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indus Valley Civilization John Marshall


  • Sir John Hubert Marshall, (born March 19, 1876, Chester, Cheshire, Eng. --died Aug. 17, 1958, Guildford, Surrey), English director general of the Indian Archaeological Survey (1902-31) who in the 1920s was responsible for the large-scale excavations that revealed Harappā and Mohenjo-daro, the two largest cities of the previously unknown Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The discovery of Indus civilization proved to the Europeans that India had a rich civilization as old as the Egyptian and Mesopotamian ones, but then there was a rush to prove that the people of Indus Valley did nothing important and whatever we hold as sacred came from Noah's children.
  • The next year, now 54 years old, he retired from the Army to become Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India, exploring in detail the remains of the Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjodaro.
  • It started in large scale in the 20th century thanks to Lord Curzon who appointed a young archaeologist named John Marshall as the Director General of the Archaeological Survey.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.
  • As the date of main cultural period of the Sumerian civilizations is fixed 3250-2750 B. C. Sir John Marshall likes to fix the upper date of the Indus civilization as the same.
  • Though finds at Harappa were reported, it was not until 1920 that proper excavations began at Harappa under John Marshall, the then director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
  • It was only in the 1920s that the excavations of Sir John Marshall & his colleagues opened the eyes of the world to an additional 2000 years of rich Indian prehistory.















































































indus Valley Civilization Mohenjo Daro


  • The Indus Valley civilization was entirely unknown until 1921, when excavations in what would become Pakistan revealed the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (shown here).
  • Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • Was Mohenjo Daro home to an unknown advanced civilization far ahead of its time?
  • An ancient settlement in one of the most unique civilisations of the world, Indus Valley Civilisation, Mohenjo-daro is situated in Larkana District which today is in the Sindh province in modern day Pakistan.
  • With no evidence of kings or queens, Mohenjo Daro was likely governed as a city-state, perhaps by elected officials or elites from each of the mounds.
  • Only a handful of archaeologists have excavated here, described in the introduction and illustrated essay Mohenjodaro: An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis.
  • The Harappan civilization dominated the Indus River valley beginning about five thousand years ago, many of its massive cities sprawling at the edges of rivers that still flow through Pakistan and India today.
  • Perhaps the Indus Valley style of marriage was one way that Harappan cities were able to attract so many immigrants.
  • Considering those fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro served as an administrative center.
  • The majority of artifacts recovered at Harappa and Mohenjo Daro have been that of crafted objects.
  • Next, using just your chart in hand to complete this step, challenge yourself by l ooking at the archaeologist's sketch in the chart and recording in the appropriate boxes both what you think the object is AND what you think the artifact tells us about the people of the ancient Indus Valley.












































































































































































indus Valley Civilization Urban Planning


  • The Town Planning System of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was city based.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE ; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • They have to leave their dwelling places and it is thought that drying up of Sarasvathi is one of the reasons for decline all these dwelling places, (cities and villages) which contributed to decline of Indus Civilization.  It was observed that this ancient city was very similar to Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in several aspects like town planning, building layout etc.  For building houses, bakes bricks were used extensively at Channu Daro.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • Another water source that gave life to Indus Valley was the Ghaggar-Hakra River that passes through the northwest point of India and eastern section of Pakistan.
  • This kind of careful planning of cities is referred to as urban planning.
  • The dichotomy of Harappan towns and cities into a citadel or Acropolis and a "Lower Town" was deliberately introduced in the Indus Valley in order to enhance the prestige of the ruler of the town, or rajah.

































































































the Indus Valley Civilization Flourished from 2800 to 1300 Bce


  • Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization.  This Indus Valley "civilization" flourished around 4000-1000 B.C. Mature Harappan Phase lasted from 2600BC to 1700 BC. Subsequently came the third phase, the late Harappan phase from 1700 BC to 1300 BC. 2800 BC - Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
  • Outposts of the Indus Valley civilisation were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani Balochistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus ) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, in modern-day Surat, Gujarat, India.
  • The civilization, which is known for its superior urban planning, is believed to have flourished in the period between 3300 BC to 1300 BC in what is today Pakistan, northwest India and parts of Afghanistan and Balochistan.
  • Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, the weights and measures of the Indus Valley Civilization, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilisation appear in later cultures, the Cemetery H culture may be the manifestation of the Late Harappan over a large area in the region of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture its successor.














































indus Valley Civilization Before 5000 Years


  • A new study by scientists from IIT-Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India which shows that the Indus Valley Civilization is at least 8,000 years old, and not approximately 5,000 years old as previously believed demands a fundamental and objective rethink of old assumptions about the antiquity of Indian civilisation and its role in world history.
  • The civilization is believed to have existed during the period 3300 to 1700 BCE. It flourished during 2600 - 1900 BCE in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys primarily in what is now Pakistan and western India, extending westward into Balochistan.
  • The skeletons were dated to about 5,000 years old and were unearthed in a cemetery in Rakhigarhi, a city of the ancient civilization.
  • Around 5000 years from now, in the plain of Indo-Gangetic basin, the great cities of Indus civilization flourished.
  • C14 Carbon dating has proved conclusively that pre-Indus valley civilization with pottery, cities with drainage existed in Haryana at around 7500 BC. That makes it the oldest "civilization" (as opposed primitive humans making cave drawings).
  • An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
  • This meant that 3,000 years later when the Indus people settled the area, there was only an abandoned river valley. (Credit: DailyMail) This study unequivocally showed that Sutlej river once flowed in the Ghaggar-Hakra region.















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