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iron Age in the Near East

  • By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC (the Bronze Age collapse ) to c. 550 BC (or 539 BC ), taken as the beginning of historiography ( Herodotus ) or the end of the proto-historical period.
  • The Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I (1200-1000 BC) illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age.
  • Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of large-scale iron production in around 1200BC, marking the end of the Bronze Age.
  • Although in the Middle East iron had limited use as a scarce and precious metal as early as 3000 bce, there is no indication that people at that time recognized its superior qualities over those of bronze.
  • This articledescribes the condition of Israel during the Iron Age II. It analyses archaeological evidence to determine Israel’s settlement patterns during this period, state formation, and the rise of regional kingdoms during the tenth and ninth centuries BCE. The article also considers the political situation of Israel in the shadow of the Assyrian Empire during the late ninth-mid/late eighth century BCE and discusses Israel’s cultural and commercial interconnections.
  • It was Hesiod who categorized the "ages of man", as he was aware of them, into the Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze which were separated from the harsh and cruel "modern" world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes (the time period that Homers poems are set in).
  • The many levels uncovered at Hasanlu, either through deep trenching or horizontal clearing, revealed that the site was first settled in the sixth millennium B.C., in the Neolithic period, and that occupation continued through the Bronze and Iron Age periods, terminating in Islamic times, in the thirteenth century a.d. (Dyson 1962; 1965; 1967; 1972; 1977a and b).

iron Age Of Europe

  • In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions almost directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; "Iron Age" in the context of China is sometimes used for the transitonal period of c. 500 BC to 100 BC during which ferrous metallurgy was present even if not dominant.
  • In Europe, the use of iron covers the last years of the prehistoric period and the early years of the historic period.
  • Utilization of iron for weapons put arms in the hands of the masses for the first time and set off a series of large-scale movements of peoples that did not end for 2,000 years and that changed the face of Europe and Asia.
  • The oppida of the late Iron Age, like Manching and Bibracte, and the towns of the Early Iron Age, like Mont Lassois and the Heuneburg, were not just trading centres but were also manufacturing and production sites creating their own finished goods which is evidenced by graves containing bronze objects, pottery and glass beads that reflect local patterns of trade.
  • The discovery of an iron anchor and chain dating from the 1st century BC at Bulbury in Dorset can be interpreted as providing evidence for maritime trade between continental Europe and Britain (Cunliffe 2010: 480).
  • Abstract: The Early Iron Age (750-450 BCE) marks a time in the European Alpine Region in which cultural ideologies surrounding bronze objects and bronze production were changing.
  • The revolution in dating by C14 destroyed the foundation of this approach for some aspects of the neolithic and Bronze Age periods, and in the literature appeared terms such as "independent development’ and "autonomy’ to explain the megalithic tombs of western Europe or the development of European copper and bronze metallurgy.

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