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Mughal Empire Vs Mongol Empire

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Mughal Empire Vs Mongol Empire

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • During the 300 years after the death of Chinggis, the Mongol Empire had split into four parts: the Golden Horde of Russia (1242-1359), the Ilkhanate of Iran and Iraq (1256-1353), the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) ruled by Kublai Khan, and finally the Mughal Empire of India (1527-1707).(More...)
  • The Empire was established by Babur, a Persian-speaking Muslim whose ancestors included Genghis Khan ; the term Mughal is derived from Mongol.(More...)
  • One of the products of such a marriage was Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, his mother belonged to the family of the Mongol Khans of Tashkent.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • During the reign of Muhammad Shah (reigned 1719-1748), the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
During the 300 years after the death of Chinggis, the Mongol Empire had split into four parts: the Golden Horde of Russia (1242-1359), the Ilkhanate of Iran and Iraq (1256-1353), the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) ruled by Kublai Khan, and finally the Mughal Empire of India (1527-1707). [1] The Mughal Empire is from the Mongol Empire and also the turks came from the Mongols therefore, the Ottoman Empire, and Mughal Empire both belong to the Mongol Empire. [2] The Mughal Empire, descendants from the Mongol Empire of Turkestan in the 15th Century, ruled the majority of India and Pakistan during the 16th and 17th Centuries. [3] An ancestor of Babur, who formed the Mughal empire in India, Timur had this unstoppable urge to re-establish the broken Mongol empire. [4]

In India, a Mongol state survived into the 19th century in the form of the Mughal Empire, genghis Khan forged the initial Mongol Empire in Central Asia, starting with the unification of the Mongol and Turkic confederations such as Merkits, Tartars, and Mongols. [5] The Mughal Empire founded by Babur, however, successfully conquered most of the Indian subcontinent in the 16th and the 17th centuries, although the Mongol empire was primarily foreign and India was one conquest amongst many, the Mughals adopted India as home. [5]

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur (reigned 1526-1530), a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (the founder of the Timurid Empire ) on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. [6] The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan ) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire ). [6]

Genghis Khan (1162-1227) was the founder and ruler of Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in world history. [7]

The worm gear roller cotton gin, which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th-14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century, and is still used in India through to the present day. [6] Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in India some time during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire. [6]

Akbar succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India. [6] The Mughal Empire was an empire in India and Afghanistan that was of Turko-Mongol descent. [7] According to Williamson, the decline of the Mughal Empire led to a decline in agricultural productivity, which drove up food prices, then nominal wages, and then textile prices, which led to India losing a share of the world textile market to Britain even before it had superior factory technology. [6] Jeffrey G. Williamson has argued that the Indian economy went through deindustrialization in the latter half of the 18th century as an indirect outcome of the collapse of the Mughal Empire, with British rule later causing further deindustrialization. [6] India's population growth accelerated under the Mughal Empire, with an unprecedented economic and demographic upsurge which boosted the Indian population by 60% to 253% in 200 years during 1500-1700. [6] The Mughal Empire at its zenith commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent. [8] The Indian economy was large and prosperous under the Mughal Empire. [6] Indian agricultural production increased under the Mughal Empire. [6] The greatest of the Mughal emperors and an extremely capable ruler, Akbar reestablished and consolidated the Mughal Empire. [8] He was also a notable writer who described the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the cities of Allahabad and Delhi in rich detail and also made note of the glories of the Mughal Empire. [6] The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. [6] In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire saw a synthesis between Islamic and Hindu astronomy, where Islamic observational instruments were combined with Hindu computational techniques. [6] Historians have offered numerous explanations for the rapid collapse of the Mughal Empire between 1707 and 1720, after a century of growth and prosperity. [6] Cities and towns boomed under the Mughal Empire, which had a relatively high degree of urbanization for its time, with 15% of its population living in urban centres. [6] During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly one quarter of the world's population at the time, with a GDP of over $90billion. [6] By the time of Aurangzeb's reign, there were a total of 455,698 villages in the Mughal Empire. [6] The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale. [6]

It was the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, and the economic powerhouse of the Mughal Empire, generating 50% of the empire's GDP. Domestically, much of India depended on Bengali products such as rice, silks and cotton textiles. [6] India's GDP growth increased under the Mughal Empire, with India's GDP having a faster growth rate during the Mughal era than in the 1,500 years prior to the Mughal era. [6] The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. [6] The Mughal Empire ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎, Gūrkāniyān ) ; Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت ‬ ‎, translit. [6] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire. [6] …moment have turned the whole Mughal Empire into a company-sponsored state. [8] The Mughal Empire also claimed they were descendants of Timur, who was the founder of the Timurid Dynasty in Persia. [7] The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia ). [6] The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. [6] The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. [6] During the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Hindu king Jai Singh II of Amber continued the work of Mughal astronomy. [6]


The Empire was established by Babur, a Persian-speaking Muslim whose ancestors included Genghis Khan ; the term Mughal is derived from Mongol. [9] The empires that are going to be discussed include: The Roman Empire, The Mongols Empire and the Mughal Empire. [10] The Mughal Empire, (Persian language: مغل بادشاۿ ) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled parts of Afghanistan, Balochistan and most of the Indian Subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. [11] Mughal Empire was one of the most famous and largest empire after the Persians history. [12] By the end of Akbar's reign, the Mughal Empire extended throughout most of India north of the Godavari River. [11] The Mughal Empire: Expansion and Art India is a land of contrasts, combining cultures, languages and religions. [12] By the mid-nineteenth century, the British were controlling vast tracts of the Mughal Empire and other principalities through a series of treaties and alliances. [11] Well before the dissolution of the Mughal Empire in 1857, the British system of District Collectors was firmly established. [11] Technically, they still ruled as agents of the Mughal Empire, but were in practice exercising complete power. [11] The Babur started to establish this empire, Babur fight with the Ibrahim lodhi and after first battle of Panipatt Babur got throne from Ibrahim lodhi, this start the establishment of the Mughal empire. [12] To this day the presence of Islam in the countries that were once part of that empire is mostly due to the reign of the Mughal Empire. [9] He lost Kandahar to the Persians but expanded the Mughal Empire within the subcontinent. [9] A workaholic who seldom slept more than three hours a night, he personally oversaw the implementation of his administrative policies, which were to form the backbone of the Mughal Empire for more than two hundred years. [11] Similarities & Differences of the Ottoman & MUghal empires. [13] To what extent do you agree that the downfall of the Mughal Empire was caused by the agrarian crisis of the 17th and 18th century? AGRARIAN CRISIS OF MUGHAL EMPIRE by IRFAN HABIB: Various explanations are put forward for the revolts which brought about the collapse of the Mughal Empire. [12]

His successor, his son. gedei Khan (1185-1241), continued on a path of conquest, and the Mongol Empire would continue to grow until the end of the 13 th century and the reign of Kublai Khan. [14] The Mongol Empire was an empire from the 13th and 14th century spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. [2] The Mongol Empire is replaced ridiculously high for being a bunch of idiotic savages who ruled over a large amount of land, didn't even have the power to govern it, and lost all of it within a short amount of time. [2] At this point, the Mongol Empire comprised almost 24 million square kilometers, four times as large as the Roman Empire. [15] Anyway, Rome should be number one; the Ottoman empire was not great enough to be more influential than the Roman empire and british empire; the Umayyad Caliphate should be much higher on the list at number three after roman and british because it too was very influential in many aspects of science, religion, and culture; the Mongol Empire shouldn't be on the list or at least be number ten. [2] Genghis Khan (1167-1227), a Mongol warlord who had little use for the finer things of the Chinese or European civilization, slept in a yurt and rode a fast, sturdy Mongolian stallion, evolved as a perhaps the most successful military leader in his story, he became the leader of a Mongol band which saw no limit to the potential size of a Mongol Empire. [14] This Mongol Empire timeline features such information as the life of Genghis Khan, the major achievements of the Mongol military, and the growth of the empire and expanse of its massive trade networks. [15] Genghis Khan was born to a political and wealthy family which gave him the power and popularity to go on and exploit this side and take charge to bringing the Mongol Empire (May, 2012). [10]

In the long run, the most important impact that the Mongol Empire had on history was that it made people at opposite ends of the globe-China and Europe-aware of one another. [14] The Rise of the Mongol Empire The world has not been the same since the Mongol Empire rose and took control in the 13th century. [12]

As already mentioned, the foundations of the Ottomans and Mughals, two great Islamic Empires in the early modern period, may be viewed as offshoots of the Mongol Empire. [16] The Mughal Empire gained its name from the Persian word for Mongol mughal. [16] The Kazakhs, in turn, split from the Uzbeks and remained a primarily nomadic people until the twentieth century, whereas the Uzbeks settled in the more urban areas of Central Asia in the sixteenth century. 18 For a brief period the Uzbeks established an empire that was a contemporary of the Ottomans, the Safavids of Persia, and the Mughal Empire in India. [16] He made it his mission to retake territory lost during his grandfather’s rule and when his reign ended, the Mughal Empire included most of north, western, and central India. [3] To begin, the Mughal Empire ruled over India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries. [17] Babur Badishah, first and founding Emperor of the Mughal Empire and direct descendant of Genghis Khan. [3] Under their rule, the Mughal Empire centralized the Indian government that had been made up of small kingdoms, introduced an educational system focused on student learning, and created the Urdu language, which is a mix of Persian, Arabic, and Hindi. [3] After Babur’s rule, his son, Humayun, took over ruling the Mughal Empire from. [3] His half-brother, the ruler of Kabul and Lahore, was one of many enemies to Humayun and with time took the Punjab and Indus Valley territories from the Mughal Empire. [3] It was under the Timurid Empire that the Turco-Mongols adapted to the Persian culture (and passed that tradition to the Mughal Empire). [18]

Since the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous state in history, its impact on world history is incalculable as it impacted the pre-modern world in a variety of ways, both directly and indirectly. [16] The states that grew out of the dust of the crumbling Mongol Empire owed their existence to the Mongols in one form or another. [16] From the beginnings of the Mongol Empire, the Mongol Khans fostered trade and sponsored numerous caravans. [16] The Mongol Empire indirectly aided in the creation of the Dalai Lama by focusing power and legitimacy of rule in the Chinggisid princes. [16] As the Mongols ended several previous dynasties and led to the creation of new power centers, the Mongol Empire may be viewed as a catalyst for change from the pre-modern era to the modern era. [16] At its height, the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in history, stretching from the Sea of Japan to the Carpathian Mountains. [16] The Mongol Empire, in many ways, marked a crossroad in World History. [16] A more apparent legacy of Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire on Mongolia is the creation of a writing system. [16]


One of the products of such a marriage was Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, his mother belonged to the family of the Mongol Khans of Tashkent. [5] The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (founder of the Timurid Empire). [19] By this time. gedei Khan, third son of Genghis Khan, had become Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. [5] Genghis Khan - Genghis Khan, born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. [5] The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219-24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. [5] Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways and he decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empires writing system. [5] First Mongol invasion of Burma - The first Mongol invasions of Burma were a series of military conflicts between Kublai Khans Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, and the Pagan Empire that took place between 1277 and 1287. [5] Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. [5] Tartar and Mongol raids against Russian states continued well beyond the start of the Mongol Empires fragmentation around 1260, elsewhere, the Mongols territorial gains in China continued into the 14th century under the Yuan dynasty, while those in Persia persisted into the 15th century under the Timurid Empire. [5] Mongol invasions and conquests - Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe. [5] The Mongol Empire developed in the course of the 13th century through a series of conquests and invasions throughout Asia, thus most Mongol conquering and plundering took place during the warmer seasons, when there was sufficient grass for the herds. [5] During the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century and it is thought that as a result, a rapid increase in the number of war horses and other livestock significantly enhanced Mongol military strength. [5] What is referred to in English as the Mongol Empire was called the Ikh Mongol Uls, in the 1240s, one of Genghiss descendants, Güyük Khan, wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV which used the preamble Dalai Khagan of the great Mongolian state. [5] After civil war broke out in the Mongol Empire in the 1260s, the Chagatai Khanate controlled Central Asia and its leader since the 1280s was Duwa Khan who was second in command of Kaidu Khan. [5] Mongol Empire - The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. [5] During Europe's High Middle Ages the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in history, began to emerge. [20] Historians regard the destruction under the Mongol Empire as results of some of the deadliest conflicts in human history. [5] Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. [5] Many additional countries became tributary states of the Mongol Empire. [20] Hulagus army greatly expanded the portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty. [5] This weakness allowed the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty to take control in 1368, while Russian princes also slowly developed independence over the 14th and 15th centuries, and the Mongol Empire finally dissolved. [20] The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan. [5] Both ruling dynasties claimed a distant relation to Genghis Khan and the collapsed Mongol empire. [21]

Result Mongol Empire conquers Indian borderlands but repelled from interior. [5] By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate empires, or khanates. [20] Ilkhanate - The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. [5]

As the result of conquest, ethnic minorities ruled both the Qing dynasty in China and the Mughal Empire in India. [21] At its height about 1690, the Mughal empire ruled almost the entire subcontinent of India, controlling 4 million square kilometers and a population estimated at 160 million. [22] Born on October 15, 1542 in Umarkot, India, and enthroned at age 14, Akbar the Great began his military conquests under the tutelage of a regent before claiming imperial power and expanding the Mughal Empire. [23] In India, the Mongols' gains survived into the 19th century as the Mughal Empire. [20] By this point, the British East India Company has become the protector of the Mughal Empire, using it to solidify their claim on trade with India. [24] Zahir ud-Din Muhammad Babur was the founder of the Mughal empire in India. [25] In 1524, Daulat Khan Lodi, a rebel of the Lodhi dynasty, invited Babur to overthrow Ibrahim, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and founded the Mughal empire. [5] The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‎, Mug̱ẖliyah Salṭanat ) or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was a Persianate empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and ruled by a dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin. [19] Humayuns exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayuns triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards. [5]

Since the time of Akbar fifty years before, the Mughal empire had grown in size, population, and prosperity, doubling the total revenues. [25] During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire, the classic period of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. [5] In the Deccan the states of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, and Golconda fought each other during the first century of the Mughal empire. [25] The capital of the Mughal Empire (1526-1858) was at Delhi, far north and inland from the seashores where the Europeans made their first contacts, set up trading posts, and eventually constructed defensive walls. [21] The Delhi Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of politically important temples of South Asia, in 1526 the Sultanate fell, to be succeeded by the Mughal Empire. [5] The revolt is defeated and the Mughals deposed by the East India Company, which assumes formal control over the country and ends the Mughal Empire. [24] In 1697 the Mughal empire allowed the English to defend themselves against the Afghan rulers of Bengal, and the next year they granted them land at Calcutta for collecting taxes. [25] Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751 and that year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. [5] Other rebelling Afghans in Bengal were finally defeated by imperial troops the next year, and Bengal was annexed to the Mughal empire as a province in 1613. [25] Prince Shahu and three hundred of Shivaji's other relatives were captured and imprisoned the next year, as Maratha was annexed by the Mughal empire. [25] Kashmir was annexed to the Mughal empire by Qasim Khan in 1586. [25] By 1650, the Mughal empire was one of three leading powers of the Islamic world, the so-called Gunpowder Empires including the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. [22] Akbar's son, Jahangir, ruled the Mughal Empire in peace and prosperity from 1605 until 1627. [22] The Mughal Empire (also known as Mogul, Timurid, or Hindustan empire) is considered one of the classic periods of India's long and amazing history. [22] Mughal Empire - The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol, was Persianate in terms of culture. [5] The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Jalaludin Mohammed Akbar ("Akbar" loosely translates to "Great") to the throne. [19] The southern boundary of the Mughal empire left by Akbar was not advanced until forces led by Khurram defeated Malik 'Ambar in 1616. [25] The Mughal Empire did not interfere in the prevalent societies' culture and traditions during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. [19] During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles), ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world's population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion. [19]

The Mongol Empire began in the Central Asian steppes and lasted throughout the 13th and 14th centuries. [20] Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. [5] The Mongol Empire launched several invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327, with many of the later raids made by the unruly Qaraunas of Mongol origin. [5] Sali invaded Kashmir, killing the king, and put down the rebellion, after which the country remained subject to the Mongol Empire for many years. [5] By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a portion of Central Asia. [5]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
During the reign of Muhammad Shah (reigned 1719-1748), the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. [6] His reign marked the cultural zenith of Mughal rule, but his military expeditions brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. [8] The Sur Empire (1540-1555), founded by Sher Shah Suri (reigned 1540-1545), briefly interrupted Mughal rule. [6] Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, and this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves. [6] In the west, the term " Mughal " was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole. [6] The empire had an extensive road network, which was vital to the economic infrastructure, built by a public works department set up by the Mughals which designed, constructed and maintained roads linking towns and cities across the empire, making trade easier to conduct. [6] The Mughal government funded the building of irrigation systems across the empire, which produced much higher crop yields and increased the net revenue base, leading to increased agricultural production. [6]

Mughal dynasty, Mughal also spelled Mogul, Arabic Mongol, Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. [8] The term "Mughal" comes from a mispronunciation of the word "Mongol," but the Mughals of India were mostly ethnic Turks not Mongolians. [1] The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty. [6] As they emerged in a time when this distinction had become less common, the Mughals identification as such has stuck and they have become known as one of the last Mongol successor states. [26] The word Mughal is an incorrect transliteration of the word Mongol. [7]

Thereafter, the British East India Company became the protectors of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi. [6] The British East India Company took control of the former Mughal province of Bengal-Bihar in 1793 after it abolished local rule (Nizamat) that lasted until 1858, marking the beginning of British colonial era over the Indian Subcontinent. [6] The Bengal Subah province was especially prosperous from the time of its takeover by the Mughals in 1590 until the British East India Company seized control in 1757. [6] In terms of contributions to the Mughal economy, in the late 16th century, the primary sector contributed 52.4%, the secondary sector 18.2% and the tertiary sector 29.4%; the secondary sector contributed a higher percentage than in early 20th-century British India, where the secondary sector only contributed 11.2% to the economy. [6]

The last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, and the Government of India Act 1858 let the British Crown formally assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. [6] During the reign of Muḥammad Shah (1719-48), the empire began to break up, a process hastened by dynastic warfare, factional rivalries, and the Iranian conqueror Nādir Shah ’s brief but disruptive invasion of northern India in 1739. [8] The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun (reigned 1530-1556), who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels. [6] At Akbar’s death in 1605 the empire extended from Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal and southward to what is now Gujarat state and the northern Deccan region (peninsular India). [8] Although the Mongol-Timurid legacy influenced the Ottoman and Ṣafavid states, it had its most direct impact on Bābur (1483-1530), the adventurer’s adventurer and founder of the third major empire of the period. [8] Jahangir ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques. [6]

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). [6] Bābur’s son Humāyūn (reigned 1530-40 and 1555-56) lost control of the empire to Afghan rebels, but Humāyūn’s son Akbar (reigned 1556-1605) defeated the Hindu usurper Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (1556) and thereby reestablished his dynasty in Hindustan. [8] In each instance the temple was destroyed as punishment because of the disloyalty of Hindu officers of the Empire; the temple was state property and "as an extension of the officer" was "liable for punishment." [1]

As the empire began to dissolve in the early 18th century, many subahs became effectively independent, or were conquered by the Marathas or the British. [6] The provincial capital Dhaka became the commercial capital of the empire. [6] The political, administrative, and military structures that he created to govern the empire were the chief factor behind its continued survival for another century and a half. [8] Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt. [6] During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. [6] During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more. [6]

Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River. [6] Mughliyah Saltanat ) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. [6] It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. [6]

Although Persian was the dominant and "official" language of the empire, the language of the elite was a Persianised form of Hindustani called Urdu. [6] The Buddhist-Hindu empires in Sumatra, Java, Malaysia reached their zenith in the 13 th, and the spread of Islam move eastwards as rulers in Sumatra and Java were converted. [1] The most famous examples of reconversion were the brothers Harihara and Bukka, founders of the great Hindu empire Vijayanagar (1336-1565), who were forced to convert to Islam by Muhammad Tughluq in 1327. [1] When Dahar refused to release the women and children, Hajjaj (661-714), a viceroy of the Umayyad Empire, sent three expeditions to Sind, the first two being unsuccessful. [1]

Despite India having its own stocks of gold and silver, the Mughals produced minimal gold of their own, but mostly minted coins from imported bullion, as a result of the empire's strong export-driven economy, with global demand for Indian agricultural and industrial products drawing a steady stream of precious metals into India. [6] Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. [6] The Mughal dynasty was notable for its more than two centuries of effective rule over much of India, for the ability of its rulers, who through seven generations maintained a record of unusual talent, and for its administrative organization. [8] After a crushing defeat in the war of 1857-1858 which he nominally led, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was deposed by the British East India Company and exiled in 1858. [6] The last Mughal, Bahādur Shah II (reigned 1837-57), was exiled to Yangon, Myanmar (Rangoon, Burma) by the British after his involvement with the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58. [8] The far-off Indian campaign of Nadir Shah, who had priorly reestablished Iranian suzerainty over most of West Asia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, culminated with the Sack of Delhi and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige. [6] During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. [6] After the execution of emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1719, local Mughal successor states took power in region after region. [6] A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals, who were Muslims, to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state. [8] Aurangzeb is considered India's most controversial king, with some historians arguing his religious conservatism and intolerance undermined the stability of Mughal society, while other historians question this, noting that he built Hindu temples, employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims, and married Hindu Rajput princess Nawab Bai. [6]

After the death of Akbar, Orissa again descended into chaos, but this time it was the Hindu Keso Das, appointed as governor by the Mughals, who attacked Puri, burned the temple cars and looted the temple treasury. [1] Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. [6] Real wages and living standards in 18th-century Mughal Bengal and South India were higher than in Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe. [6] By the early 18th century, Mughal Indian textiles were clothing people across the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa, and the Middle East. [6] Under Akbar's reign in 1600, the Mughal Empire's urban population was up to 17 million people, 15% of the empire's total population. [6] The Mughal Empire's workforce in the early 17th century consisted of about 64% in the primary sector (including agriculture ) and 36% in the secondary and tertiary sectors, including over 11% in the secondary sector (manufacturing) and about 25% in the tertiary sector (service). [6] The decisive victory of the Timurid forces is one reason opponents rarely met Mughal princes in pitched battle over the course of the empire's history. [6]

The Mughals adopted and standardized the rupee ( rupiya, or silver) and dam (copper) currencies introduced by Sur Emperor Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule. [6] The Mughal administration emphasized agrarian reform, which began under the non-Mughal emperor Sher Shah Suri, the work of which Akbar adopted and furthered with more reforms. [6]

The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. [6] During the reign of Shah Jahan, the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal. [6]

Mughal rule was reduced to only a small area around Delhi, which passed under Maratha (1785) and then British (1803) control. [8] In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline. [6] The Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "sons-in-law"). [6] The Mughal artistic tradition was eclectic, borrowing from the European Renaissance as well as from Persian and Indian sources. [6] Kumar concludes, "The Mughal painters borrowed individual motifs and certain naturalistic effects from Renaissance and Mannerist painting, but their structuring principle was derived from Indian and Persian traditions." [6]

Mughal Architecture evolved with the influence of Indian architecture, and in turn influenced the local architecture, most conspicuously in the palaces built by Rajputs and Sikh rulers. [6] European fashion, for example, became increasingly dependent on Mughal Indian textiles and silks. [6] …English found the Portuguese enjoying Mughal recognition at the western Indian port of Surat. [8] Mughal India's economy has been described as a form of proto-industrialization, like that of 18th-century Western Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution. [6] Gujarāt supplied Europe saltpeter for use in gunpowder warfare during the 17th century, and Mughal Bengal and Mālwa also participated in saltpeter production. [6] By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. [6] Jahāngīr The feast of Nōrūz at Jahāngīr's court, with Jahāngīr in the upper centre; painting in the Mughal miniature style, early 17th century. [8]

By the late 18th century, the British displaced the Mughal ruling class in Bengal. [6] After 150 years of rule by Mughal viceroys, Bengal gained semi-independence as a dominion under the Nawab of Bengal in 1717. [6] Eaton finds a number of temple destructions, some beginning before Mughal rule, that have the same pattern. [1] The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards. [6]

Portuguese command of the sea ified the English embassy to the Mughal court in spite of its countenance by the emperor Jahāngīr. [8] A major Mughal reform introduced by Akbar was a new land revenue system called zabt. [6] The Mughals expanded cultivated land in the Bengal delta under the leadership of Sufis, which consolidated the foundation of Bengali Muslim society. [6]

Mughal India's workforce had a higher percentage in the non-primary sector than Europe's workforce did at the time; agriculture accounted for 65-90% of Europe's workforce in 1700, and 65-75% in 1750, including 65% of England's workforce in 1750. [6] After his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds. [6] The increased population growth rate was stimulated by Mughal agrarian reforms that intensified agricultural production. [6] The heavy taxes he levied steadily impoverished the farming population, and a steady decay in the quality of Mughal government was thus matched by a corresponding economic decline. [8]

In 1590 the Mughals under the Hindu general Man Singh defeated the Afghan forces, but he allowed them to retained control of Orissa except for the Jagannath temple. [1] In 1657, the Mughal Army used rockets during the Siege of Bidar. [6] The Mughals made a major contribution to the Indian subcontinent with development of their unique architecture. [6]

This was larger the entire urban population in Europe at the time, and even a century later in 1700, the urban population of England, Scotland and Wales did not exceed 13% of its total population, while British India had an urban population that was under 13% of its total population in 1800 and 9.3% in 1881, a decline from the earlier Mughal era. [6] During the Mughal era, the gross domestic product (GDP) of India in 1600 was estimated at about 22.4% of the world economy, the second largest in the world, behind only Ming China but larger than Europe. [6]

Cite this page: Carr, K.E. Mongols invade India - history of India. [27] Genghis Khan sent his Mongol troops riding down from Iran and Afghanistan into India. [27] The dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Bābur (reigned 1526-30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side. [8] By the early 1200s, the Mongols, under their king Genghis Khan, were conquering and uniting all of Asia. [27]

Soon the Mongols were the main power in all of northern India. [27] The Delhi Sultanate won several big battles and pushed the Mongols out of India. [27] By about 1300, the Mongols got weaker and the Delhi Sultanate got stronger under the new Khalji Dynasty. [27]

When Indian states got into wars, they started to ask the Mongol army for help. [27] Religious persecution did occur during the short reigns of Buddhist and Nestorian Mongol rulers of the early Ilkhanate in Central Asia, but the tables were turned with the conversion of the Mongol Ghazan to Islam in 1304. [1] Starting in the 400s AD, Turkic and Mongol people had been expanding out of the northern part of Central Asia. [27] The Muslims of Central Asia had good reason to hate the Mongols because they destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate when they sacked Baghdad in 1258. [1]

He communed with this sky god before going into battle and before negotiating treaties, but at no time did he or any Mongol leader force this belief on others. [1] It was the Timur the Lame (known in the Europe as Tamerlane), whose "descent from Chinggis Khan," as Jack Weatherford says, was based "flimsy evidence," who gave the Mongols the bad reputation that has come down to us. [1] Followers of Ong Khan, the adopted father of Chinggis Khan, were Nestorian Christians, and these Kereyid Mongols easily assimilated Jesus as healer and shaman into their traditional beliefs. [1]

Babur's ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. [6] Despite the claim of Mongol ascension, the Mughal emperors were mostly of Turkish ethnicity. [7] It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. [6] With regard to voluntary conversion, one would expect a direct correlation between areas controlled by the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal emperors and highest Muslim population, but census data does not support this reasoning either. [1] All Mughal emperors were Muslims ; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. [6] No court in Asia would exceed this religious tolerance except for possibly that of Akbar the Great, the truly exceptional Mughal emperor who welcomed all religions to his court and engaged their sages and theologians in friendly debate. [1]

From the late 17th century to the early 18th century, Mughal India accounted for 95% of British imports from Asia, and the Bengal Subah province alone accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia. [6] By 1700, Mughal India had an urban population of 23 million people, larger than British India's urban population of 22.3 million in 1871. [6] Mughal India also had a higher per-capita income in the late 16th century than British India did in the early 20th century. [6] According to evidence cited by the economic historians Immanuel Wallerstein, Irfan Habib, Percival Spear, and Ashok Desai, per-capita agricultural output and standards of consumption in 17th-century Mughal India were higher than in 17th-century Europe and early 20th-century British India. [6] By 1700, the GDP of Mughal India had risen to 24.4% of the world economy, the largest in the world, larger than both Qing China and Western Europe. [6] The growth of manufacturing industries in the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal era in the 17th-18th centuries has been referred to as a form of proto-industrialization, similar to 18th-century Western Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution. [6] The Indian population had a faster growth during the Mughal era than at any known point in Indian history prior to the Mughal era. [6] The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. [6]

The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India shortly before the Mughal era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. [6] Sugar mills appeared in India shortly before the Mughal era. [6]

Many monuments were built during the Mughal era by the Muslim emperors, especially Shah Jahan, including the Taj Mahal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site known to be one of the finer examples of Mughal architecture. [6] Built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his beloved wife, the Taj Mahal is a world-renowned testament to Mughal architecture. [6] …had the support of the Mughal emperor Akbar, from the north. [8]

Geared sugar rolling mills first appeared in Mughal India, using the principle of rollers as well as worm gearing, by the 17th century. [6] Indian peasants were also quick to adapt to profitable new crops, such as maize and tobacco from the New World being rapidly adopted and widely cultivated across Mughal India between 1600 and 1650. [6] By 1857 a considerable part of former Mughal India was under the East India Company's control. [6] In early modern Europe, there was significant demand for products from Mughal India, particularly cotton textiles, as well as goods such as spices, peppers, indigo, silks, and saltpeter (for use in munitions ). [6] Mughal India was the world leader in manufacturing, producing about 25% of the world's industrial output up until the 18th century. [6] Up until the 18th century, Mughal India was the most important center of manufacturing in international trade. [6]

A silver rupee coin made during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II. [6]

The Mughal ruling class was Muslim, although many of the subjects of the empire were Hindu and also Sikh. [11] The Hindu Maratha Empire defeated the Mughals in several battles, and by 1750 the Marathas controlled much of the subcontinent. [9]



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2. (100) 10 Greatest Empires in the History of World

3. (55) World History Connected | Vol. 5 No. 2 | Timothy May: The Mongol Empire in World History

4. (50) Mughal Empire - New World Encyclopedia

5. (47) Empires Essay | Bartleby

6. (32) Mongol invasions of India - WikiVisually

7. (26) A Comparison of the Roman and Mongol Empires

8. (20) Mughal dynasty | History, Map, & Facts | Britannica.com

9. (19) Genghis Khan: Founder of Mughal Empire - Fancy Frindle

10. (17) Mughal Empire - Travel guide at Wikivoyage

11. (16) FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS

12. (16) The Mughal Empire: Rulers, Characteristics & Hindu Influence - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

13. (15) Timeline Of The Mughal Dynasty - WorldAtlas.com

14. (8) Mughal Empire 1526-1707 by Sanderson Beck

15. (8) Mongols invade India - history of India - Quatr.us Study Guides

16. (6) Pakistani History/Mughal Empire - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

17. (6) Overview of the Mongol Empire | World Civilization

18. (5) india - Why was the Mughal Empire Persian oriented? - History Stack Exchange

19. (5) Mongols of the Sea (Amateur Historical Speculation) - The New York Times

20. (5) What role did Genghis Khan have in the Mughal Empire? | eNotes

21. (4) Similarities & Differences of the Ottoman & MUghal empires. by Justice Kelton on Prezi

22. (4) The Mughal Empire's 300-year Rule of India

23. (4) Asian Empires: Mongols, Ottomans, Mughals Flashcards | Quizlet

24. (3) Mongol Empire Timeline - History

25. (3) The Turning Point in Asia: Early Modern European and Asian Empires (1500-1800)

26. (3) The Mughal Empire Timeline

27. (2) Timur invades India - Venue, Year, Reasons, Winner, Loser

28. (1) Akbar the Great - Emperor - Biography

29. (1) Mughal-Mongol genealogy - Wikipedia

30. (1) Mughal And Ottoman Empires


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