BC - 1600 BC) and the legendary 3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors. [1] It is said that it consists of seventeen emperors in the Xia dynasty. [1] Out of the remaining five brothers' songs, which were most likely later forgeries, one particular song carried a sentence to the effect of claiming a succession of the Great Xia legacy, "wei pi Tang-tao, you ci ji-fang ", albeit lacking the description of any Xia Dynasty activity north of the Yellow River during the early part of the Xia Dynasty rule.) [1] The paucity of written evidence and the time gap between the supposed time of the Xia and the first written references to it have meant that the historicity of the Xia dynasty itself and the traditional narrative of its history is at best uncertain. [1] The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century BC. Evidence regarding the ancient Xia Dynasty (2100 BC – 1600 BC) is difficult to find. [1] Jie - the Last Xia King After four hundreds of years, the Xia Dynasty ended in the hands of King Jie who was said to have mistreated his people. [1] Chongshan, which was to say that some propitious dragon accompanied the rise of the Xia dynasty, with the Zhu-rong-shi people producing numerous guardian gods or counts in the ensuing years. (The mountain from which the title of Count Chong-shan derived might not be today's Mt. [1] During the 3rd year, the Nine Yi people attacked the Xia dynasty. [1] As recalled by the Xue-guo people, during 510-509 B.C. Zhou capital city reconstruction and fortification project, the Xue people's ancestors included Xi-zhong as the engineering (vehicle) minister ('che zheng') for the Xia dynasty, and Zhong-hui's service for Shang founder ruler Shang-tang. [1] Liu Qihan (Liu Qihua) validated the demise of Xia Dynasty in Henan Province by citing the ancient statement that the "Xia Dynasty ended when the Yi-shui and Luo-shui rivers ran dry", a statement carried in THE BAMBOO ANNALS. Though, the last Xia lord Jie set his capital in the original land of 'zhong guo' or the central statelet, namely, the Da-xia or the grand Xia land in today's southern Shanxi Province, south of the Fen-he River, to be exact. [1] Ruins of the capital of the Xia dynasty and 11 other large cites are now covered by the moving dunes of the Mu Us. [1] In 1959, a site located in the city of Yanshi was excavated containing large palaces that some archaeologists have attributed to capital of the Xia dynasty. [1] With few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones, it remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. [1] This was the historical WU-ZI ZHI GE or the five sons' poems. (Alternatively speaking, this time period of the Xia dynasty was called Five Brothers' Turmoil, which was to say that King Hou-yi was able to take power by taking advantage of the turmoil among the five brothers, with the five sons' poems being products of pre-Confucian and Confucian political correctness. [1] Da-ji was from the You-su-shi clan of the Xia dynasty time period. [1] The Xia Dynasty thus began a period of family or clan control. [1] Sima Qian says that the system of inherited ruler-ship was established during the Xia Dynasty, and that this model was perpetuated in the recorded Shang and Zhou dynasties. [1] The argument claiming the Xia Dynasty is a mythological construct claims that the Zhou (and later dynasties) wanted to make clear that the previous ones lost their right to rule through immoral conduct and so created a proto-dynasty - the Xia - as a pre historic model for this. [1] Zhou King Youwang died in the hands of an allied barbarian invasion, with the element of a Zeng-guo state, i.e., descendants of Lord Yu of the former Xia dynasty. [1] The Kings of the State of Yue claimed descent from the Xia dynasty Kings through Shao Kang. [1] The Xia Chronology Sima Qian's " SHI JI " and THE BAMBOO ANNALS both cited the traditional saying that Xia Dynasty, with and without kings, had lasted 471 years. [1] A Shang descendant, by the name of Marquis Xiang-tu, was recorded by THE BAMBOO ANNALS to have invented the horse-pulled carts during the 15th year of Xia Dynasty King Xiang, and further relocated to the former Shang fief of 'Bo', i.e., the Shangqiu place with dispute on its exact locality, from the land of Shang (? Shangluo). [1] The Xia dynasty lost 40 years without a king per THE BAMBOO ANNALS, from 1916 to 1876 B.C.E. Xiang's woman, who was from the You-ren-guo would survive by escaping to the You-yu-shi tribe where the descendants of Lord Shun lived. [1] The exact time length of the Xia Dynasty is hard to define now, but mainly focused on two options, either 431 years or 471 years. [1] The historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) and the Bamboo Annals's account dates the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. [1] The Xia dynasty was described in classic texts such as the Classic of History ( Shujing ), the Bamboo Annals, and the Records of the Grand Historian ( Shiji ) by Sima Qian. [1] Even now, the scholarly consensus is that the history of the Xia Dynasty is largely mythological even if such a dynasty did actually exist. [1] There was no earlier concept of a 'west' or 'western' Xia entity or dynasty in China's history. [1] The Shang and Zhou people had existed with Xia Dynasty since the beginning of Xia. [1] The Tuoba Qiangic people claimed that the founder of Xia Dynasty (21-16th c. [1] Yu's rule is considered the beginning of the Xia Dynasty and he is known as Yu the Great not only for his victories over the flood and the Sanmiao but for the establishment of a stable central government and the organization of the country into nine provinces to make governing such an enormous area more manageable. [1]

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