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Late Middle Ages Stained Glass

  • Much as these advances undoubtedly contributed to the delicacy and refinement of the stained glass of the later Middle Ages, not only were they unable to arrest the decline of the art, they may rather have hastened it to the extent that they tempted the stained-glass artist to vie with the fresco and easel painter in the naturalistic rendition of his subjects.
  • The origins of stained glass are not certain, but ancient Egyptians were probably the first people to discover glass while making their vessels; the oldest examples of man-made glass are Egyptian colored glass beads from around 2700 BC. Stained glass windows were first used by well to do Romans in their homes in the first century AD. Early examples of stained glass windows can also be found in some of the palaces and mosques in the Middle East.
  • Stained Glass in Gothic Cathedrals (PDF): Stained windows in 12 th century France were used to tell Biblical stories as well as provide beauty to cathedrals.
  • Trained once again to work of the scale of the cathedral windows and to develop their art in accordance with its own intrinsic potentialities, such artists have been collaborating with some of the best architects in Germany to create the most impressive body of stained-glass windows since the Middle Ages.
  • The thirteenth century was the great century for stained glass.
  • In the Middle Ages ecclesiastical art was primarily didactic.
  • These windows are to be judged against the great mural paintings of the time rather than the traditional art of stained glass.
  • The Middle Ages were a period that lasted for almost a thousand years, and given the vast span of time and varied cultures throughout Europe, medieval art reflects this variety to a certain extent.
  • At this time, the Bolton Brothers left England for America, opened one of the country’s first stained glass studios, and crafted elaborate Gothic style windows for churches and other buildings.
  • "Of Earth and Heaven: Art from the Middle Ages" will highlight Europe’s artistic flowering between the 12th and 16th centuries, bringing together many of the finest masterpieces of Medieval and Renaissance art still in private hands.
  • The cultural and architectural advances which led to the Gothic Cathedral also fueled the refinement of stained glass as described by Theophilus.

Late Middle Ages Musical Instruments

  • During the late middle ages, before music had fully evolved into Renaissance music, the style known to many was Ars subtilior which was developed with French and Italian traditions.
  • During the Middle Ages, musical texture was monophonic, meaning it has a single melodic line.
  • The medieval music progressed concomitantly with the Middle Ages themselves, evolving from the pioneering state of the Early Middle Ages to stability during High Middle Ages and, ultimately, richness at the transition between the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance.
  • Throughout the middle ages, secular music featured heroic legends and love stories, which were popularized by professional secular musicians generally called the travelling musicians.
  • This is a List of medieval musical instruments as used in European music.
  • Although it is one of the most complex of all musical instruments, the organ has the longest and most involved history and the largest and oldest extant repertoire of any instrument in Western music.
  • What is quite astounding about this great revolution in the design of musical instruments in the late nineteenth century is that these changes occurred in all the different families of instruments at about the same time, in spite of the fact that the technologies of designing, building, and playing upon disparate types of instruments would appear, at least on the surface, to be radically different from one another.
  • During the Renaissance, bagpipes were used primarily for popular or folk music, but were taken as a "serious" musical instrument in some countries.
  • In the Middle Ages organs were commonly used for church music and, of course they have been ever since.

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