world history education resources
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bronze Age Ancient Greece


  • Mycenaean Greece perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages, a recordless transitional period leading to Archaic Greece where significant shifts occurred from palace-centralized to de-centralized forms of socio-economic organization (including the extensive use of iron).
  • "The Mycenaeans are the first 'Greeks'" (Martin, Ancient Greece 16).
  • To that end, the first massive structure atop the Acropolis possibly pertained to a Mycenaean megaron (palace complex) built in the Bronze Age, circa 1200 BC. Soon this massive complex was guarded by an imposing wall structure that was around 760 m (or 2,500 ft) long, 10 m (33 ft) high and had an average thickness of 4-6 m (about 16 ft).
  • Quite different from the rest of contemporary Europe and from the first farmers of Greece, the Bronze Age Greek civilizations also derived a small part of their ancestry from populations from the Caucasus and Iran.
  • These cultures were largely adapted to the use of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, and accordingly, this period is called the Bronze Age.
  • You might be wondering, what was Ancient Greece like?
  • The Bronze Age lasted roughly three thousand years, during which major progress was achieved by the peoples of Greece who dominated the world around the Aegean Sea.
  • The Byzantine Period in Greece : A.D. 323 - 1453 Constantine the Great created a new capital in the eastern half of the Roman empire, renaming the ancient Greek city of Byzantium "Nova Roma", the New Rome, more commonly known as the city of Constantine, "Constantinopolis" (modern Istanbul).









































































bronze Age Cities


  • The Bronze Age in Nubia, started as early as 2300 BC. Copper smelting was introduced by Egyptians to the Nubian city of Mero", in modern-day Sudan, around 2600 BC. A furnace for bronze casting has been found in Kerma that is dated to 2300-1900 BC.
  • The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory.
  • Note that there are several problems with estimating the sizes of individual cities, and the highest estimates for a given city, in a given period, may be several times the lowest.
  • Your article above on Late Bronze Age Collapse was a link in the course I did run by University of Southampton in February 2016 on Shipwrecks and Underwater Archaeology (shipwrecks of Uluburun and Gelidonia off southern Turkey in 1300 and 1200 BC).
  • "The area around Bassetki is proving to be an unexpectedly rich cultural region, which was located at the crossroads of communication ways between the Mesopotamian, Syrian, and Anatolian cultures during th e Bronze Age," said Professor Peter Pfälzner from the University of Tübingen, one of the lead archaeologists at the site.
  • This period was notable for significant governance changes in some cities - such as the abolition and then the recreation of a metropolitan government system in London; the new "one country, two systems" policy in Hong Kong, which sought to guarantee that it would maintain a capitalist system for 50 years after the 1997 British handover to China; and the increasing withdrawal of federal government from its role in New York City.













bronze Age Dates


  • The Late Harappan culture, which dates from 1900-1400 BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.
  • In northern Mongolia and in the Altai Mountains of western Mongolia, this transitional period is essentially typified for the moment by the emergence of Early Bronze Age Afanasievo-like cultures, the earliest of which dates to the first half of the third millennium BCE ( Volkov 1995 ; Kovalev and Erdenebaatar 2009 ).
  • With a rough date range of late 3rd millennium BC to the first millennium AD, this site alone has various artifacts such as burial pottery (dating from 2100-1700 BC), fragments of Bronze, copper-base bangles, and much more.
  • The term "Bronze Age" was originally adopted as part of a chronological system based on assumptions about successive changes in the use of raw materials, but as in many other regions of the Eurasian Steppes, it has often lost any precise meaning in relation to technology.
  • The transition from the late Neolithic to Bronze Age EP III took place between 1050-955 BC. Burial 76, which contains the earliest bronze artifact at the site, has provided two statistically identical determinations ranging between 1110-1000 and 995-905 BC (the statistically combined age is 1025-935 BC).
  • The transition from the late Neolithic to Bronze Age EP III took place between 1050–955 BC. Burial 76, which contains the earliest bronze artifact at the site, has provided two statistically identical determinations ranging between 1110–1000 and 995–905 BC (the statistically combined age is 1025–935 BC).
  • Both incorporated superimposed Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age burials.
  • Bronze tools and weapons were used during this "age" (alongside still-useful stone and copper).

























bronze Age Egypt


  • The name "Israel" first appears c. 1209 BC, at the end of the Late Bronze Age and the very beginning of the Iron Age, on the Merneptah Stele raised by the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah.
  • During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Egyptian pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity and later Islam, but interest in Egyptian antiquity continued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.
  • An archaeologist and ancient historian by training, Dr. Cline's primary fields of study are biblical archaeology, the military history of the Mediterranean world from antiquity to present, and the international connections between Greece, Egypt, and the Near East during the Late Bronze Age (1700-1100 BC).
  • The dichotomy between representations of defeated enemies around the 1st Dynasty in Egypt on various items and peaceful relations found in archaeology was explained by means of Loprieno’s topos/mimesis model. 115 However, evidence is lacking for military presence and repression, as well as reasons for the ceasing of Egyptian archaeological finds in the southern Levant in Early Bronze II/III 116 in a more comprehensive reconstruction.
  • Whatever happened at the end of the Bronze Age, Egypt's economic basis was permanently damaged and perhaps Egypt was simply being bypassed in the new economic conditions of the Iron Age.
  • The Late Bronze Age Collapse, often alternately referred to as the Mycenaean Palatial Civilization Collapse, was a period of time roughly between the years of 1250-1000 BC (3250-3000 years ago) that was violent, and catastrophically disruptive with regard to cultures, social systems/practices, government institutions, languages, ethnic identities, trade routes, literacy, and technologies.
  • During the Early Bronze Age (3300-2100 BCE) the cities of Sumer became connected with the Mediterranean Sea and Egypt and a world trade system came into effect that lasted over 1000 years, linking East Asia to the Aegean and beyond.
  • The age of the Great Pyramids explored The Pyramids of Giza stand as the most lasting of the accomplishments of ancient Egyptian civilization.







bronze Age End


  • "The End Bronze Age collapse marked the start of what has been called the Greek Dark Ages, which lasted for more than 400 years.
  • It was Hesiod who categorized the "ages of man", as he was aware of them, into the Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze which were separated from the harsh and cruel "modern" world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes (the time period that Homers poems are set in).
  • Hesiod for example spoke of Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze, separated from the modern harsh cruel world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes.
  • This would be all the more understandable if, in an age when bronze was very dear, the bronze greave was regarded as not very "cost-effective."
  • The focus is on warfare; but the wealth of the book was in explaining how socities rose and fell based on the changes in technology - the gradual changes between the Bronze and Iron Ages.
  • According to archeologist Eric H. Cline in his new book 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed, the great ancient civilizations of the Egyptians, the Hittites, the Mycenaens, the Canaanites, and the Cypriots in the Late Bronze Age may have fallen in large part due to climate change, nearly three millennia before mankind’s first industrial revolution.
  • In many places an old and complex society did, after all, come to an end ca. 1200 B.C. In the Aegean, the palace-centered world that we call Mycenaean Greece disappeared: although some of its glories were remembered by the bards of the Dark Age, it was otherwise forgotten until archaeologists dug it up.














































bronze Age Germany


  • Since the population density then was about 5 people per square kilometer, this would have been the most significant battle in Bronze Age period Germany yet to be discovered.
  • A battlefield of 3,250 years ago in Germany is yielding remains of wounded warriors, wooden clubs, spear points, flint and bronze arrowheads and bronze knives and swords.
  • Brinker U, Schramm A, Flohr S, Jantzen D, Piek J, Hauenstein K, Orschiedt J (2016) The Bronze Age battlefield in the Tollense Valley, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Northeast Germany--combat marks on human bones as evidence of early warrior societies in Northern Middle Europe?
  • We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture.
  • In our view, Bz A1 and Bz A2 are nothing more than the consequence of different rates of appropriation of bronze technologies in southern Germany ( Bz A1) and the region of the Únětice culture in eastern Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, western Poland and parts of Slovakia and Austria ( Bz A2).
  • 35 people are known to have died during a Stone Age battle in Bavaria dating to 6300 B.C. Remains from another conflict in Germany date to 5000 B.C.










bronze Age Greece Time Period


  • Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin.
  • The Hellenistic period in Greece is the last period before Greek culture becomes a subset of Roman hegemony.
  • This Bronze Age collapse approximately coincides with the apparent arrival of the last group of proto-Greeks into Greece proper, the Dorians.
  • It was then, in the Bronze Age, that we saw the prevalence of the bull-fancying Minoan civilization of Crete (c.3500 BC).
  • The Hellenistic period lasted from 323 BC, which marked the end of the Wars of Alexander the Great, to the annexation of the Greece by the Roman Republic in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity, it did mark the end of Greek political independence.
  • Minoan art greatly influenced that on the Greek mainland and many of the Minoan artifacts found during this time period may have been imported or robbed.
  • The Greek Dark Ages (~1100 BC-750 BC), or Bronze Age collapse, is a period in the history of Ancient Greece and Anatolia from which there are no records, and few archaeological remains.
  • Ancient Greek civilization flourished from around 776 to 30 B.C. in what are called the Archaic (776-480), Classical (480-323), and Hellenistic (323-30) periods. 2 During this time, Greek civilization was very different from our own in a variety of ways.










bronze Age History


  • Bronze Age, third phase in the development of material culture among the ancient peoples of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, following the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods (Old Stone Age and New Stone Age, respectively).
  • Many large bronzes also bear cast inscriptions that are the great bulk of the surviving body of early Chinese writing and have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China, especially during the Zhou dynasty (1046-256 BC).
  • These may have a history as far back as the neolithic period and continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as shown by the Hjortspring boat.
  • I do not know this for fact, but I suspect there were several instances of a "Bronze Age" overlapping an "Iron Age" among the same same people at the same time.
  • Separated in history by 100 years, the seafaring Minoans of Crete and the mercantile Canaanites of northern Egypt and the Levant (a large area of the Middle East) at the eastern end of the Mediterranean were never considered trading partners at the start of the Late Bronze Age.
  • Next came the Bronze Age, from 2500 BC, when the inhabitants first began to use metal to craft tools and objects.
  • The Bronze Age is a period of chronological time that represents the ability of ancient cultures to be able to manufacture weapons and artifacts made from copper and its alloy, bronze.
  • Many large bronzes also bear cast inscriptions that comprise the bulk of surviving early Chinese writing and have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China.
  • Trading networks and, in turn, stratified civilizations based around bronze production could not survive the advent of the Iron Age, when metals stronger than bronze were suddenly widely accessible.
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bronze Age Hallstatt Culture


  • The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC ( Late Bronze Age ) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
  • Pydyn, A. Exchange and cultural interactions: a study of long-distance trade and cross-cultural contacts in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • La Tene (which gives its name to the modified and later form of Hallstatt culture as it existed in Central Europe from about 400 B.C., when the name of the Gaul superseded that of the Celt, to the time of Cassar's conquest) is a military stronghold, or oppidum, situated at the N.E. end of the Lake of Neuchatel, commanding an important pass between the upper Rhone and the Rhine.
  • Little is known of the bronze age (2500 - 800 BC) either, the race character of the people is unknown, but since the first Greek migration occured in 1800 BC at least some of the people now spoke an indoeuropean language.
  • The Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the Hallstatt culture, linguistic evidence and continuity with the following Hallstatt culture suggests that the people of this area spoke an early form of Celtic, perhaps originally proto-Celtic.
  • Little is known of the Bronze Age (2500 - 800 BC) either, the race character of the people is unknown, but since the first Greek migration occurred in 1800 BC at least some of the people now spoke an Indo-European language.










bronze Age Inventions


  • Bronze Age Inventions By: Liz Hood Metal Casting (casting) invented in the bronze age about 2500 B.C. Middle East had helped innovate metal casting by creating the lost-wax casting It made metal caters jobs easier and take less time.
  • The Bronze Age is the earliest period for which we have direct written accounts, since the invention of writing coincides with its early beginnings.
  • Bronze Age, third phase in the development of material culture among the ancient peoples of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, following the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods (Old Stone Age and New Stone Age, respectively).
  • The division between the Bronze and Iron Age marks a significant technological innovation, namely the adoption of ironworking, which over time replaced bronze as the most popular metal for tools, weapons and armor.
  • The oldest known wheel found in an archaeological excavation is from Mesopotamia, and dates to around 3500 BC. This period was known as the Bronze Age, which is a relatively late chapter in the story of the development of human civilisation.
  • Clearly the precursors of the Aryans and other nomadic peoples of the Bronze Age (including the Celts in Europe, the ethnic Malays, and so forth) must have had a lot of active contact with the urban civilizations (naive students of history often don't get that humans had basically dispersed through the entire known world by 10,000 BC; "civilization" may have spread from a few centers, but people didn't spread that way, they spread much earlier).









































































bronze Age Life Expectancy


  • In the Bronze age, for example, life expectancy was 26 years, while in 2010, it was 67 years.
  • National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years; the 2010 world LEB was 67.2 years.
  • It is now a target in the Sustainable Development Goals for Goal Number 3, throughout the world, Infant Mortality Rate fluctuates drastically, and according to Biotechnology and Health Sciences, education and life expectancy in the country is the leading indicator of IMR. This study was conducted across 135 countries over the course of 11 years with Africa having the highest Infant Mortality Rate of any other region studied with 68 deaths per 1,000 live births.
  • There are great variations in life expectancy between different parts of the world, mostly caused by differences in public health, medical care, and diet, the impact of AIDS on life expectancy is particularly notable in many African countries.
  • National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB; in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years; the 2010 world LEB was 67.2 years.
  • Life expectancy is based on the average number of years that each sex can expect to live, under specific conditions.
  • These people included a number of different tribes and groups, the configuration of which changed over time; all had more or less obvious roots in the Bronze Age.
  • It has intriguing detail, such "Contributions of mortality decline in three age groups (0-29 years, 30-64 years, and 65 years and older) towards the projected increase in life expectancy at birth."
  • In fact within next 15 years all those leading countries will experience demographic surge wave that artificially increased their life expectancy to break and massively collapse the entire population and its life expectancy.
  • The Late-Neolithic-Early Bronze Age people from Gorodishche II and other Cis-Baikal cemetery sites were members of a broad-spectrum foraging economy.




















































bronze Age Near East


  • Every Anatolian site, apart from integral Assyrian regions in the south east, and regions in eastern, central and southern Anatolia under the control of the powerful Middle Assyrian Empire (1392-1050 BC) that was important during the preceding Late Bronze Age shows a destruction layer, and it appears that in these regions civilization did not recover to the level of the Assyrians and Hittites for another thousand years or so.
  • Ur, Kish, Isin, Larsa and Nippur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon, Calah and Assur in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations.
  • This publication is meant to describe objects assigned to regions far to the east of the Tigris and Euphrates where, during the period known as the Middle Bronze Age (about 2500 to 1600 B.C.), cultures thrived in eastern Iran, western Central Asian, and the valley of the Indus River, the inhabitants of each developing a way of life distinguished by its own organization and material culture.
  • I told him that what I really wanted to write was a book about what collapsed, because the Late Bronze Age and the cultures and civilizations that were thriving in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean between about 1700 and 1200 BC have always fascinated me.
  • Matthew Woodring Stover's Heart of Bronze series - Iron Dawn and Jericho Moon - is set in the Ancient Near East - not my favorite tales from him (he also wrote Acts of Caine, much better stories.)
  • The divers are part of a scientific team excavating on land and underwater to investigate why a string of Late Bronze Age civilizations toppled--the Mycenaean kingdom in Greece, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia, and the New Kingdom of Egypt.







bronze Age North America


  • Since linguists and eipgraphers concur that the American inscriptions do include genuine products of Bronze Age scribes, and that the scripts and languages used show that the scribes came from European and North African lands, there is no longer any basis for doubting that the monuments of North America that resemble megaliths are indeed just that--megaliths.
  • The Yamna culture is a Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th-23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit-Grave Culture or Ochre-Grave Culture.
  • "Determining the Provenance of native copper artifacts from Northeastern North America: evidence from instrumental neutron activation analysis".
  • We are faced, therefore, with what amounts to conclusive evidence that the artifacts (including written inscriptions) of European peoples of the Bronze Age are found at American archaeological sites, and with these artifacts skeletons are occasionally found that conform to Europoid criteria.
  • This evidence suggests that exceptionally strong copper alloy was mined in North America and transported to Northern Europe.
  • As we find but a small development of the Bronze Age in America, it is reasonable to suppose that there must have been some intermediate station between America and Europe, where, during a long period of time, the Bronze Age was developed out of the Copper Age, and immense quantities of bronze implements were manufactured and carried to Europe.
  • Fell also asserts that the language of the Native American Micmac tribe is derived from ancient Egyptian, and that the Algonquian tribe of North America is descended from European and Mediterranean people.
  • They've finally pulled together enough evidence to talk about this one settlement that they found it's in the northern steppes of Russia where they came upon this ancient structure that's it's from the late Bronze Age, so it's about 4,000 years old.
  • I was becoming somewhat pessimistic when he began talking about a theory of ancient Minoans mining in North America.
  • The Bronze Age Boats of North Ferriby, Yorkshire" Expedition Magazine 16.1 (1973): n. pag.
  • The earliest examples of metalwork in the New World come from the "Old Copper" culture that flourished in the upper Great Lakes region of North America beginning about 4000 bc and continuing over the course of the next 2,000 years.




















































































































































bronze Age Trade Routes


  • The Tin Route was a major Bronze Age to Iron Age trade route that provided early settlements with access to a vital ingredient for metal-making--tin.
  • It is possible that as early as 2500 BC, Erzgebirge had begun exporting tin, using the well established Baltic amber trade route to supply Scandinavia as well as the Mediterranean with tin ( Penhallurick 1986, pp.75-77).
  • The societies of the Balkans and south west Europe, besides developing their own demand for tin and copper, also benefited from the demand for tin and copper from the advanced Bronze Age societies of the Middle East.
  • This significant location along the main trade routes and between the most important ports on the Mediterranean indicates that Hazor might also have been a transit hub for diverse long-distance luxury items from distant places such as Egypt, Africa, South Arabia, and Mesopotamia, destined for the palaces of the Aegean.
  • Archaeologists have found evidence of raw materials trade between Bronze Age Iran and Mesopotamia.
  • "This area of the coastline was used from the late Bronze Age through to the Roman period," says Fulton (pictured left).
  • These groups, which included the Sea Peoples described in records from the period, moved by land and sea, assaulted cities and disrupted trade routes, leading to a severe economic crisis which enveloped the whole region.
  • Along the trade route known as the "Amber Road," amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was traded to customers in the Mediterranean Basin.













the Bronze Age Years


  • The Late Bronze Age Collapse, often alternately referred to as the Mycenaean Palatial Civilization Collapse, was a period of time roughly between the years of 1250-1000 BC (3250-3000 years ago) that was violent, and catastrophically disruptive with regard to cultures, social systems/practices, government institutions, languages, ethnic identities, trade routes, literacy, and technologies.
  • Though it developed slowly the Bronze Age was a tremendous time of technological advancement that helped early civilizations flourish and expand.
  • Except in Egypt, where arsenic was used until 2000 BC, tin bronze gradually became the alloy of choice, and the dominant metal of advanced civilizations in the Western World for 2000 years.
  • Many of the Late Bronze Age kingdoms had fragile economies dependent on imports from other lands, including, copper and tin for making bronze weapons.
  • The discovery of copper smelting and bronze production — mixing copper with tin to make a harder metal — had a powerful effect on human society for thousands of years.
  • A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that 4,000 years ago, not only were prehistoric women often on the move, they were the couriers of culture during the transition between the late Stone Age and early Bronze Age in Europe.
  • This period of disunity, possibly described in the Admonitions of Ipuwer ( ANET, pp.441-444), lasted some three hundred years and is generally contemporary with Middle Bronze I.
  • What about iron?




































































































bronze Age Zhou Dynasty


  • The Chinese Bronze Age had begun by 1700 B.C. in the kingdom of the Shang dynasty along the banks of the Yellow River in northern China.
  • When the Xia dynasty fell, the "nine ding," also called the "Auspicious Bronzes of the State," passed to the Shang dynasty, and, in turn, to the Zhou when they conquered the Shang.
  • During the Zhou Dynasty people gradually turned away from this custom and substituted clay figures for real people and animals.
  • Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BCE, a period known as the Western Zhou.
  • The earliest stoneware in China was found in 3000 B.C. The Shang and Zhou dynasties ushered China into the height of the Bronze Age.
  • The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Great Bronze Age of China as the period between 2000 BC and 771 BC. The development of bronze metallurgy in ancient civilizations meant a settled and organized society, for bronze-making required locating, protecting, mining, and smelting ore that contains copper and tin, the two metals that are alloyed to produce bronze.
  • Most bronzes of about 1500-300 bce, roughly the Bronze Age in China, may be described as ritual vessels intended for the worship of ancestors, who are often named in inscriptions on the bronzes.
  • The vast majority of Chinese iron manufacture from the Zhou dynasty onward was of cast iron.
  • The Bronze Age was an important time of transformation in ancient China.
  • Read the Mandate of Heaven from the Shu Jing, composed during the Zhou dynasty but written as advice to the second Shang king.
















































































































bronze Age 3500 Bc


  • In Mesopotamia, the Mesopotamian Bronze Age began about 3500 BC and ended with the Kassite period (c. 1500 BC - c. 1155 BC).
  • Even though Northern European Bronze Age cultures were relatively late, and came into existence via trade, sites present rich and well-preserved objects made of wool, wood and imported Central European bronze and gold.
  • By around 3500 BC, farm tools and weapons are being made of this new metal in these areas.
  • With the advent of bronze tools around 3500 BC, the labor intensive aspects of irrigation work became more manageable, stimulating the rise of urban settlements.
  • The long period of the Bronze Age in China, which began around 2000 B.C., saw the growth and maturity of a civilization that would be sustained in its essential aspects for another 2,000 years.
  • "Cycladic Goddess Sculptures Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately BCE.
  • One reference says that between 6000 and 4000 BC the Nile hadbeen subject to flooding and lake leves at Fayum were high untila drier period at about 3500 BC followed by a wet spike at about3200 BC. This is supposed to be at the time corresponding to the predynastic Nagada (Naqadah?)
  • At the mountain site of Aigyrzhal-2 in Kyrgyzstan evidence for wheat cultivation was also documented in layers dating to the second millennium BC ( Motuzaite Matuzeviciute et al. 2015a ), thus hinting at the possibility that crop-based agriculture may have been fairly widepsread throughout the Tian Shan range of Central Asia by the Late Bronze Age.
  • Worldwide climate change starting around 3500 BC and continuing throughout the next millennium and a half resulted in a cooler and significantly drier climate (Anthony 2007:300, 389).











































































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