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Industrial Revolution Mass Production

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Industrial Revolution Mass Production

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • While various mass production techniques were practiced in ancient times, the English were probably the first to use water-powered and steam-powered machinery in industrial production during the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-1700s.(More...)
  • Mass production involves making many copies of products, very quickly, using assembly line techniques to send partially complete products to workers who each work on an individual step, rather than having a worker work on a whole product from start to finish.(More...)
  • The Industrial Revolution depended on transportation to move materials, goods, and people.(More...)
  • It was characterized by the use of steam power, the growth of factories, and the mass production of manufactured goods.(More...)
  • Earlier production was done largely by hand prior to the Industrial Revolution, with skilled artisans providing labor using hand tools and great amounts of time (manufacturing 1.0).(More...)
  • Regarding "revolution", some economic historians dislike the term being applied even to the set of changes in the UK at the end of the 18th century that everyone else is quite happy to label as the first Industrial Revolution.(More...)
  • The Industrial Revolution, making it possible to mass-produce manufactured goods, was marked by their use of new machines, new energy sources, and new basic materials.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • Planning begins with the original design of the product; raw materials and component parts must be adaptable to production and handling by mass techniques.(More...)
  • Mass manufacturing systems can be expected to remain the dominant form of production in many industries.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
While various mass production techniques were practiced in ancient times, the English were probably the first to use water-powered and steam-powered machinery in industrial production during the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-1700s. [1] Some mass production techniques, such as standardized sizes and production lines, predate the Industrial Revolution by many centuries; however, it was not until the introduction of machine tools and techniques to produce interchangeable parts were developed in the mid 19th century that modern mass production was possible. [2] In the Industrial Revolution simple mass production techniques were used at the Portsmouth Block Mills in England to make ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. [2] Mass Production and the Industrial Revolution By: Olivia Franklin Productive replacing jobs The production was replacing jobs such as craftsmanship Repetitive assembly The repetitive assembly line is now the worlds standard for all manufacturing process. [3]

Mass Production was one of the most productive concepts ever Perfect place The Productions abundant waterpower, coal, raw material, but the shortage of workers, America was a great place for building skill into machinery. 3rd quarter In the 3rd quarter in the 19th century Americas system was employed by making small arms, clocks, textile machinery, sewing machines, and a whole lot of other industrial products. [3] Mass production, with its heavy dependence upon mechanized facilities and high levels of production volume, presents great challenges for industrial leadership. [4]

The four industrial revolutions: (1) Mechanization through water and steam power. (2) Mass production and assembly lines powered by electricity. (3) Computerization and automation. (4) Smart factories and cyber-physical systems. [5] The second industrial revolution also marked the beginning of the assembly line, interchangeable parts and, with them, mass production. [5]

While the First Industrial Revolution introduced machines to replace hand labor, Ford helped usher in what was ultimately the principle of mass production; using those machines to produce large quantities of standardized products an era that came to be known as the Second Industrial Revolution. [6] On a visit to Seoul to take part in discussions on 21st century manufacturing, I was faced with a number of questions about the ideas in my book "The New industrial Revolution: Consumers, Globalisation and the End of Mass Production". [7] The Second Industrial Revolution was part of the greater Industrial Revolution and it is considered to have been sparked off by the widespread use of the Bessemer process and ended with mass production. [8] The second industrial revolution was marked by new and more efficient industrial processes, such as the Bessemer process which enabled the mass production of steel. [8] Although the Industrial Revolution was a mostly positive event, there was a dark side to the mass production of products, including a lack of care for factory workers. [9] In the industrial revolution Britain led the world in advances that enabled mass production: trade exchanges, transportation, factory technology and new skills needed for the new industrialised world. [10]


Mass production involves making many copies of products, very quickly, using assembly line techniques to send partially complete products to workers who each work on an individual step, rather than having a worker work on a whole product from start to finish. [2] Before the introduction of mass production techniques, goods were produced by highly skilled craftsmen who often prepared their basic raw materials, carried the product through each of the stages of manufacture, and ended with the finished product. [4] The exquisitely designed production-control systems operating in the automotive and other industries make it possible for the consumer to obtain a greatly enhanced variety of product without sacrificing the cost advantages of mass production techniques. [4] While mass production is now the norm for consumer goods, there remains a demand for handmade products at higher prices, which may or may not be of superior quality. [11] The efficiencies of mass production allowed American businesses to switch from consumer goods to war stuffs quickly. [1] Though produced on a very small scale, Crimean War gunboat engines designed and assembled by John Penn of Greenwich are recorded as the first instance of the application of mass production techniques (though not necessarily the assembly-line method) to marine engineering. [2] Although he was not the first to use the assembly-line technique, Ford can certainly be viewed as the most successful of the early innovators due to one simple fact: Ford envisioned and fostered mass consumption as a natural consequence of mass production. [1] It is generally agreed that modern mass production techniques came into widespread use through the inventiveness of Americans. [1] The use of modern methods of mass production has brought such improvements in the cost, quality, quantity, and variety of goods available that the largest global population in history is now sustained at the highest general standard of living. [4] Mass production methods are based on two general principles: (1) the division and specialization of human labour and (2) the use of tools, machinery, and other equipment, usually automated, in the production of standard, interchangeable parts and products. [4] The machinery that is needed to set up a mass production line (such as robots and machine presses ) is so expensive that there must be some assurance that the product is to be successful to attain profits. [2] The worker spends little or no time retrieving and/or preparing materials and tools, and so the time taken to manufacture a product using mass production is shorter than when using traditional methods. [2] With each passing decade, engineers have found ways to increase the flexibility of mass production systems, driving down the lead times on new product development and allowing greater customization and variety of products. [2] Although after leaving the Henry Ford Company which was rebranded as Cadillac and later was awarded the Dewar Trophy in 1908 for creating interchangeable mass-produced precision engine parts, Henry Ford downplayed the role of Taylorism in the development of mass production at his company. [2] Credit for the development of large-scale, assembly-line, mass production techniques is usually given to Henry Ford and his innovative Model T car production methods, which began in 1908. [1] Ford's determination to make Model T's and only Model T's helped in the development of mass production techniques based on the moving belt assembly line. [1] While Ford was not the inventor of the motor car, he is credited with developing mass production techniques, such as the assembly line, which have helped reduced production costs. [11] Mass production was popularized in the late 1910s and 1920s by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company, when introduced electric motors to the then-well-known technique of chain or sequential production. [2] The traditional example of mass production is the automobile industry, which has continued to refine the basic principles originally laid down by Henry Ford and other pioneers of mass production techniques. [4] Much of the credit for bringing these early concepts together in a coherent form, and creating the modern, integrated, mass production operation, belongs to the U.S. industrialist Henry Ford and his colleagues at the Ford Motor Company, where in 1913 a moving-belt conveyor was used in the assembly of flywheel magnetos. [4] Today’s automobile is the result of a large number of mass production lines established in a multitude of manufacturing and assembly facilities throughout the world. [4] MASS PRODUCTION is a system of manufacturing based on principles such as the use of interchangeable parts, large-scale production, and the high-volume assembly line. [1] Mass production has replaced craftsmanship, and the repetitive assembly line is now the world's standard for all manufacturing processes. [1] Much of the increase in productivity that has been achieved by mass production is a direct result of the development and use of automatic machinery and processes to supplement human effort. [4] The mass production principles of the division and specialization of labour and the use of standardized parts and processes have been applied to a wide area of productive activity. [4] The concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in bulk (such as food, fuel, chemicals, and mined minerals ) to discrete solid parts (such as fasteners) to assemblies of such parts (such as household appliances and automobiles ). [2] Each of these, in turn, is usually the product of a mass production line in another factory. [4] There are glass plants for windows, transmission plants, tire plants, and many others, each specializing in the mass production of its own product, which is, in turn, fed into the final assembly plant. [4] The control of the flow of material into and out of final assembly plants, including the scheduling of production from feeder plants and the timing of rail and truck shipments, is among the major engineering tasks that make the total mass production system for automobiles work. [4] The growth of the middle class, both its wages and desire for material goods, can be traced to the development and dominance of mass production. [1] Both the quantity and the variety of material goods in industrialized countries have resulted directly from the application of mass production principles. [4] Mass production, application of the principles of specialization, division of labour, and standardization of parts to the manufacture of goods. [4] Mass production techniques were also used to rather limited extent to make clocks and watches, and to make small arms, though parts were usually non-interchangeable. [2] He adapted mass production techniques and the interchangeability of parts to the manufacture of muskets (a type of gun) for the U.S. government in the 1790s. [1] Modern mass production techniques changed the relationship of people to their work. [1] Mass production techniques maximized the profit making ability of corporations, but it dehumanized the lives of workers. [1] Mass production is capital intensive and energy intensive, as it uses a high proportion of machinery and energy in relation to workers. [2] The increasing use of mainframe and personal computers as business tools is rapidly making the management of mass production operations a quantitative technology in its own right. [4] The success of Ford’s operation led to the adoption of mass production principles by industry in the United States and Europe. [4] The outstanding contribution of the automotive industry to technological advance was the introduction of full-scale mass production, a process combining precision, standardization, interchangeability, synchronization, and continuity. [4] Mass production is inflexible because it is difficult to alter a design or production process after a production line is implemented. [2] Electrification enabled modern mass production, as with Thomas Edison’s iron ore processing plant (about 1893) that could process 20,000 tons of ore per day with two shifts of five men each. [2] Modern mass production has been called the "American System." [1] The American System, however, was not yet mass production although the two systems shared the concepts of division of labor and close machining and interchangeability of parts. [1] Mass production systems for items made of numerous parts are usually organized into assembly lines. [2] Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. [2] Mass production of fluid matter typically involves pipes with centrifugal pumps or screw conveyors (augers) to transfer raw materials or partially complete products between vessels. [2] Mass production planning implies a complete system plan from raw material to consumer. [4] Mass production resulted in lower prices of consumer goods. [11] Once mass production was developed and perfected, consumer goods could be made for the broadest possible market. [11] Mass production allowed the evolution of consumerism by lowering the unit cost of many goods used. [2] Mass production is the name given to the method of producing goods in large quantities at relatively low cost per unit. [4] Mass production in factories made it possible to manufacture goods more cheaply and quickly. [12] Name Mass production was the name of the method of producing goods in large quantities. [3] Mass production is the manufacture of goods in large quantities using standardized designs so the goods are all the same. [1] Before the advent of mass production, goods were usually manufactured on a made-to-order basis. [11] Low Prices Mass production was the result, not the cause of the low prices in the time of when the industry was not as popular. [3] Mass production benefited from the development of materials such as inexpensive steel, high strength steel and plastics. [2] In the 1830s, French political thinker and historian Alexis de Tocqueville identified one of the key characteristics of America that would later make it so amenable to the development of mass production: the homogeneous consumer base. [2] Because of mass production and Ford's high wages, company workerswere given the ability to elevate themselves above working-class means, contributing to the growing consumer culture in the United States. [1] Even with the early successes in Europe, scholars of technology attribute the widespread adoption of mass production to trailblazers in the United States. [1] Mass production improved productivity, which was a contributing factor to economic growth and the decline in work week hours, alongside other factors such as transportation infrastructures (canals, railroads and highways) and agricultural mechanization. [2] Another essential facet of Ford's mass production system was his willingness to adopt resourceful means of finding labor to work the assembly lines. [1] A major problem of mass production based on continuous or assembly line processes is that the resulting system is inherently inflexible. [4] The biggest impact of early mass production was in manufacturing everyday items, such as at the Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, which electrified its mason jar plant in Muncie, Indiana, U.S. around 1900. [2] Mass production quickly became the dominant form of manufacturing around the world, also exerting a profound impact on popular culture. [1] Mass production is a diverse field, but it can generally be contrasted with craft production or distributed manufacturing. [2] Mass production and parts interchangeability demanded that all parts be identical. [1] Only later, when parts were completely interchangeable, did true mass production occur. [1] One of the descriptions of mass production is that "the skill is built into the tool", which means that the worker using the tool may not need the skill. [2] Mass production also bears great responsibility for the manipulation and exploitation of workers, particularly unskilled labor. [1] In the abstract, scientific management was a giant leap forward, but in reality, mass production led to worker unrest, turnover, and social conflict. [1] The assembly plant from which the finished automobile emerges is only the final element of a mass production operation that, for many companies, includes plants in several different countries. [4] This emphasizes the importance of profit incentives to encourage private investment, which is vital to achieve the productivity advances possible in mass production operations. [4] Early inventors like Richard Arkwright and Henry Maudslay built precision machines necessary for mass production. [1] Prerequisites for the wide use of mass production were interchangeable parts, machine tools and power, especially in the form of electricity. [2] Many factors came together in the early twentieth century to make mass production possible. [1] Mass production techniques spread to other car manufacturers. [1] The benefits that have arisen from the greatly improved productivity made possible by mass production techniques have been shared by employees, investors, and customers. [4] The term mass production was popularized by a 1926 article in the Encyclopædia Britannica supplement that was written based on correspondence with Ford Motor Company. [2] American inventor Eli Whitney introduced mass production in 1798 to produce weapons. [1] Perhaps the most significant difference between mass production and the earlier American System, however, was the enormous production goals of mass production. [1] In addition to lowering cost, the application of the principles of mass production has led to major improvements in uniformity and quality. [4] In preparing for World War I and then World War II, nations intensified mass production of arms and ammunition. [1] Mass production of Consolidated B-32 Dominator airplanes at Consolidated Aircraft Plant No. 4, near Fort Worth, Texas, during World War II. [2] Blanchard's efforts were supported by the War Department, which also backed other applications of mass production. [1] Mass production also introduced a more efficient organization of the workplace as well as the application of more powerful tools in production. [1] This is the specialized capital required for mass production; each workbench and set of tools (or each CNC cell, or each fractionating column ) is different (fine-tuned to its task). [2] An influential article that helped to frame and popularize the 20th century's definition of mass production appeared in a 1926 Encyclopædia Britannica supplement. [2] In the age of mass production, this caused shipping and trade problems in that shipping systems were unable to transport huge volumes of finished automobiles (in Henry Ford's case) without causing damage, and also government policies imposed trade barriers on finished units. [2] Ford's success in producing the Model T automobile set the early standard for what mass production could achieve. [1] The economies of mass production come from several sources. [2] The changing look of automobiles, made affordable by mass production, mirrored the changing national landscape. [1] The efficiencies of mass production result from the careful, systematic application of the ideas and concepts outlined above. [4] The psychological effects of the repetitive aspects of some mass production tasks have been examined in great detail. [4] The importance of advanced planning and the coordinated control of the large human and capital resources associated with mass production have been described. [4] The need for substantial investment is another result of the application of mass production principles. [4] Mass production permitted great increases in total production. [2] Over the next several decades, the influence and dominance of mass production solidified around the world. [1] Eli Terry adapted mass production methods to clock-making in the early 1800s. [1] There was never any form of mass production of the horse-drawn carriage. [11] These problems of capital formation have been especially troublesome in introducing mass production in the developing nations. [4] Other consequences of a mass production economy have become apparent. [4]


The Industrial Revolution depended on transportation to move materials, goods, and people. [12] Before the Industrial Revolution, most goods were produced in small workshops or at home. [12] At this point in the Industrial Revolution, the methods and procedures used to organize human labour, to plan and control the flow of work, and to handle the myriad details on the shop floor were largely informal and were based on historical patterns and precedents. [4]

When industries turned to machines and away from the hands of artisans during the first industrial revolution, the manufacturing of goods became quantity and speed over quality and care. [13] The development of steam technology represented a second critical strand in the industrial revolution, and, as with the development of cotton manufacturing, its origins lay in the seventeenth century, in a combination of scientific, technological, and ecological developments. [14] The crucial development of the Industrial Revolution was the use of steam for power, and the greatly improved engine (1769) of James Watt marked the high point in this development. [14] Industrial Revolution the rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. [14] Industrial Revolution, term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. [14] The Industrial Revolution changed the economics of manufacturing by creating new forms of advantage based upon operating costs and capital investment. [15] The advent of the Industrial Revolution towards the end of the nineteenth century raised numerous economic and political questions for the United States that neither the populace nor the government was prepared for. [14] This enthusiasm for spreading innovations to new economic domains was a further characteristic of the later eighteenth century, and it meant that the industrial revolution transformed numerous areas of the British economy, not just cotton, iron-making, and steam power. [14] The second industrial revolution took place over the end of the 19 th century and beginning of the 20 th from about 1870 to 1914 and the beginning of World War I. Unlike the first industrial revolution, which was characterized by the advent of new technologies, the second industrial revolution had more to do with improving existing technologies and the synergies between them. [5] The transition was most prevalent in the textile industry, but the effects of the first industrial revolution were eventually felt in almost every aspect of daily life. [5] Pinpointing the time period for the third industrial revolution is tricky, because--at least on some accounts--we're still in it, but the beginning can be traced to the early 1960s, which saw the introduction of the first industrial robot and first commercial CNCs. [5] Prior to the Industrial Revolution, manufactured goods were usually made by hand with individual workers taking expertise in one portion of a product. [16] INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The industrial revolution can be defined as a drastic transformation both of the processes by which American (and European) society produced goods for human consumption, and of the social attitudes surrounding these processes. [14] The Industrial Revolution produced major social changes, in particular the creation of a working class. [14] Industrial Revolution is the name given to changes that took place in Great Britain during the period from roughly 1730 to 1850. [14] Until well after World War II, most historians of the industrial revolution shared Marx's sense of the period as one of overwhelming social change, both positive and negative. [14] Given the sheer scope of technological change entailed by an industrial revolution, covering every new development in a single article is impossible. [5] This sequence of inventions and applications was closely bound up with the availability of cheap fuel, yet another element of the early modern economy that came to full development during the industrial revolution. [14] INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. To the end of the early modern period, Europe remained a preindustrial society. [14] If the industrial revolution helped bring the early modern period to a close, it thus also preserved some of that period's characteristic forms of social organization. [14]

In an early version of a process that would be frequently repeated during the industrial revolution, the balance between machine and worker had shifted; knowledge could be embedded in the machine, rendering differences among workers less important. [14] With the start of the Industrial Revolution, machines began to perform work that once required human hands. [16] Analyzing the nature of the items that were made in large enterprises before the Industrial Revolution will suggest what types of product line are most defensible. [15] Widespread use of the term followed from Arnold Toynbee's Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century in England published in 1884. [14] The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 18th century. [14] The Industrial Revolution did not in fact end in Britain in the mid-1800s. [14]

Too with the fourth industrial revolution: the tools for handling it are part of the revolution itself. [5] If the smart factory is the centerpiece of Industry 4.0 and the defining characteristic of a smart factory is its interconnections with other factories, the logical question to ask is whether the benefits of the fourth industrial revolution will be reserved only for large enterprises with multiple facilities. [5] Nothing defines an industrial revolution better than the technology involved, so it's worth considering what to expect from the machinery and software of Industry 4.0. [5] A critical aspect of the industrial revolution was the effort of manufacturers to take advantage of these markets, most visibly in the clothing industry. [14] Cotton textiles was the key industry early in the Industrial Revolution. [14] Engineering.com sat down with industry experts in an effort to answer these questions and get their unique perspectives on the next industrial revolution. [5] Peter Marsh explores 250 years in the history of manufacturing, then examines the characteristics of the industrial revolution that is taking place right now. [17] The industrial revolution occurred in two distinct phases: the first industrial revolution, between 1750 and 1850, and the second industrial revolution, between 1850 and 1914. [18] The third industrial revolution, like the first, saw the introduction of disruptive new technologies--in this case, automation and the computer. [5] The industrial revolution inaugurated trends that perpetuated themselves into the twenty-first century and can properly be described as the matrix of the contemporary world. [14] The Industrial Revolution was introduced by Europeans into Asia, and the last years of the 19th and the early years of the 20th cent. saw the development of industries in India, China, and Japan. [14] Rather than a complete break with the past, therefore, the industrial revolution in significant ways represented a culmination of earlier developments. [14] The steam engine, invented (1769) by James Watt, was the main driving force of the Industrial Revolution and led to the placing of factories near coalfields, which in turn led to the growth of large cities, especially in Scotland, the North, the Midlands, and South Wales. [14] Connectivity plays a major role in the fourth industrial revolution, both within and across its smart factories. [5] Symbolic of the industrial revolution was the use of coal as a source of energy. [14] As Americans gradually came to favor urban over rural life, there was much about the Industrial Revolution that would justify the prejudices of the old rural ideals. [14] The Industrial Revolution also provided the economic base for the rise of the professions, population expansion, and improvement in living standards and remains a primary goal of less developed nations. [14] Industrial Revolution Social and economic transformation of agricultural societies into industrial societies. [14] The Industrial Revolution involved some of the most profound changes in human society in history. [14] The Industrial Revolution brought about dramatic changes in nearly every aspect of British society. [14] Historians have also given more attention to the survival of small workshops and skilled work during the industrial revolution. [14] In cities across the United States, all of these elements came together to form the ingredients and the momentum behind the Industrial Revolution. [14] From oil and electricity to chemistry, the pace of innovation became such that the period has been called a "second industrial revolution" (actually a misnomer, since rates of growth were not significantly higher than in the previous period). [14]


It was characterized by the use of steam power, the growth of factories, and the mass production of manufactured goods. [14] Steam power and coal fuel allowed the potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730 – 1795) to establish mass production processes in making porcelain, until then a luxury good. [14]

Technologically, the United States took its first steps toward mass production almost immediately after independence, and had caught up with Great Britain by the 1830s. [14] Starting in the 18th century, the lower costs offered by mechanization, mass production, and shared information drove production into fewer and larger units and the amateur craftsman in the family workshop was squeezed almost out of existence. [15] ♦ The Bessemer Process for making steel is invented by Henry Bessemer which allows for the mass production of inexpensive steel. [18] Often credited as the father of the assembly line, he would be more appropriately referred to as the father of automotive mass production. [16] Mass production required an expansion of the network of canals and roads. [14] That's how we got to mechanization and mass production, and now computers and automation. [5]

The new industrial processes translated into mass production, distribution and shipment, and fueled the growth of international trade. [8] It was followed by the age of science and mass production, and then the digital revolution. [19]

In contrast to the first and second industrial revolutions which respectively focused on the development and the mass production of goods, the next -- or third -- industrial revolution is focused on the integration of services and/or goods; it is beginning in this second decade of the 21st Century. [20] The Second Industrial Revolution (late 19th Century and early 20th Century) brought about mass production along assembly lines, supported by the introduction of electricity into the industrial process. [21] In the Industrial Revolution, the mass production of commodities and the massive accumulation of wealth that ensued almost took the consumer's role for granted. [22]


Earlier production was done largely by hand prior to the Industrial Revolution, with skilled artisans providing labor using hand tools and great amounts of time (manufacturing 1.0). [23] The Industrial Revolution was a period between the late 18th Century and early 20th Century, which saw rapid growth in mechanisation, industrial production and change in society. [24] I also found it interesting that the production of textiles was part of the industrial revolution. [10] The production of textiles was one of the things that was totally transformed by the Industrial Revolution. [10]

With this in mind, it’s no wonder that the question has been raised repeatedly about whether the " 3D Industrial Revolution " can replace mass manufacturing; creating personalized objects on demand sounds almost too good to be true. [6] The Industrial Revolution used the new technologies to mass produce products and, in many cases, improve lives. [9]

It’s much the same for the other revolutions: railways and the telegraph in the second revolution; new chemistry and mass steel production in the third; computers and semiconductors in the fourth. [7] True mass production never would have happened without the genius of Alfred P. Sloan, who was the first to understand how to effectively manage and decentralize the giant manufacturing organizations that grew out of mass production -- and sell their products. [25] Mass production changed a bit with W.E. Deming and the LEAN process in the 70s and major outsourcing to reduce labor costs in the 80s, but for essentially the last 80 to 100 years, we have been manufacturing like Henry Ford did. [23] At its core, mass production is about scale where the cost of manufacturing per unit decreases as production quantity increases. [6] The rise of Japan followed, as other Japanese companies and industries copied their manufacturing system, which combines elements of both craft and mass production while avoiding the high costs and rigidity of each system. [25] This new vision for manufacturing (3.0) mass customization - merges the personalization of customized goods with the efficiency of mass production. [23] Mass production of goods, increased efficiency, reduced average costs and enabled more to be produced. [24] While economic growth can be achieved when economies of scale are realized, this brings us to a fundamental flaw of mass production: Products cannot be sold until they're produced. [6] Changing the face of how we created goods, customization was sidelined as mass production ushered in the age of modern economies and vast production empires. [23] This mass production mindset gave us consistent, cheap goods, we all saw it's limitations. [23] This system, manufacturing 2.0, worked well for mass production, but it has vast limitations as well. [23] If the businesses these countries attract base their operations purely on mass production, it won't be long before they are threatened by rivals who can do the same thing better, perhaps by cutting costs or organising more efficient ways to reach customers. [7] GM suffered most in the 1980s and early 1990s because it was so successful at traditional mass production techniques that it was the last to start changing its ways when the marketplace -- and the world-- began changing. [25] Ford’s moving assembly line, together with the steam engine, electricity and a few other inventions, gave us the age of mass production. [23] Most notably, the assembly line, which effectively powered mass production. [19] Machine tools, such as cylinder boring tools and the milling machine, enabled mass production of things like cylinders for steam trains. [24] With each of these three advancements--the steam engine, the age of science and mass production, and the rise of digital technology--the world around us fundamentally changed. [19] I'd say to countries that have the chance to move from into mass production industries in sectors such as food or garments production that this is an opportunity they should examine. [7] Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1787) enabled mass production of cloth. [24] The 1990s saw the rise of a new idea, existing in the midst of a customization versus mass production dichotomy. [23] How people lived and worked fundamentally changed with the discovery of electricity and mass production. [19] It turns out that mass production is a remarkably efficient system that is notoriously hard to beat on standardization and price. [6] Henry Ford's concept of mass production reached its climax in the giant Rouge complex in Dearborn. [25]


Regarding "revolution", some economic historians dislike the term being applied even to the set of changes in the UK at the end of the 18th century that everyone else is quite happy to label as the first Industrial Revolution. [7] People of the Nineteenth Century (1801 to 1900) Nineteenth Century saw the economic boom of the industrial revolution and worldwide movements for political change. [24] The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the enormous changes that took place with technology, farming, mining, manufacturing, and transportation from the middle of the 18 th Century through to the middle of the 19 th Century. [10] There have been four previous industrial revolutions, starting with the changes in late 18th century England driven by advances in areas such as textile engineering and steam power. [7] Each of these first three industrial revolutions represented profound change. [19] The first Industrial Revolution originated in Britain’s textile industry. [23] Many historians give the textile industry credit for bringing about the Industrial Revolution in the first place, especially since many other inventions were created after the spinning jenny and the water frame. [9] Historians have argued that the most important part of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain was the textile industry. [9] With a wide range of new inventions that stretched from the availability of cotton to the steam engine, innovations to the British textile industry helped to propel Great Britain into the Industrial Revolution. [9] The iron industry, textile industry, and steam engine all played critical roles in the Industrial Revolution. [9] Perhaps you remember learning about the Industrial Revolution in history class, and talking about how steam engines and factories changed the landscape of European and American economics and society. [19] Before the Industrial Revolution happened, each generation of people produced a roughly similar amount of products to their predecessors and overall economic wealth was fairly stagnant. [10] The parts of the world that emerge in the best shape over this period - both in terms of economic strength and being decent places to live for the majority of their populations will be the ones that handle the challenges of the new industrial revolution most cleverly. [7] In his book The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Klaus Schwab, the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation, asserts that there are actually four distinct periods of industrial revolution throughout history, including the one we’re beginning right now. [19] People of the Industrial Revolution (1780 - mid 19th Century) Famous industrialists, inventors and politicians of the period. [24] The Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 18th century. [9] The second stage of Industrial Revolution (1870-1914) - New technologies of electricity, development of petrol engine, oil, and greater use of cheap steel. [24] The development of the steam engine was critical for the Industrial Revolution. [24] The steam engine was one of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution. [10] The first stage of the Industrial Revolution (1770-1870) - Centred on steam, water, iron and shift from agriculture. [24] The first one--the one with steam power--that was the first industrial revolution. [19] These are the first three industrial revolutions that transformed our modern society. [19] The conditions of the Industrial Revolution encouraged governments to pass laws on child labour and introduce first basic safety legislation. [24] The Industrial Revolution had a dark side, however: the result of people moving to urban areas to work in the factories. [9] The Industrial Revolution also led to the creation of two new classes, the working class and the middle class, which was made up of the businessmen who ran the factories. [9] Pollution was a major problem in the industrial revolution, caused by burning coal, high population density and no regulations on factories. [24] In your analysis of the four previous industrial revolutions, you associate with each one some specific technology or "breakthrough" product. [7] In the early part of the Industrial Revolution, some industries, such as cotton were still dependent on the slave trade. [24] Child labor, often with long hours and harsh conditions, was unfortunately common during the early part of the industrial revolution. [10] Luckily, we started Shield in the midst of the third Industrial Revolution: manufacturing, meet the digital revolution. [23] The main thing that happened during the Industrial Revolution was that machines were developed that could perform many of the jobs and tasks that had previously been done by people (or in some cases, animals, such as horses). [10] The industrial revolution meant that many artisans saw their traditional livelihoods wiped out by the new machines. [10] Schwab describes an industrial revolution as the appearance of "new technologies and novel ways of perceiving the world trigger a profound change in economic and social structures." [19] The Industrial Revolution generally brought about much better economic conditions for most people, but the poor and working classes often suffered with grim jobs and terrible living conditions. [10] The Industrial Revolution effectively created a new economic system, known as: "Capitalism". [10] New steel-making process and new technologies such as assembly lines helped fuel the Second Industrial Revolution. [8] During the 18th and 19th centuries, there was a shift in the economies of several countries, including Great Britain and the United States, called the Industrial Revolution. [9] In the United States, the second industrial revolution took place at a time of rapid territorial expansion. [8] The Industrial Revolution was the most important thing to happen in human history since the time when animals and plants were domesticated. [10] When the Industrial Revolution started, the amount of carbon sitting underneath Britain in the form of coal was as big as the amount of carbon sitting under Saudi Arabia in the form of oil, and this carbon powered the Industrial Revolution, it put the 'Great' in Great Britain, and led to Britain's temporary world domination. [10] Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution for three main reasons. [10] At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, there were few, if any, rules that protected the workers. [9] We’re sitting on the cusp of a third Industrial Revolution - a digital one, driven by new technologies and new materials. [23] Before the industrial revolution, most of the American people were rural dwellers. [8] There are many other companies that (even if they are not always aware of it) organise themselves on the basis of what will work in the new industrial revolution. [7] When you stop and think about it, it was this industrial revolution, the second one, that ushered in the modern world. [19] Interesting facts about the industrial revolution, which changed the way people lived, communicated and made money and war. [10] Inventors - Famous inventors, including many from the period of the industrial revolution. [24]

This change in production, now known as the Industrial Revolution, began in England in the 18 th century and ultimately stretched to neighboring countries such as France and Germany, and by the late 18 th century came across the sea to the United States. [26] Mass production, with its lower costs per unit of production, supplanted craft production during the first industrial divide in the nineteenth century. [27] The first industrial divide ushered in the reign of mass production, with rigidly defined divisions of labor, standardized products, and large-scale corporations. [27]

The 1st revolution being mechanical production equipment driven by water and steam power, the 2nd based on mass production enabled by the division of labor and the use of electrical energy, the 3rd based on the use of electronics and IT systems to further automate production. [28]

The Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) is based on the confluence of three major technological enablers (i.e., big data analytics, adaptive services and digital manufacturing); they underpin the integration or mass customization of services and/or goods. [20]

''We are at a major turning point in mass production,'' said Harley Shaiken, a labor and production teachnology specialist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [29] Mass production, with its hard-and-fast divisions of labor and standardized products, may be giving way to craft production, with its flatter organizational structures and greater variety of consumer goods. [27] Mass production gets its charge by breaking down the production process further and by developing ever more specialized equipment.By contrast, the dynamic of flexible craft production is to think of new products that can be made that weren't made before.That is, to enlarge the repertoire of products and enlarge the generality of machines -- to determine how a bundle of resources might be pushed in a direction where it can do something it didn't do before. [27] SABEL: Yes, all the standardization of products, the specialization of machinery, the centralization of resources, the rigidity of work roles, and the clear subordination between the parent company and the smaller supplier companies, they are all becoming an albatross on the mass production system. [27] PIORE: The development of more flexible technologies, such as microcomputers and computer-controlled machinery, has lowered the cost of batch production as compared with either one-of-a-kind customization or mass production. [27] Most experts in the field agree that the automobile industry is leading the way in trying new methods of mass production, both because its current prosperity - the auto makers earned $9.8 billion last year - permits experiments and because it needs to find a way to overcome the $2,000-a-car cost advantage enjoyed by Japanese auto imports. [29] SABEL: The United States had a system of labor relations that was very good for mass production. [27] SABEL: The industrialized world is saturated with the classic goods of mass production. [27] First produced in 1820, it reached back 150 years to borrow Leibniz’s stepped-drum mechanism while looking ahead to the dawning age of mass production. [30] The consumer was able to experience the power of mass production, a setting in which commodities were produced and delivered with speed and efficiency. [22] Manufacturing and services: from mass production to mass customization. [20] There is a second set of problems with companies that are more clearly linked into mass production, like the parts suppliers. [27] Such industries have always been the core of American mass production, and the demands of their assembly lines have, for decades, been responsible for the resentments and bitterness known as the ''blue-collar blues.'' [29] Manufacturers are tearing it down and are fashioning in its place a production system that is more automated and more humane and likely to become the new norm for American mass production. [29] The guiding principle of mass production is the breakdown of every task into simple steps, each of which can be performed faster and more accurately be special-purpose machines and semiskilled labor. [27] INC.: But mass production has been the dominant mode of production in the twentieth century. [27] Flexible craft production involves thinking about the productive process in a different way from mass production -- it is really a different way of looking at the world. [27] Of course, small-business people hate unions in the United States, because they associate them with the unions in mass production, where they impose rigid job rules. [27] PIORE: We dispute the notion that mass production is the one and only path of technical progress. [27] PIORE: We don't think the limits have been reached in terms of the technological possibilities of mass production. [27] PIORE: Actually, mass production never completely displaced craft production. [27] Whereas in mass production, it's much more like a record; you can just play it. [27] Just as mass production, with its large economies of scale, favored big companies, so flexible specialization, with its batch production, creates new possibilities for smaller companies. [27] Because of this saturation, it has become more and more difficult to increase economies of mass production through the expansion of domestic markets alone. [27] To do that would involve opening up Third World markets to mass production, redistributing income through the international monetary system to create the purchasing power there, and changing very complicated power relations between the developed and the developing world. [27]



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(32 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (94) Industrial Revolution facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Industrial Revolution

2. (58) Mass production | industry | Britannica.com

3. (51) Mass production facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Mass production

4. (43) Mass production - Wikipedia

5. (23) The Second Industrial Revolution | Inc.com

6. (22) What Is Industry 4.0, Anyway? > ENGINEERING.com

7. (22) The new industrial revolution all is explained Peter Marsh

8. (19) What Was The Second Industrial Revolution? - WorldAtlas.com

9. (18) 12 Facts on the Industrial Revolution | Owlcation

10. (17) Facts about the Industrial Revolution | Biography Online

11. (15) Mass customization: the future of manufacturing | Shield

12. (14) Meet the Three Industrial Revolutions Unit | Salesforce Trailhead

13. (14) The British Textile Industry in the Industrial Revolution - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

14. (11) The mass production revolution: forget the machine: "the line" changed the world | Industry content from WardsAuto

15. (11) Is 3D Printing The Next Industrial Revolution? TechCrunch

16. (9) What is the relationship between the Industrial Revolution, commodities, and consumers? | eNotes

17. (8) How did mass production affect the price of consumer goods? | Investopedia

18. (7) Industrial Revolution Timeline History of Massachusetts Blog

19. (6) The evolution of assembly lines: A brief history | Robohub

20. (5) The New Industrial Revolution: Learning From Farm-to-Table

21. (5) Man-Made to Machining - History of the Industrial Revolution

22. (5) Mass Production and the Industrial Revolution by Olivia Frankliln on Prezi

23. (4) Is the Era of Mass Manufacturing Coming to an End?

24. (4) The Fourth Industrial Revolution - Advancing AI

25. (4) AN ASSEMBLY-LINE REVOLUTION - The New York Times

26. (3) INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

27. (3) The next industrial revolution: Integrated services and goods | SpringerLink

28. (2) The new industrial revolution : consumers, globalization and the end of mass production in SearchWorks catalog

29. (2) Industry 4.0 Impact On Manufacturing FABTECH Canada

30. (1) Mass-Produced Calculators - CHM Revolution

31. (1) The Industrial Revolution, making it possible to mass : Sentence Correction (SC)

32. (1) Industrial Revolution Key Terms Flashcards | Quizlet


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