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Industrial Revolution Child Labor


  • Children had long had a place in domestic farming, unlike mill and factory work that grew out of the Industrial Revolution. 94 During the Gilded Age (period between the Civil War and World War I when the United States population and economy grew quickly), two-thirds of child labor was done on the farm.
  • During the Industrial Revolution a vast majority of the working children were subject to very long work hours under harsh and dangerous conditions.
  • Following the Civil War, the cotton mill industry, based partially on child labor, was responsible for raising many Southern white families out of poverty. 69 These mills almost exclusively employed white children because of an implicit agreement between the manufacturers and planters.
  • Many parents believed that they should begin receiving some money back on their investment once a child reached the age of 10 or 12. 79 Thus, the actions of both the mill owner and the parents contributed to the widespread use of child labor in cotton mills.
  • There were little to no rules in place for workers in the Industrial Revolution, and the wealthy owners could act in any manner that they wanted.
  • Child Labor Laws in America for kids: Progressive Reforms The 1916 Keating-Owen Child Labor Act was a federal law passed limiting how many hours children were allowed to work, prohibiting the employment of children under the age of fourteen in factories producing goods for interstate commerce.
  • When the Industrial Revolution started, many families had to find someone to work or they wouldn't survive.
  • Student will choose a persona (a parent, factory owner/employer, reformer or politician) and write an editorial aimed at persuading readers to take some form of action relating to changing child labor conditions or defending the conditions which make it necessary for children to work.
  • The Industrial Revolution began in Britain during the 1780's and rapidly changed the work process and the social relations of work.
  • Overall, these laws were successful, not only to the generally widespread disapproval towards child labor, but also because many previously unemployed adults became employed once children were limited in the workforce.
  • Harley, C.K ( 2006 ), "New Views of the Industrial Revolution and Labour Markets’, paper presented at an ESRC seminar on "The First Modern Labour Market’, Oxford.

















































The Industrial Revolution in England


  • Which industry triggered the Industrial Revolution in England?
  • One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East (which pioneered in shipbuilding, textile production, water mills, and much more in the period between 750 and 1100 ), or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages.
  • The term "Industrial Revolution" was coined by Auguste Blanqui, a French economist, in 1837 to denote the economic and social changes arising out of the transition from industries carried in the homes with simple instruments, to industries in factories with power-driven machinery in Britain, but it came into vogue when Arnold Toynbee, the great historian, used it in 1882.
  • This interaction brought people to the new industrial cities; gradually increased trade within England, Europe, and the world; and helped turn England into the wealthiest nation on earth.
  • The first industrial revolution led to iron, coal and steam technology, the expansion of railroads and the mass production of textiles.
  • The nineteenth century was different--the First Industrial Revolution turned into Modern Economic Growth.
  • While the term luddite this modern times has come to mean as someone opposed to new technologies, the Luddites during the Industrial Revolution were a band of textile workers who staged rebellions in the form of smashing machines as they feared machinery would replace men’s role in the industry thereby rendering the time they spent learning their craft without value.

























Industrial Revolution Cities


  • You will learn about the effects of the Industrial Revolution on living and working conditions, urbanization (the growth of cities), child labor, public health, working class family life, the role of women, the emerging middle class, and economic growth and income.
  • While the growth was certainly a contributing factor in the revolution, providing the vast industrial expansion a workforce it urgently needed, the revolution also worked to increase urban populations too.
  • Cotton in the first industrial revolution thus appears as a classic case of the economic historian W.W.Rostow's theory of economic take-off, which involved enlarged demand for the product of certain sectors, the introduction of new production functions into these sectors, and the generation of the necessary capital -especially through a high rate of plough-back of profits in these critical sectors and in the supplementary growth sectors they stimulated.
  • Increasingly, the focus of efforts to green the current fossil-fuelled industrial system, as it spreads relentlessly worldwide, will have to focus at the city level for real solutions, both of technology and of finance - because it is at the level of cities that the most acute problems arise.
  • The Industrial Revolution began in the United Kingdom, and mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early nineteenth century.
  • The Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain during the mid-18th century, but the American colonies lagged far behind the mother country in part because the abundance of land and scarcity of labor in the New World reduced interest in expensive investments in machine production.




























Industrial Revolution Definition World History


  • Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid industrial development, primarily in Britain, Germany and the United States, but also in France, the Low Countries, Italy and Japan.
  • To understand the role of the United States on the global scene, students must be able to relate it to world history.
  • The study of it is routinely handled as simply part of Western European history or as part of individual national histories.Peter Stearns offers a genuinely world-historical approach, looking at the international factors that touched off the industrial revolution and at its global spread and impact.
  • Industrial Revolution - noun The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery.
  • The Industrial Revolution began in early 17th century in England where natural resources (such as coal and water), growing trade opportunities, and a political situation encouraging capital investment coalesced to transform first England and eventually much of the world from an agrarian economy with some cottage industry and guild activity into an urban economy where manufacturing occurs in typically urban, large-scale industrial zones.
  • Covering societies from classical times to the twenty-first century, Gender in World History is a.































Industrial Revolution Factory


  • "Farm to factory: a reinterpretation of the Soviet industrial revolution".
  • During the period 1790-1815 Sweden experienced two parallel economic movements: an agricultural revolution with larger agricultural estates, new crops and farming tools and a commercialisation of farming, and a protoindustrialisation, with small industries being established in the countryside and with workers switching between agricultural work in summer and industrial production in winter.
  • You will learn about the effects of the Industrial Revolution on living and working conditions, urbanization (the growth of cities), child labor, public health, working class family life, the role of women, the emerging middle class, and economic growth and income.
  • Imagine you are a worker in a textile factory in the Industrial Revolution period in England.
  • In the latter half of the Industrial Revolution, women who worked in factories or mills tended not to have children or had children that were old enough to take care of themselves, as life in the city made it impossible to take a child to work (unlike in the case of farm labor or cottage industry where women were more flexible to combine domestic and work spheres) and deprived women of a traditional network of support established in rural communities.
  • In my think tank and book Vertical Urban Factory, I identified not only the typology and its history but also ways that manufacturing is beginning to repopulate multistory spaces, in both new and renovated multitenanted industrial loft-type buildings.
























































































Industrial Revolution Job Loss


  • The Real Challenge of the Fourth Industrial Revolution • Skills and job displacement will affect every industry and geographical region, but losses can be offset by job growth in key areas. • "Over the next five years is such that as many as 7.1 million jobs could be lost through redundancy, automation or disintermediation, with the greatest losses in white-collar office and administrative roles.
  • AUTOMATION HAS BEEN CHANGING THE JOB LANDSCAPE FOR MANY YEARS • Over many decades: • Routine jobs (manual or cognitive) have declined. • Only non-routine jobs have continued to grow. (Source: Economist) • Now: The most famous study on Job Loss and AI, by Carl Frey and Michael Osbourne, predicts that 47% of the workforce is in danger.
  • Technology has had a major impact on the workforce dating back at least as far as the Industrial Revolution when various tasks became more automated and the types of jobs available changed as a result.
  • Industry and government alike need to take a long, hard look at the effect of automation on industries as a means of maintaining the United States' role in manufacturing and innovation, while stemming domestic job loss.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution could make that worse, with poor countries losing jobs to automation, increasing the jobless rates there and creating even bigger refugee waves.
  • A study by Bureau of Labor Statistics quoted about 5 million lost in manufacturing over the years but also pointed out that only a meager 13% of these jobs were lost to offshoring whereas a major chunk of job loss was attributed to the growth of automation in manufacturing.
  • The session focused on the Fourth Industrial Revolution we have entered into that is transforming mankind, with 47 percent of jobs at risk over the next 20 years.
  • While we have an idea of what garden variety automation did to the economy during the industrial revolution, there is no handbook for where artificial intelligence might take us.

























Eric j Hobsbawm Industrial Revolution


  • This is a study of the Industrial Revolution by historian Eric Hobsbawm, where Industry and the Empire are described from a Marxist point of view.
  • Eric J. Hobsbawm, whose three-volume economic history of the rise of industrial capitalism established him as Britain’s pre-eminent Marxist historian, died on Monday in London.
  • In Industry and Empire, Hobsbawm explores the origin and dramatic course of the Industrial Revolution over two hundred and fifty years and its influence on social and political institutions.
  • He wrote many acclaimed historical works, including a trilogy on the nineteenth-century: The Age of Revolution, The Age of Capital, and The Age of Empire, and was the author of The Age of Extremes: The Short 20th Century 1914-1991 and his recent au Eric Hobsbawm, a self-confessed "unrepentant communist", was professor emeritus of economic and social history of the University of London at Birkbeck.
  • Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH FRSL FBA (/ˈhɒbz.bɔːm/; 9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British Marxist historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism, and nationalism.
  • It was Industry and Empire (1968), a compelling summation of much of his work on Britain and the industrial revolution, that achieved the highest esteem.
  • One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution started in eighteenth century Europe and not in other parts of the world in the eighteenth century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages.



















































































































































































































Industrial Revolution Sewing Machine


  • There are many versions of the sewing machine before the Industrial Revolution.
  • In 1848 - just two years after Elias Howe patented his first sewing machine - women’s discontent erupted when, at Seneca Falls, New York, several hundred middle- and working-class women gathered at the first women’s rights convention and drew up a Declaration of Women’s Rights.
  • It wasn't until the last 200 years and the advent of the Industrial Revolution that sewing using a machine came about.
  • Power-driven, highly specialized machines for industrial use include many used in clothing manufacture, such as those for buttonholing and button sewing, seam finishing, and embroidery.
  • A boon to the homemaker and seamstress, its use in industry reflected both the advantages and the social problems brought about by the Industrial Revolution.
  • With the use of sewing machines clothes became cheaper since the sewing machine could do many times the work of a hand sewing tailor.
  • Politics was affected by the Industrial Revolution in general, but not really by any of these inventions in particular.
  • U.S. Industrial Revolution Inventions: 1850: Invention of the Dishwasher In 1850Joel Houghton was granted the first patent for a hand-powered wooden dishwasher.
  • In 1846, Elias Howe filed a patent for a sewing machine that used two needles and generated thread from two different sources, resulting in a lock-stitched seam.
  • The large number of practical and useful inventions brought forward during the time leading up to and including the period known as the Industrial Revolution had a significant impact on both American society and the world.





































Industrial Revolution Technology


  • The transformation of power technology in the Industrial Revolution had repercussions throughout industry and society.
  • During the period 1790-1815 Sweden experienced two parallel economic movements: an agricultural revolution with larger agricultural estates, new crops and farming tools and a commercialisation of farming, and a protoindustrialisation, with small industries being established in the countryside and with workers switching between agricultural work in summer and industrial production in winter.
  • Anthracite coal, discovered at the turn of the nineteenth century, became an important source of fuel in the United States during the Industrial Revolution, with lasting consequences for the environment.
  • During this Revolution, changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology profoundly affected social and economic conditions in the United States.
  • "The two central features of industrialization - revolutions in technology and in the organization of production - yeilded one clear result: a great increase in the total output of goods and in individual worker output.
  • Removing the industrial revolution from the face of British history, a popular exercise for historians at the present time, requires faith in the relevance and authority of aggregate data (i.e. estimates of national income, the capital stock, and so on). 2 Dampening out the notion of industrial revolution also neglects the social and institutional changes of the period, which are difficult to assume away and impossible to disassociate from fundamental economic change.








































Industrial Revolution Uk


  • Belgium was the second country, after Britain, in which the Industrial Revolution took place and the first in continental Europe: Wallonia (French speaking southern Belgium) was the first region to follow the British model successfully.
  • In 1774 Jan Verbruggen had installed a horizontal boring machine in Woolwich which was the first industrial size Lathe in the UK. Maudslay was hired away by Joseph Bramah for the production of high-security metal locks that required precision craftsmanship.
  • Look at the table below of American cotton production during the first stage of the Industrial Revolution.
  • That is the conclusion of a government commissioned review on industrial digitalisation, published today and led by industry chief Jürgen Maier, the UK and Ireland boss of German engineering giant Siemens.
  • Britain was the birthplace of the first industrial revolution with advances to manufacturing processes from hand-made to machines.
  • The first industrial revolution led to iron, coal and steam technology, the expansion of railroads and the mass production of textiles.
  • The fourth revolution, according to the report from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, is shaped by the "integration of … digital and physical technologies into production and logistics".
  • The development of steam technology represented a second critical strand in the industrial revolution, and, as with the development of cotton manufacturing, its origins lay in the seventeenth century, in a combination of scientific, technological, and ecological developments.












































































































































































































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