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Mughal Empire Akbar


  • In the year 1572 the Mughal Empire annexed Gujarat and acquired its first access to the sea after local officials informed Akbar that the Portuguese had begun to exert control in the Indian Ocean.
  • When his regent, Bairam Khan, called a council of war to marshall the Mughal forces, none of Akbar's chieftains approved.
  • Continue your study of the Mughal Empire by tracing the rule of Emperor Akbar.
  • Right from the age of 13 when he took over the reins of the Mughal Empire, he conquered and subjugated territories and states in the northern, western and eastern regions, especially Punjab, Delhi, Agra, Rajputana, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kandahar and Baluchistan, to bring most of India under his control.
  • Unlike the Ottomans or the Safavids, who ruled largely Muslim polities, the Mughal Empire was effectively built in partnership with India's Hindu majority, and succeeded as much through diplomacy as by brute force: Akbar in particular was a true humanist who strove for the reconciliation of his Hindu and Muslim subjects, and managed to unite them in the service of a coherent multireligious state.
  • New Delhi Emperor Akbar is among the most fascinating of the Mughal rulers and the latest addition to the scholarly offerings on him throws more light on his decisions as well as the frame of mind in which he made them.
  • An astute ruler who genuinely appreciated the challenges of administering so vast an empire, Akbar introduced a policy of reconciliation and assimilation of Hindus (including Maryam al-Zamani, the Hindu Rajput mother of his son and heir, Jahangir), who represented the majority of the population.
  • Akbar secured Mughal authority by defending the empire from the Afghans Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar Popularly known as Akbar I 15 Oct. 1542 - 27 Oct. 1605 Mughal Emperor : 1556 until death Mughal Dynasty of India Succeeded Humayun Eraly, Abraham (2004).
  • Akbar was extremely tolerant of all religions in India and intended to unite India under a single rule - The Mughal Rule.
































































































































































Mughal Empire Gdp


  • After most of the subcontinent was reunited under the Mughal Empire, the empire became the largest economy by 1700, producing about a quarter of global GDP, before fragmenting, and being conquered over the century.
  • For most of human history, economists have very little evidence to estimate historical GDP. But all that changes once we get to the height of the British Empire, where extensive tax and other records make the job a bit easier.
  • If we assume another Rs 75-80 million as total revenue of rest of provinces of India which were war-torn, the total revenue of Mughal empire in 1700 might have been around Rs 180 million.
  • Bengal was the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, it generated 50% of the empire's GDP and 12% of the world's GDP, globally dominant in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, with the capital Dhaka having a population exceeding a million people.
  • Lets assume that GDP in 1670 was about $300-350 Billion (including the GDP's of Mughals, Adilshahi, Kutubshahi, Marathas, Ahoms and Southern Rayas).
  • The state was established following the dissolution of the Bengal Sultanate, when the region was absorbed into one of the largest empires in the world, the Mughals played an important role in developing modern Bengali culture and society.
  • During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles), ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world's population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion.
  • Mongol, of course, refers to the Mongol Empire, which Babur, the first Mughal Emperor, descended from.








































































































































Mughal Empire Literature


  • Until the decline of the empire Urdu literature received scarcely any encouragement at the Mughal courts, but it was systematically nourished in the south by the Sufi saints and the Deccani kings.
  • As contemporary criticism points out, Mariam Khan virtually disappears in the transformation to Ysabinda, and at first glance, the departure appears inconsequential since there is limited information about her. 2 Mariam Khan (dates unknown) was a resident of the Mughal Empire in northern India (1526-1858) and the daughter of Mubarak Khan, an influential merchant in the courts of the Mughal emperors Akbar (r. 1556-1605) and Jahangir (r. 1605-27).
  • "It is a fact, historically true, that the Persian language had not gained so complete a hold on the Indian courts, nor on the people of India, before the advent of Mughal Empire by Babur, which is synchronous with the Safawid persecution, as it did afterwards (Ghani 1983: 176-183)."
  • Their empire was so huge and their ruling period was so long that today an entire course is offered in History dedicated to the Mughal era.
  • This book is a first hand account of Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 - 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, the fifteenth Mughal Emperor, was the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire, his power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in Persian, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The kingdom of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam', Palam being a suburb of Delhi.




































































































Mughal Empire Rise


  • The worm gear roller cotton gin, which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th-14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century, and is still used in India through to the present day.
  • The decline of the Mughal empire and the Rise of the British Raj The Mughal empire was a vast and powerful nation controlling much of northern India.
  • Despite India having its own stocks of gold and silver, the Mughals produced minimal gold of their own, but mostly minted coins from imported bullion, as a result of the empire's strong export-driven economy, with global demand for Indian agricultural and industrial products drawing a steady stream of precious metals into India.
  • Akbar was succeeded by his son Jahangir, who continued in the foot steps of his father and by this means was able to expand the Mughal Empire to include the south of India 15.
  • Akbar and the rise of the Mughal empire; By: Malleson, G. B. (George Bruce), 1825-1898.
  • Richards 3 reports that at the peak of the Mughal rule the empire could boast of a population of well over 100 million people.
  • Butduring the eighteenth century, the Rajputs became very weak due to the rise of the Sikhs, Jats andthe Marathas.SummaryBy 1576, Bengal had become part of a mighty Mughal Empire whose achievements impressedall who came into contact with it.
  • The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali and the consequent decline of Mughal power gave the Sikhs the opportunity to rise.
  • By 1600, the Mughal empire (founded by Akbar’s grandfather, Babur, in 1526) had come of age and was embarking on a century of strong centralised power, military dominance and cultural productiveness that would mark the rule of the "Great Mughals’.





















































































Mughal Empire Under Humayun


  • After Humayun set out from his expedition in Sindh, along with 300 camels (mostly wild) and 2000 loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar after crossing the Indus River on 11 July 1543 along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire and overthrow the Suri dynasty.
  • At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometres.
  • While Humayun succeeded in protecting Agra from Sher Shah, the second city of the Empire, Gaur the capital of the vilayat of Bengal, had been sacked.
  • For the child born in the desert was the future Mughal Emperor Akbar (1542-1605), the greatest ruler of his remarkable dynasty, who in time not only restored the lands lost by his father, the Emperor Humayun (1508- 1556), but laid the foundations for what would grow to be the greatest and most populous of all Muslim empires.
  • On the bright side, the peak of Mughal architectural achievements (BBC, "Mughal Empire (1500s,1600s)) was during the reign of Shah Jahan; including the construction of the Taj Mahal(Armstrong,127).
  • Withdrawing further Humayun decided that it would be wise to withdraw still further, Humayun and his army rode out through and across the Thar Desert, when the Hindu Rajput ruler Rao Maldeo Rathore allied himself with Sher Shah Suri against the Mughal Empire.
  • Mughal emperor Shah Jahan urged the sultans to partition the empire of Karnataka and annex Vijayanagara.
  • The family was descended from Genghis Khan and Tamerlane the Great; Babur the boy-king became the first of the Mughal emperors, a family of Turko-Mongol rulers who, according to the historian Abraham Eraly, "so decisively stamped their personalities on India that the Mughal Empire became, in the public perception, synonymous with India."





































Mughal Empire Wars


  • Both the Mughal Empire and the neighboring Safavid Empire of Persia went into decline at the start of the 18th century for different reasons: constant Hindu Maratha raids and civil war in the Mughal Empire and an Afghan rebellion for the Safavids.
  • Akbar succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India.
  • Battle of Khanwa Part of Expansion of the Mughal Empire Date 1527 Location Khanwa, near Agra, India Result Decisive victory of the first Mughal Emperor Babur and consolidation of Mughal power in India Territorial changes Expansion of the Mughal Empire into Rajput territories.
  • The multiple editions and performances of Dryden's play could well constitute in London a renewed interest in the war between the EIC and Aurangzeb in 1687-8 and the subsequent embassy of Sir William Norris to the Mughal court in 1699-1702 (Subrahmanyam 2005: 159 ss): in the closing years of the seventeenth century, and especially in the 1800s, India occupied a relevant place in the British "public sphere" (Osborn 2004).
  • As part of the new Cambridge history of India, Richards' work as a single-volume, coherent narrative history of the Mughal empire (covering the period from 1526 to 1720) focuses on how the collapse of the centralized formal apparatus of the Mughal empire impacted its decline in the later years.
  • Aurangzeb had no time to address these challenges and the war of succession that followed his death in 1707 among his less capable sons and grandsons aggravated the crisis, leading to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century.
  • In the three chapters comprising part 1, the author outlines the political developments in Central Asia and India leading to the conquest of northern India by Babur in 1526 and describes the establishment of the Mughal Empire and its uneven trajectory in the first three decades.












































































2nd Mughal Empire


  • At the Battle of Sirhind on 22 June 1555, the armies of Sikandar Shah Suri were decisively defeated and the Mughal Empire was re-established in India.
  • Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748.
  • Emperors of the Mughal Empire • Babur, the first Mughal emperor, was followed by his son Humayun who was a bad emperor, a better poet, and a drug addict. • The third Emperor, Abu Akbar, is regarded as one of the great rulers of all time. • Akbar was followed by Jahangir, and then his son Jahan.
  • The Indian historian Abraham Eraly wrote that foreigners were often impressed by the fabulous wealth of the Mughal court, but the glittering court hid darker realities, namely that about a quarter of the empire's gross national product was owned by 655 families while the bulk of India's 120 million people lived in appalling poverty.
  • Although the Mughal and Safavid empires were early modern entities entirely (born in the early sixteenth century and destroyed or substantially weakened by the early eighteenth century), the Ottoman empire was not.
  • In 1761, after the third battle of Panipat, as Elphinstone observes, " The history of the Mughal Empire closes of itself : Its territory is broken into separate states ; the capital is de- serted ; the claimant to the name of Emperor is an exile and a dependant ; while a new race of conquerors has already commenced its career, which may again unite the Empire under better auspices than before
  • Although the initial Portuguese approach to India had been "all guns blazing," they soon realized that they were no match militarily for the Mughal Empire on land.

























































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