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old Kingdom Egypt Bronze Age


  • He brought an African dancing dwarf for the pharaoh in the Old Kingdom: Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), vol.1, The Old and Middle Kingdoms, 23-27 ; Andrew Bevan, Stone Vessels and Values in the Bronze Age Mediterranean (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007): 29.
  • Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience, which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone.
  • These highly valued commodities underpinned Egypt's influence in the international world of the Bronze Age Middle East, finding their way to Hittite, Syrian and Mesopotamian courts.
  • This magic ritual is first attested in the Old Kingdom and continues into the Late Period.
  • In the Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BCE), the pharaohs of the Third through Sixth Dynasties reached the apex of their power.
  • The Hyksos ("foreign rulers") imitated Egyptian models of government and portrayed themselves as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyptian elements into their Middle Bronze Age culture.
  • Conventional chronologies and synchronisms between Egypt and the Levant have placed the end of the Old Kingdom in relation to the 4.2 ka BP climate event, which has frequently been cited as an important factor linked to the widespread collapse of cities and states in the eastern Mediterranean and Levantine regions.
  • While trade in animals from Canaan to Egypt are known from later periods, there is little information on the trade of animals in the opposite direction—and in particular during the Egyptian Old Kingdom.
  • Heaven was the oldest known and the preferred abode of the gods (since the Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom periods).
  • For more than 300 years during the Late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, Egypt ruled Canaan.
  • Cyril Aldred, Old Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt, London, Alec Tiranti Ltd., 1949, p. 1.































old Kingdom Egypt Civilization


  • Egypt's Old Kingdom was also a dynamic period in the development of Egyptian art.
  • Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization - the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods (followed by the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom ) which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley.
  • His general, Ptolemy, on becoming independent ruler of the country in 305 BCE, was also crowned pharaoh, and his line lasted down to the famous queen, Cleopatra, who died in 31 BCE. Some may regard the civilization of Egypt under the Ptolemies as being more Greek than Egyptian, but the older civilization was still vital enough for the kings to feel the need to present themselves to their subjects in the traditional style of the pharaohs.
  • During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt (not called the Pharaoh until the New Kingdom) became a living god, who ruled absolutely and could demand the services and wealth of his subjects.
  • The construction of pyramids was in fact restricted to the earlier days of Egyptian civilization.
  • He found that one of these periods, from 4500 to 4200 years ago, immediately predates the fall of the Egypt's Old Kingdom.
  • Scholars often refer to dynasties 18-20 as encompassing the "New Kingdom," a period that lasted ca. 1550-1070 B.C. This time period takes place after the Hyksos had been driven out of Egypt by a series of Egyptian rulers and the country was reunited.
  • Old Kingdom 2650 BC - 2134 BC Dynasties 3-6 • An Arabic proverb states "man fears time, but time fears the pyramids." • Era of great pyramid building, strong centralized nation. • The King alone gave Maat. • The King exclusively gains immortality in the afterlife.








































old Kingdom Egypt Environment


  • From roughly 2613-2181 BCE, and spanning the Third through Sixth Dynasties of Egyptian rulers, the Old Kingdom was when Egyptian civilization learned that growth was possible, even in an environment as unforgiving as Egypt.
  • Tomb paintings and inscriptions hint that the environment became more arid toward the end of the Old Kingdom, as some plants disappeared and sand dunes crept close to river settlements.
  • Egypt has a very special environment, which has played a very big part in Egyptian history.
  • Three of the remaining four shifts are contemporaneous with extreme environmental and historical events: ( i ) the aridification pulse associated with beginning of the Dynastic Period in Egypt ( 5, 12 ) (∼5,000 y B.P.); ( ii ) the aridification pulse associated with the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt (∼4,170 ± 50 y B.P.); ( iii ) the aridification pulse associated with the fall of the New Kingdom in Egypt ( 19 ) (∼3,000 y B.P.).
  • Coffin Texts evolved from the previous Pyramid texts of the Old Kingdom, expanding and introducing spells that were more relatable to nobles and non-royal Egyptians.
  • Many studies have linked dramatic droughts to crises near the end of the Old Kingdom (the Age of the Pyramids) in the third millennium B.C. But Lecuyer and his colleagues also found a jump in aridity before the downfall of Egypt in the 6th century B.C. during the Late Period, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great.
  • In the Nile's annual flood, which kept Egypt from being barren, and in the sun's daily journey, so dramatic in Egypt's cloudless sky, the Egyptians found inspiration for the conviction that all existence was a recurring cycle of creation (birth), degeneration (death), and re-creation (rebirth)--an idea reflected in much Egyptian art.




























old Kingdom Ancient Egypt Fashion


  • The First Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 2181-2040 BCE) followed the collapse of the Old Kingdom and initiated many dramatic changes in the Egyptian culture but fashion remained relatively the same.
  • During the New Kingdom, when Egypt extended its political influence east into Asia, Egyptian fashion changed radically.
  • Although this game was played in Egypt only during the Old Kingdom, it continued to be played in Cyprus for another 1,000 years.
  • The high-quality Egyptian cotton that is so popular the world over was not even available ancient Egypt.
  • During the Old Kingdom (which lasted until about 2130 BC), men and women wore simple garments.
  • Egyptian men The hairstyles of the men in Ancient Egypt changed little during the whole of the period which lasted over three thousand years.
  • Ancient Egypt as a general historical term broadly refers to the civilization of the Nile Valley between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 B.C.E. until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.E.
  • Magic And Symbols - An integral part of the religion, spells were mainly used for protection purposes Egyptian Sacred Texts Pyramid Texts - used in the Old Kingdom, and written in hieroglyphics, these texts were carved inside pyramid walls from the 5th and 6th Dynasties.
  • Coffin Texts - used in the Middle Kingdom and written in hieratic, more Spells were added with time, and the texts were carved in wooden coffins Book Of The Dead - New Kingdom spells, written on sheets of papyrus covered with magical texts, and accompanying illustrations called vignettes Old Kingdom (Ra sun god, Pyramid Texts in Unas pyramid - 5th Dynasty) 5th Dynasty - The sun cult is promoted.











































ancient Egypt Old Kingdom Hieroglyphics


  • The native writing systems of Ancient Egypt used to record the Egyptian language include both the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic from Protodynastic times, the 13th century BC cursive variants of the hieroglyphs which became popular, then the latest Demotic script developed from Hieratic, from 3500 BC onward.
  • The Egyptian hieroglyphic script was one of the writing systems used by ancient Egyptians to represent their language.
  • Scholars often refer to dynasties 18-20 as encompassing the "New Kingdom," a period that lasted ca. 1550-1070 B.C. This time period takes place after the Hyksos had been driven out of Egypt by a series of Egyptian rulers and the country was reunited.
  • The Pharaoh was the ruler of Ancient Egypt, both politically and religiously.
  • The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the third millennium BCE when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement--the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom).
  • We know from ancient writings that Egypt was experiencing many low Nile floods toward the end of the Old Kingdom.
  • Natural resources in the Nile Valley during the rise of ancient Egypt included building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones, all of which contributed to the architecture, monuments, jewels, and other art forms for which this civilization would become well known.




hunting in Old Kingdom Egypt


  • During the Old Kingdom there is evidence that hunting took place mainly on the plains beyond the pyramid burials.
  • When the central government of the Old Kingdom collapsed, it initiated the era known as the First Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 2181- 2040 BCE) in which the individual nomarchs had more power than the king.
  • Only Thebes in Upper Egypt, between these two foreign powers, was ruled by Egyptians until Ahmose I of Thebes (c. 1570-1544 BCE) drove the Hyksos from the country, defeated the Nubians, and unified Egypt under his rule, initiating the New Kingdom.
  • Archers (detail), Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, reigns of Khufu to Khafre, ca. 2551- 2494 B.C. Egyptian; Excavated at Lisht, reused in the pyramid of Amenemhat I, probably originally from Giza,Painted limestone; H. 10 in.
  • Menkaure and his wife, from Gizeh, Fourth Dynasty, Old Kingdom, c. 2490-2472 BCE, 4’6" high; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • Nikare with his Wife and Daughter, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 5, reign of Niuserre or later, ca. 2420-2389 B.C. From Egypt, Memphite Region, Saqqara probably Limestone, paint h. 22 7/16 in.
  • During the New Kingdom, when Egypt extended its political influence east into Asia, Egyptian fashion changed radically.
  • It includes the Early Dynastic Period, comprising the first dynasty (3100 B.C. - 2890 B.C.), and the second dynasty (2890 B.C. - 2686 B.C.); the Old Kingdom comprising the third (2686 B.C. - 2613 B.C.), the fourth (2613 B.C. - 2494 B.C.), the fifth (2494 B.C. - 2345 B.C.), and the sixth (2345 B.C. - 2181 B.C.) dynasties.











































old Kingdom Egypt Language


  • In hieroglyphics or hieratic, therefore, one is only likely to encounter either Middle Egyptian or the earlier literary form of the language, Old Egyptian, the language spoken in the Archaic Period (I & II Dynasties, c. 3100-2680) and the Old Kingdom (III-VI Dynasties, 2680-2159).
  • Examples of the full 32-letter Coptic alphabet are recorded as early as the 2nd century CE. Its use not only reflects the expansion of Christianity in Egypt but it also represents a major cultural breakup: Coptic was the first alphabetic script used in the Egyptian language.
  • Old forms (although syntactically problematic) were retained because of the divine nature of words and the idealization of the Old Kingdom.
  • Arabic became the language of Egypt's political administration soon after the Arab conquest in the seventh century AD. Over time, it replaced Coptic as the language spoken by the common people.
  • The written language of the old gods plunged into oblivion for nearly two millennia, until Champollion's great discovery.
  • After the Old Kingdom, Egypt was for a time ruled by Hyksos kings, who not only imported horses and weapons development to Egypt, but also science, and perhaps particularly mathematics.
  • In terms of graphic system, of grammatical structures and of vocabulary, this phase of the history of the Egyptian language represents the basis for the development of the literary language of the Middle Kingdom, which is usually referred to as "Classical Egyptian."
  • Old Egyptian The first period starts with the emergence of dynastic Egypt around 3000 BCE, but due to lack of sources it may well be even older.
  • The Old Kingdom is the period of the gradual development of structures of religious belief and of patterns of social behavior which remained characteristic for Egypt throughout pharaonic history.
  • The national language of m odern day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced Egyptian and its descendant, the Coptic language, as the language of daily life in the centuries after Egypt was conquered by Arab Muslims.











































ancient Egypt Old Kingdom Monuments


  • Ancient Egypt for Kids: Old Kingdom Parents and Teachers : Support Ducksters by following us on or.
  • In 1984 we conducted radiocarbon dating on material from Egyptian Old Kingdom monuments (financed by friends and supporters of the Edgar Cayce Foundation).
  • In ancient Egypt, two tapering towers with a less elevated section between them, forming a gateway.
  • During the Old Kingdom, pharaohs were buried in pyramids, the Middle Kingdom saw pharaohs buried in hidden tombs, and in the New Kingdom they were buried in the Valley of the Kings.
  • Most of the best preserved monuments of ancient Egypt are Temples and tombs, because they were built to last longer than such places as houses or palaces.
  • He took pieces of Old Kingdom tomb chapels and pyramid temples (including those of the Giza Pyramids) and dumped them into the core of his pyramid at Lisht.
  • It is an attraction for tourists since the beginning of tourism during the ancient Greek time and Roman Periods, where a lot of tourists prefer to visit the city as a part of their trip to Egypt, now Luxor is the major attraction for tourists in Egypt due to its monuments and it's weather which warms in winter that makes it tourist attraction all year where tourists can visit Luxor easily in winter without suffering from cold.
  • With the mortuary temple on the east face of the Giza pyramid of Khafra, we find the only well-preserved temple of the Old Kingdom created with monolithic granite pillars and architraves weighing many tons and completely unadorned by decoration or inscription.










































































































old Kingdom Egypt Time Period


  • Egypt's Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3-6, ca. 2649-2150 BC) was one of the most dynamic periods in the development of Egyptian art.
  • During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt (not called the Pharaoh until the New Kingdom) became a living god who ruled absolutely and could demand the services and wealth of his subjects.
  • Egyptian views on the nature of time during this period held that the universe worked in cycles, and the Pharaoh on earth worked to ensure the stability of those cycles.
  • The "Old Kingdom" is a period of time during the history of Ancient Egypt.
  • The Old Kingdom is most famous as a time when many pyramids were built.
  • The Old Kingdomalso referred to as the Age of the Pyramids, is most commonly regarded as spanning the period of time when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (2686 B.C.E. -2134 B.C.E. ).
  • From 2150-2030 B.C. (a time period that encompassed dynasties 7-10 and part of the 11) the central government in Egypt was weak and the country was often controlled by different regional leaders.
  • Though this period is not considered to be at the height of Egyptian power, events that happened during this time was a foreshadowing of what was to yet to come for this great civilization.
  • Physical Security in the Old Kingdom period When it came to providing physical security, Egypt had some natural geographical advantages: 1.
  • Ethical guidance in Old Kingdom Egypt Since the pharaoh was regarded as a living god, he could obviously serves as a source of ethical guidance.




























old Kingdom Egypt Writing


  • Hieroglyphs were used for most of the surviving forms of written communication during the Old and Middle Egyptian eras, at least for official documents; hieratic was already being used for day-to-day administrative needs during the Old Kingdom.
  • Ancient Egyptian civilization first showed signs of greatness in the period historians call the Old Kingdom.
  • The Ancient Egyptian scribe, or sesh, was a person educated in the arts of writing (using both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, and from the second half of the first millennium BCE the demotic script, used as shorthand and for commerce) and dena (arithmetics).
  • During the Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom Egypt, the residence of the pharaoh was at White Wall (Ineb-hedj) on the west bank of the Nile south of Cairo.
  • The chronological gap of some 500 years between these earliest abbreviated notations written in Egypt and the first narrative inscriptions from the Old Kingdom has been a source of uneasiness for scholars.
  • In the Discourse of a Man with his Ba and the Complaints of Khakheperre-sonb the acquired introspection leads to inner dialogues (in the first work between the "I" and its "soul", in the second between the "I" and its heart). ► advances in proto-rational writing • First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom - Middle Egyptian The increase of individuality forced the language to acquire more reflective capacities.
  • This new language became part of the writing system of the Egyptians for their personal, documentary and business correspondence.



















old Kingdom Egypt Writing System


  • The native writing systems of Ancient Egypt used to record the Egyptian language include both the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic from Protodynastic times, the 13th century BC cursive variants of the hieroglyphs which became popular, then the latest Demotic script developed from Hieratic, from 3500 BC onward.
  • The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III ), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC).
  • As in many ancient writing systems, words are not separated by blanks or by punctuation marks.
  • It didn’t contain full sentences, and the first full sentence discovered by archaeologists is dated to the reign of the Second Dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
  • Examples of "sets" of zoomorphic bowls are known from the Old Kingdom time.
  • We'll focus especially on King Menes's unification of Egypt, the pyramids and obelisks that define Egypt's landscape, our writing system of hieroglyphics, and our calendar.
  • The word "hieroglyph," a Greek term meaning "sacred inscribed sign," is a striking parallel to the ancient Egyptians' own designation for their writing system: medu-netcher "words of the gods."
  • The Old Kingdom is often also called the "Pyramid Age" because most of the pyramids were built during this time.
  • During the Late Period, scribes developed the Demotic writing system, a cursive writing system that does not correspond sign-for-sign with either hieratic or hieroglyphic writings of words.















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