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indus Valley Civilization Dravidian

Main keywords of the article below: civilization, collapse", "climate, indus, caused, change, dravidian, valley.

indus Valley Civilization Dravidian

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  • "Climate change caused Indus Valley civilization collapse".(More...)

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  • Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family".(More...)
  • According to some historians the Indus people were probably Dravidians, who lived in ancient times in parts of north western India, Afghanistan, parts of the Mediterranean, Central Asia and Europe.(More...)



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"Climate change caused Indus Valley civilization collapse". [1] Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000BCE to c. 2500BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley, is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. [1] The Indus Valley civilisation (2,600-1,900 BCE) located in Northwestern Indian subcontinent is sometimes identified as having been Dravidian. [1] This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). [1]

They argue that the Indus Valley Civilization was non literate and completely separate from both the Dravidian or Aryan worlds. [2] Some argue the origin of Dravidian before the Indo-Aryan invasion, making the Indus Valley civilization Dravidian. [3] The Dravidian contribution to Indian thought has been discussed in detail because nearly everything said about that civilization applies to Indus valley civilization as well. [4] The idea that the Indus Valley civilization spoke (or wrote) Dravidian is quite disputed. [5] In this view, the early Indus Valley civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) is often identified as having been Dravidian. [3]

At the present time, this is still a hot area of discussion and no matter what the various groups try to show, without a clear deciphering of the Indus Valley script there is still not enough evidence to link the Indus Valley Civilization to Hinduism or even to conclusively show that it is not apart of ancient Hinduism. [2] In recent years, with the desire to show that Aryan culture was indigenous to the Indian sub-continent and not the result of migration, the theory that the Indus Valley Civilization was Aryan has again been raised by different groups trying to establish this view. [2]

Narasimhan et al. (2018) conclude that ANI and ASI were formed in the 2nd millennium BCE. They were preceded by a mixture of AASI (ancient ancestral south Indians, that is, hunter-gatherers), and Iranian agri-culturalists who arrived in India at ca. 4700-3000 BCE, and "must have reached the Indus Valley by the 4th millennium BCE." [1] It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent." [1] Paleoclimatologists believe the fall of the Indus Valley Civilisation and eastward migration during the late Harappan period was due to climate change in the region, with a 200-year long drought being the major factor. [1]

Knorozov worked closely with Nikita Gurov, one the greatest Indologists of all time in Russia and another strong proponent that the language of the Indus Valley civilization was probably an older Dravidian one. [6] Many modern studies of the ancient Indus Valley civilization presumed that the inhabitants who occupied a wide range of ancient city-states all along the Indus (including the very large urban centers at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) were all Dravidian. [7] The historical analysation on Indus Valley Civilization implies the historical fact that it is of the Dravidians and this truth is hidden through the ages. [8]

If Indus Valley Civilzation is of the Aryans, mother goddess worship that plays an important role in the Indus Valley Civilization should be described in the Vedas. [5] On the basis of the four Vedas, the theory that the Indus Valley Civilization is of the Aryans was built up. [5] The Indus Valley deities normally have horns, whereas the deities of the Vedas are not portrayed with horns.1 Sivalinkas which are found in the Indus Valley Civilization is later on degraded in the Vedas. [5] All three theories, of course, have their proponents and opponents with interesting arguments, but the conclusion is unfortunately that we still do not know what the origins of the Indus Valley civilization were or what its connection to ancient Hinduism was. [2] At present there are three main theories to explain the origins of the Indus Valley Civilization and how it relates to Hinduism. [2] What I mean is that the cultural traits of the Indus Valley civilization are likely to have been absorbed by the successor Indo-Aryan civilization in Punjab and Sindh, and that the civilization in the far south would have changed out of recognition. [9] The Indus Valley Civilization is the largest of the four ancient world civilizations that includes Egypt, Mesopotamia and China. [2] There is no evidence of the existence of anything corresponding to Vedic ritualism in the Indus valley civilization. [4] The Indus Valley civilization was the largest of its time and covered a vast territory. [10] Most of what we know about the Indus Valley civilization is based on archeology. [5] Following analysation of Sir John Marshall on the Indus Valley Civilization here are given some clues. [5] Much of the history of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) and its aftermath is shrouded in a pseudo-historical controversy with political undertones. [11] This revering civilization is referred to by archaeology as the Harappa or Indus Valley civilization. [10] This may well be a reference to the Indus valley civilization. [4] Another prominent feature of the Indus valley civilization was the worship of the Mother Goddess. [4] Another important non-Vedic element which can be clearly discovered in the Indus valley civilization is the mode of the disposal of the dead body. [4] The probable truth about the Indus Valley Civilization, the Aryans, and early Indian civilization is a mix of every leftist, nationalist, and ethnic pet theory, but not fully satisfactory to anyone. [11]

Q: How do you conceive of the relationship between the Indus culture that existed five thousand years ago and contemporary Dravidian culture here in South India? Prof. Dani, for example, says that doesn't believe that the Indus language was Dravidian because there is just not enough cultural continuity between what is today in South India and what was then in the Indus Valley. [9] The answer is that Sanskrit (Aryan) scholarship has been going on in the west for centuries, while we still can't read the Indus Valley (probably Dravidian) script. [5] A: I think any direct relationship between the Indus Valley and the deep Dravidian south is unlikely because of the vast gap in space and time. [9] This is very likely to be one of the traits which connect the Dravidian south with the Indus Valley. [9] It is possible that the residents of the lost Indus Valley civilisation may have been Dravidians. [5] Among the jungle tribes in the Indus Valley were the Bhils, Kols, Santals, Kukis, Todas, and Oraos, some of which were Dravidians. [12] In this view, the early Indus Valley civilisation (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) is often identified as having been Dravidian. [13]

Within the last thirty years, our knowledge of the non-Vedic elements in the evolution of Indian thought has greatly increased from the discovery of the remnants of an ancient civilization in the Indus Valley, in places known as Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. [4] In past articles, I’ve discussed the development of agriculture and civilization in South Asia, which originated in the Indus Valley region. [11] Over 4000 years ago a civilization existed in Indus Valley. [10]

The Indus Valley civilization was started in 3300 BC. The Dravidians were native people that established the civilization. [14] The Dravidians founded the Indus Valley civilization (IVC). [15]

The Indus River Valley Civilization was made up of a people called Dravidians, and whose society was called Harappan Society. [16] Before the time of the Aryan migration into the Indian subcontinent, there was a highly developed civilization in ancient India known as the Indus Valley Civilization, which was located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. [17] Within India, different factions are fighting over whose language and culture descended from the Indus Valley Civilization. [18] The Indus script, refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, people who lived in these 1400 towns had a common language. [19] The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on. [17] Because the Indus Valley Civilization spanned across present-day India and Pakistan, modern tensions between the two countries bleed into the Indus studies. [18] The Indus Valley deities normally have horns, whereas the deities of the Vedas are not portrayed with horns. 1 Sivalinkas which are found in the Indus Valley Civilization is later on degraded in the Vedas. [8] Coming from central Asia, this large group of nomadic cattle herders crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization. [17] It would be some time before archaeologists realized those bricks came from the Indus Valley Civilization. [18] Indus Valley Civilization is generally characterized as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions. [19] The evidence suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization had social conditions comparable to Sumeria and even superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. [17] The Indus Valley Civilization built there society around the Indus River, using it for agricultural and well as religious purposes. [16] By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak. [17] Swastika Seals from the Indus Valley Civilization preserved at the British Museum. [19] This seal comes from the Indus Valley Civilization and is currently housed in the National Museum of New Delhi. [18] The environment contributed to the fall of the Indus Valley Civilization. [16] Alpha Draconis was 0.6 degree away from the heavenly pole in 2780 B.C. and this period corresponds to the Indus valley civilization. [19] In the 1920s many more of these artifacts, by then known as seals, were found and identified as evidence of a 4,000-year-old culture now known as the Indus Valley Civilization, the oldest known Indian civilization to date. [18]

The Indus Valley writing was in Tamil a Dravidian language. [10] Although this is their opinion, it appears that the writing system used in the Indus Valley was also employed in South India and that the language of the Indus Valley script was Tamil. [10] The center of Indus Valley culture was along the Indus River basin and its tributaries, which places most of it in present day Pakistan, but ruins of this culture have also appeared as far west as northern Afghanistan along the Oxus river and east into present day Gujarat, and even into Haryana State in central India. [2] There are indications that Indus Valley culture has roots far back into neolithic times (7000 BCE), but current evidence places the active phase of this culture between 3300-1700 BCE, with its high points between 2600-1900 BCE. If a link can be made between this culture and Hinduism it could push the date of Hinduism back many more millennia than current textual evidence allows. [2] There is no sense in saying that the people in Tamil Nadu are the inheritors of the Indus Valley culture. [9] One guess is that many of the Indus Valley people went to the north, into Elam and Sumer to re-join their former group. [10] Surviving remnants of the Indus valley people in Southeast Asia, will be dealt with later. [10] The Indus Valley people left behind an extensive set of cities and towns, the most notable of which are Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Lothal, and through these sites it is clear that they were well organized with planned streets, elaborate bathes, covered sewage systems, water and drainage to individual homes, and even large port facilities. [2] The Indus valley people carried on active trade relations with the middle-east in gold, copper utensils, lapis lazuli, ivory, beads and semiprecious stones. [10] Signs of ancient remains first appeared in the Indus Valley during the 1800s when Europeans began to move through the area in numbers. [2] Now it is true that the Indus Valley boasted one of the world's first literate societies. [5] Till today, the mystery behind the destroyed indus valley culture is unresolved completely. [5] Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout (Harappa is less well preserved due to early site defilement), and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. [10] A: One of the cultural traits in the Indus Valley is that they had the bull fight. [9] It would appear that they introduced writing to the Indus Valley and later punch-marked coins. [10] Srinivasan et al, argue that the Indus Valley writing was a syllabic multilingual writing system. [10] Burial urns have been unearthed in the Indus valley which indicate that the dead bodies were buried and not cremated. [4]

Computer models of the spread of Indo-European generally predict that the IE languages arrived in India right around the time the Indus Valley civilization began its rise, and spread through India at the rate that the Indus Valley civilization spread through India. [20] Between the fall of the Indus Valley civilization and the rise of new civilizations in India, there was a formative period during which the Aryans learned to live off of agriculture. [21] Nomadic Aryans invaded India ca. 1500 BC destroying the Indus valley civilization and exterminating the Indus inhabitants. [22] On the basis of such recent evidence as that from Bahrein, ( for example, the Indus-type weights found in early Dilmun levels) it is conceivable that extensive trade contacts between India and the Persian Gulf existed even before the height of the Indus Valley Civilization. [23] Computational analysis of symbols used 4,000 years ago by a long-lost Indus Valley civilization suggests they represent a spoken language. [24] The Indus Valley Civilization was the first major urban culture of South Asia. [25] Archaeological discovery has rarely been as controversial or its ramifications so widespread as those connected with the origins of the Indus Valley civilization, and the extent of trade between the people of the Indus and those of the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. [23] After having read a number of recent papers on the topic (not enough to make me an expert, though!), my personal opinion is that the Indo-Aryans must have reached the IVC by 2600 BC at the latest (but probably earlier), and spent the next thousand years gradually being assimilated into the already ancient, and likely Munda-speaking, Indus Valley Civilization. [20] Indoor plumbing was first introduced by the Indus Valley civilization. [14] We know much more about the Indus Valley civilization now than we did a decade ago. [20]

Since there is prestige that comes with being the successor to a civilization that rivalled Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, many linguistic groups in India and Pakistan have tried to claim the Indus Valley as their own. [6] The Indus Valley is one of the world ™s earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. [19]

Few doubt the greatness of the Indus Valley or Harappan civilization, which is believed to have been at its full maturity between 2600 and 1900 BC. The script used by those who lived in the widespread civilization that stretched across northern India (and what is now Pakistan) has still not been deciphered. [6]

Using a computer analysis, Knorozov suggested that an underlying Dravidian language was what people probably spoke in the Indus Valley. [6]

The Survival of Brahui; a Dravidian language, spoken even today by large numbers of people in Baluchistan and the adjoining areas in Afghanistan and Iran, is an important factor in the identification of the Indus Civilization as Dravidian. [5] Zvelebil attempted to prove that the Dravidians were a highlander folks who lived, sometime around 4000 BC in the rugged mountainous regions of North-East Iran where they were in contact with the Ural_Altaic people and from there they migrated into the Indian Sub-continent and played a leading role in the ethnographic composition of the Indus Valley peoples before they ultimately reached Southern India. [23] Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Dravidians were the founders of the Harappan culture which extended from the Indus Valley through northeastern Afghanistan, on into Turkestan. [26]

The only difficulty surrounding the controversy about the Indus Valley civilizations pre-dating the Sumerian, is that according to the archeologists, Sir John Marshall and Sir Mortimer Wheeler, to be precise, the Mohenja-Daro and Harappan civilization must have arisen during the third millennium before our era ( 2800 B.C.), while the Sumerian civilization was already in existence, 4000 B.C. [23] They began to demonstrate dramatically the ancient between the civilizations of Ur, Dilmun and those of the Indus Valley. [23] Conclusion: In our exploration of the intercourse between the civilizations of the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, Dilmun and other points, we have illustrated the continuing role of archaeological evidence, as well as that of historical documents or narratives, such as that of the Periplus. [23] How the civilization of the Tigris- Euphrates on the one hand, and the Indus Valley on the other hand were connected, is not clearly known to us, though several elements of affinity linking the two distant civilizations have been indicated beyond doubt. [23] Bahrein has proved to be the legendary Dilmun referred to in the cuneiform texts of Sumer, the bridge between that primary seat of the urban revolution and the civilization of Indus Valley in what is now Pakistan. [23] When in those happy years, I looked at pictures reproduced in books I mean pictures illustrating the pottery and sculpture of the early civilization of the Indus valley, I was struck by a similarity in their style and the style that obtained in Black Africa. [23]

In this video we discuss the Dravidian foundation of the Indus Valley Civillization. [27] This suggests that the Dravidian speaking colonists settled the Indus Valley over a period of a few decades. [26] Indus Valley started by a nomadic tribe call the Dravidians. [14]

Horses helped the Aryans get to the Indus River Valley, and helped them establish a sense of dominance over the native Dravidians. [16] Notions of possible historical Dravidian displacement in the Indus River valley due to an invasion or migration began to be entertained by Western scholars who joined in interdisciplinary studies of the origins of the Hindu religion. [7]

Numerous attempts continued through the 20th century to connect the Dravidians to the Indus civilization. [7] The survival of Brahui, a Dravidian language, spoken even today by large numbers of people in Baluchistan and the adjoining areas in Afghanistan and Iran, is an important factor in the identification of the Indus Civilization as Dravidian. [19] Many archaeologists are beginning to accept the fact that the Harappan civilization was founded elsewhere and taken to the Indus Valley by the Harappan people. [26]

Indus valley civilisation is more or less 7000 years old and there is documentary proof to show that it is very advanced, people were well versed in architecture, laying of roads, making clothes, furniture, jewellery and utensils. [19] The evidence to support elements of Tamils Religion, Saivam present in Indus Valley is with the recovery of many symbols of Siva lingam from the Indus Valley ™s remains. [19] Between 400 and as many as 600 distinct Indus Valley symbols have been found on seals, small tablets, ceramic pots and more than a dozen other materials, including a œsignboard that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city. [19] "A fish is a common symbol found in all Indus Valley seals. [19]

In the 'Language of the Proto-Indian Inscriptions,' the Russian scholar reached a conclusion that the symbols at the Indus Valley ruins represented a logosyllabic script. [6] For those interested in this topic, this writer would like to recommend, 'The Soviet Decipherment of the Indus Valley Script: Translation and Critique,' edited by Arlene Zide and Kamil Zvelebil. [6] The former argued in many publications that the Brahmi script was most likely connected to the Indus Valley script and not derived from one of the Semitic scripts. [6] Aryans migrate to the Indus Valley, eventually they invaded entire Indian subcontinent. [28] The Aryans - nomadic northerners from central Asia, begin to migrate into the Indus Valley. [17] The festivals that are being conducted for god Murukan in Asia justify his relationship to Ahmuvan and the words Ahmuvan and Murukan have stood as a definition of religious and cultural symbolism in time and space over several millenniums from Indus valley to Tamil Nadu in southern India. [19] The primordial God of Indus valley - Ahmuvan, stands inside a bigger loop embedded with 13 smaller loops with pipal tree leaves attached to it possibly denoting 13 time periods as found in the astronomical calculations of the Mayan. [19] All the Indus valley seals had been read by Dr. R. Mathivanan and it is established that it is Tamil writings. [19] UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 1988: Indus Art - 2500 BC - Stone (steatite) seal of the Indus Valley. [18] Nearly 1,400 Indus Valley sites (towns) have now been discovered. [19] The notion of unmoving pole star around 3000 B.C. refers to the Alpha Draconis of the Draco constellation in Indus valley and the Gamma Draconis of the same is named as the zenith-star since it almost lies in the zenith of Greenwich. [19]

" (Parpola, 1986) Sidenote: "Vedic" means from the time of the Vedas, the earliest text in India, and the Vedic culture is from around 1500 to 500 BC. However, no depiction of horses on seals nor any remains of horses have been found so far before 2000 BC. They only appear after 2000 BC. Very likely there were no Aryan speakers present before 2000 BC in the Indus Valley. [25] The historical languages spoken in Northern India and Pakistan all belong to the Indic branch of Indo-European, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Punjabi, etc., so maybe the people of the Indus valley spoke a very old Indo-European language? The major problem with this model is the fact that horses played a very important role in all Indo-European cultures, being a people constantly on the move. [25] Other specialist have begun to popularize the idea that the Indus Valley was called Meluhh- a, because of the Aryan mention of Meluhhaites in India when they arrived. [26] It was compiled when the Indus Valley was at its peak, before the Aryans came to India. [22] This led to many Harappans migrating out of the Indus Valley into India, to settle sites in Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and other parts of western Uttar Pradesh between 1700-1000 B.C. [26] The Harappan sites are spread from the Indus Valley to Ai Kharnoum in northeastern Afghanistan and southward into India. [26] Present day Pakistan and Northwest India is where Indus Valley was once located. [14]

I should like in passing to note that it is not at all fortuitous that early civilizations which arose in the valleys of the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates, and lastly of the Indus, bore the marks of black men. [23] They were not native to Mesopotamia and appeared to date to the period between 2300 and 2000 B.C. Several bore inscriptions in the unknown language of the Indus Valley. [23] Astronomical Science used by the Vedic ritualists was taken from the Semito-Dravidian Indus valley people as these were compiled during the Indus Valley and are not referred to in the Avesta or Rig Veda. [22] Severe droughts frequently occurred in the Indus Valley so the people dug wells to insure for themselves a safe supply of water. [26] To compensate for the adverse ecological conditions, the Harappans first settled sites along the Indus river. (Fairservis 1987:48) The Dravido-Harappans occupied over 1,000 sites in the riverine Indus Valley environments where they had soil and water reserves. [26] The gods of the Harappans depicted on their seals represented the gods of the various economic corporations in the Indus Valley. [26] One of the alabaster vases was of a shape known to have been used in Mesopotamia in the final centuries of the third millennium B.C. In the temple, near what was quite clearly an altar or pedestal in front of which libation were offered, Bibby and Glob found several lapis lazuli pendants of a type found in the cities of the Indus Valley. [23] No iridium anomaly, the characteristic of all impacts from the mammoth K/T Chiczulub crater to the Sudbury intrusive, has been found in the Indus valley of the required age. [22] No shocked glasses, or tektites with the requisite shock deformation features, have been found anywhere near the Indus valley. [22] As far as its material goes, the perfect cube of polished flim, found on Bahrein could have originated there, yet it was recognized immediately as a weight of the type in common use in the cities of the Indus Valley and used nowhere else. [23] IVC sites extended from the Indus Valley to Shortughai (c.2500-1800 BC) on the Oxus river and other parts of Bactria, before the rise of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC). [15] Winters,Clyde Ahmad, "The Indus Valley Writing is Proto- Dravidian",Journal of Tamil Studies, no 25 (June 1984a), pp.50-64. [26] The conclusions arrived at by the Indus valley excavations are further supported by the epoch making discoveries made by the excavations at Jericho, Upper Galilee, Northern Iran, Egypt, Kenya, Tangkanyika and other regions. [23] Due to changes in the environment of the indus Valley much of the area became more arid. [26] Settlers in the Indus Valley had to suffer frequent droughts and floods. [26] The Dravido-Harappans occupied over 1,000 sites in the riverine Indus Valley environments where they had soil and water reserves. [26] It is possible that certain types of Indus Valley pottery were exported. [23] This Hariyupiyah is likely to be the Harappa of tte Indus valley. [22]

Outposts of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, Surat Dist., India. [29] The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan and parts of northwestern India, Afghanistan and Iran, extending from Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern Afghanistan to the north and Maharashtra to the south. [29] The most compelling historical narrative still suggests that the demise and eventual disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilization, which owed something to internal decline, nonetheless was facilitated by the arrival in India of the Aryans. [30] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. [29] In most respects, the Indus Valley Civilization appears to have been urban, defying both the predominant idea of India as an eternally and essentially agricultural civilization, as well as the notion that the change from 'rural' to 'urban' represents something of a logical progression. [30] The discovery of Indus valley civilization brought the Indian subcontinent into limelight as home to one of the most ancient human civilizations and gave scope to many scholars to present an argument that the Indian subcontinent, as a land of racial, ethnic and linguistic diversity from time immemorial and as a land that stood in the way of waves of migrating prehistoric nomads and adventurers of stone age, might be the cradle of human civilization. [31] Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. [29] In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. [29] The people of this Indus Valley civilization did not build massive monuments like their contemporaries, nor did they bury riches among their dead in golden tombs. [32] The Indus valley civilization was essentially an urban civilization, characterized by well planned cities, built according to the needs of the people who inhabited them and the geographical and climatic challenges they faced. [31] The collapse of the Indus Valley civilization was an explosive event for the rest of the subcontinent, as Moorjani et al. report that all indigenous Indian populations have ANI-ASI admixture (with the exceptions of Tibeto-Burman groups). [33] We do not know which beliefs and practices or the religious traditions of the Indus Valley Civilization found their way into present day Hinduism. [31] Mohenjo Daro sat beneath the soil for thousands of years, a preserved relic of the ancient Indus Valley civilization. [29] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley civilization. [29] During it's hey days the Indus valley civilization covered an area in the Indian subcontinent that was larger than the present day Europe. [31] If we accept that the Vedic people had some historic affinity with the Indus Valley Civilization which some believe to be true, it lends credence to the possibility that Indus people might have practiced some rudimentary or even elaborate forms of sacrificial ceremonies to propitiate their gods. [31] The conventional historical narrative speaks of a cataclysmic blow that struck the Indus Valley Civilization around 1,600 BCE, but that would not explain why settlements at a distance of several hundred miles from each other were all eradicated. [30] The Indus Valley Civilization site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed. [29] The Indus Valley civilization raises a great many, largely unresolved, questions. [30] The Indus valley civilization is now increasingly referred to as Sindhu Saraswathi Civilization. [31] In an interview with the Deccan Herald on 12 August 2012, Asko Parpola clarified his position by admitting that Sanskrit-speakers had contributed to the Indus Valley Civilization. [29] Remarkably, the lack of all these is what makes the Indus Valley civilization so exciting and unique. [32] Amazingly, the Indus Valley civilization appears to have been a peaceful one. [32] The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan. [29] The mature phase of the Harappan civilization lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures - Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively - the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. Two terms are employed for the periodization of the IVC: Phases and Eras. [29] The Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. [29] The Ancient Indus Valley Civilization Architecture, engineering, the arts, and sciences: these were only a few of the areas in which the Harappan civilization was accomplished. [32] Harappa was, in fact, such a rich discovery that the Indus Valley Civilization is also called the Harappan civilization. [32]

While others civilizations were devoting huge amounts of time and resources to the rich, the supernatural, and the dead, Indus Valley inhabitants were taking a practical approach to supporting the common, secular, living people. [32] Why did this civilization, considering its sophistication, not spread beyond the Indus Valley? In general, the area where the Indus valley cities developed is arid, and one can surmise that urban development took place along a river that flew through a virtual desert. [30] It has long been claimed that the Indus Valley was the home of a literate civilization, but this has recently been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds. [29] The Indus River Valley civilization site is as important to archaeologists as ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. [34] Amazingly, there's no archaeological evidence suggesting war or armies in the Indus River Valley civilizations. [34]

The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. [29]

The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear. [30] The distinction, to the extent it exists, would be between the earliest residents of the Indus River valley, the Harappan people; and the later Aryans who moved into India and spread far beyond the Indus valley. [35]

World-wide comparisons: Aryans vs. Indus Valley people; Israelites (non-Aryans) vs. Canaanites; Earliest Greeks (Aryans) vs. Minoans on Crete; Sky-gods and war-gods vs. Fertility gods and goddesses. [36] Some historians also suggested that the people of Indus valley probably shared an affinity with the ancient Egyptians and other African cultures. [31] Although the intricate details of the early Indus Valley culture might never be fully known, many pieces of the ancient puzzle have been discovered. [32] Some historians question whether the religion of the Indus Valley people can be categorized at all as the earliest known aspect of Hinduism. [31] An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi. [29] Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for example, Dholavira. [29]

A few thousand seals have been discovered in Indus Valley cities, showing some 400 pictographs: too few in number for the language to have been ideographic, and too many for the language to have been phonetic. [30] Earlier studies (prior to 1980) often assumed that food production was imported to the Indus Valley by a single linguistic group ("Aryans") and/or from a single area. [29] Most significantly, under what circumstances did the Indus Valley cities undergo a decline? The first attacks on outlying villages by Aryans appear to have taken place around 2,000 BCE near Baluchistan, and of the major cities, at least Harappa was quite likely over-run by the Aryans. [30]

Compare the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley. [35] The Indus Valley people had a merchant class that, evidence suggests, engaged in extensive trading. [30] The women portrayed on the seals are shown with elaborate coiffures, sporting heavy jewelry, suggesting that the Indus Valley people were an urbane people with cultivated tastes and a refined aesthetic sensibility. [30] They may also have been a sea-faring people, and it is rather interesting that Indus Valley seals have been dug up in such places as Sumer. [30] Other than the archaeological ruins of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, these seals provide the most detailed clues about the character of the Indus Valley people. [30] The Indus Valley people domesticated animals, and harvested various crops, such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. [30] The Indus Valley people did not develop agriculture on any large scale, and consequently did not have to clear away a heavy growth of forest. [30] We have very little information about the religious life of the Indus valley people. [31] This causes backflow of ASI-admixed people into the Indus Valley. [33] It is not clear how agriculturalists settling in the Indus Valley could trigger a major admixture event between ANIs and ASI throughout India. [33] A possible natural reason for the IVC's decline is connected with climate change that is also signaled for the neighboring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. [29] The remains of their walls yield clues about the culture that thrived in the Indus Valley. [32] The metals used to make these things are not found in the Indus Valley. [29] So far no sacrificial altars or pits were found in the excavations at the Indus Valley sites. [31] Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. Among them are: Rupar, Rakhigarhi, Sothi, Kalibangan, and Ganwariwala. [29] In the Rig Veda there is mention of a Vedic war god, Indra, destroying some forts and citadels, which could have included Harappa and some other Indus Valley cities. [30] Say some Near Eastern farmers migrated into the Indus Valley region from Persia near the dawn of agriculture. [33] The remains of the Indus Valley cities continue to be unearthed and interpreted today. [32] Recent studies indicate that food production was largely indigenous to the Indus Valley. [29] There also must have existed a theatrical tradition in the Indus valley cities, but of this we have no literary numismatic or any other material proof. [29]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". [1] The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification. [1]

It is suggested that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd millennium BCE. According to Krishnamurti, Proto-Dravidian may have been spoken in the Indus civilization, suggesting a "tentative date of Proto-Dravidian around the early part of the third millennium." [1]

A Note on the Muruku Sign of the Indus Script in light of the Mayiladuthurai Stone Axe Discovery. harappa.com. [1] A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script. [1]

The Dravidian influence is also noted to have been found in ancient civilisations of India. [1] They belong to the south Dravidian subgroup, and are found in coastal Karnataka in India. [1]

According to Zvelebil, "several scholars have demonstrated that pre-Indo-Aryan and pre-Dravidian bilingualism in India provided conditions for the far-reaching influence of Dravidian on the Indo-Aryan tongues in the spheres of phonology, syntax and vocabulary." [1] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion or synthesis between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans, which became more evident over time with sacred iconography, traditions, philosophy, flora and fauna that went on to influence and shape Indian civilisation. [1] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion or synthesis between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans that went on to influence and shape Hinduism, Sramana, Jainism, Buddhism, Charvaka, and Ājīvika. [1] Ancient Dravidian religion constituted of a non- Vedic form of Hinduism in that they were either historically or are at present Āgamic. [1] Dravidian linguistic influence on early Vedic religion is evident; many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian. [1] The linguistic evidence for Dravidian impact grows increasingly strong as we move from the Samhitas down through the later Vedic works and into the classical post-Vedic literature. [1]

Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis." [1] Some of those for which Dravidian etymologies are certain include ಕುಲಾಯ kulāya "nest", ಕುಲ್ಫ kulpha "ankle", ದಂಡ daṇḍa "stick", ಕುಲ kūla "slope", ಬಿಲ bila "hollow", ಖಲ khala "threshing floor". : 81 While J. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Indo-Aryans moved into an already Dravidian speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed. [1] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion or synthesis between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans. [1] Ancient Tamil grammatical works Tolkappiyam, the ten anthologies Pattuppāṭṭu, and the eight anthologies Eṭṭuttokai shed light on early ancient Dravidian religion. [1] The Ancient Dravidians are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Tamils, Malayalees, Telugus, Canarese. [1]

Krishnamurti further states that South Dravidian I (including pre-Tamil) and South Dravidian II (including Pre-Telugu) split around the eleventh century BCE, with the other major branches splitting off at around the same time. [1] Sports like Kambala, Jallikattu, Kabaddi, Vallam Kali, Lambs and Tigers are parts of Dravidian culture. [1] According to Erdosy, the most plausible explanation for the presence of Dravidian structural features in Old Indo-Aryan is that the majority of early Old Indo-Aryan speakers had a Dravidian mother tongue which they gradually abandoned. [1] Some linguists explain this anomaly by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan were built on a Dravidian substratum. [1]

While the English word Dravidian was first employed by Robert Caldwell in his book of comparative Dravidian grammar based on the usage of the Sanskrit word drāviḍa in the work Tantravārttika by Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, the word drāviḍa in Sansrkit has been historically used to denote geographical regions of Southern India as whole. [1] Many literary works were composed in Carnatic style and it soon spread wide in the Dravidian regions. [1]

The modern word Dravidian is devoid of any ethnic significance, and is only used to classify a linguistic family of the referred group. [1] The worship of tutelary deities, sacred flora and fauna in Hinduism is also recognized as a survival of the pre-Vedic Dravidian religion. [1] Tamil oratory and the Dravidian aesthetic: democratic practice in south India. [1] Among the early Dravidians the practice of erecting memorial stones " Natukal and Viragal ’' had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about the 16th century. [1] The third century BCE onwards saw the development of large Dravidian political states: Chola, Pandyan, Rashtrakuta, Vijayanagara, Chera, Chalukya and a number of smaller states. [1] Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish, "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. [1] Dravidian grammatical impact on the structure and syntax of Indo-Aryan languages is considered far greater than the Indo-Aryan grammatical impact on Dravidian. [1] There are also hundreds of Dravidian loanwords in Indo-Aryan languages, and vice versa. [1]

According to Mallory there are an estimated thirty to forty Dravidian loanwords in Rig Veda. [1]

Although in modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, Dravidian speakers must have been widespread throughout the Indian subcontinent before the Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent. [1] The most obvious explanation of this situation is that the Dravidian languages once occupied nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and it is the intrusion of Indo-Aryans that engulfed them in northern India leaving but a few isolated enclaves. [1]

There are three subgroups within the Dravidian language family: North Dravidian, Central Dravidian, and South Dravidian, matching for the most part the corresponding regions in the Indian subcontinent. [1] In the 1990s, Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza have also argued that Proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent, but more recently Heggerty and Renfrew noted that "McAlpin's analysis of the language data, and thus his claims, remain far from orthodoxy", adding that Fuller finds no relation of Dravidian language with other languages, and thus assumes it to be native to India. [1] According to David McAlpin and his Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam, located in present-day southwestern Iran. [1] This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages into India (Renfrew 1987). [1]

According to Thomason and Kaufman, there is strong evidence that Dravidian influenced Indic through "shift", that is, native Dravidian speakers learning and adopting Indic languages. [1] Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language. [1] Each of the major Dravidian languages has its own film industry like Kollywood (Tamil), Tollywood (Telugu), Sandalwood (Kannada), Mollywood (Malayalam). [1] The most commonly spoken Dravidian languages are Tamil (தமிழ்), Telugu (తెలుగు), Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), Malayalam (മലയാളം), Brahui (براہوئی), Tulu (ತುಳು), Gondi and Coorg. [1]

Dravidian languages show extensive lexical (vocabulary) borrowing, but only a few traits of structural (either phonological or grammatical) borrowing from Indo-Aryan, whereas Indo-Aryan shows more structural than lexical borrowings from the Dravidian languages. [1] The Brahui population of Balochistan in Pakistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages. [1]

Dravidian speakers in southern India wear varied traditional costumes depending on their region, largely influenced by local customs and traditions. [1]



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8. (29) History Unit I - Ancient India Flashcards | Quizlet

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34. (2) What are the differences between Indus Valley Civilization and Vedic civilization? | eNotes

35. (1) 02.03: Ancient Indus Valley Civilizations by Jacki Kurtz on Prezi

36. (1) Pre-Aryan Civilization


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